Section 1: Nomination & Election of Alumni Fellows
Section 2: Protection of the Yale Name
Section 3: Patent Policy
Section 4: Research Use of the University Archives
Section 5: Residential College Fellowships
Section 6: Replacement Diplomas & Certificates of Graduation
Section 7: Academic Costume
Section 8: Degrees
Section 1. Nomination & Election of Alumni Fellows
I. Nomination by the Standing Committee of the Yale Alumni Association (YAA) for the Nomination of Alumni Fellows (the Committee).
A. The Committee shall be constituted no later than July 1 of each year.
The Committee shall consist of the following members:
- the entire Board of Governors (including officers, collectively the “Board”) of the YAA or not fewer than six members of the Board as appointed by the Chair of the YAA Board of Governors;
- one Fellow of the Yale Corporation appointed by the Yale Corporation’s Trusteeship Committee;
- ex officiis members as follows:
a. the Chair of the YAA Board of Governors
b. the University officer(s) with responsibility for Alumni Affairs and Development or such officer’s designee(s)
c. the Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee
d. the President of the University Council; and
- the Executive Director of the YAA, who shall serve as the Committee’s nonvoting Secretary.
- YAA Board members serve at the discretion of the Chair of the YAA Board of Governors. If fewer than all Board members serve, those who do shall be appointed to serve one-year terms. No Board member may serve more than three consecutive one-year terms. If a Board member of the Committee resigns prior to the completion of such Board member’s term, a new appointee shall fill the unexpired portion of the term.
- The Fellow of the Yale Corporation shall serve for one year but may be reappointed by the Corporation’s Trusteeship Committee.
- Ex officiis members shall serve as long as they remain in their respective offices as indicated in subparagraph I.A.i.
- The Executive Director of the YAA shall serve as long as s/he remains in office as indicated in subparagraph I.A.i.
Committee membership requires that
- no YAA Board member shall be eligible for reappointment to the Committee until one year after the expiration of the member’s previous term of service; and
- no Fellow of the Yale Corporation shall be appointed during the Fellow’s first year of service on the Corporation.
The Committee’s Chair shall be appointed by the Chair of the YAA Board of Governors from among the YAA Board members on the Committee.
B. The Committee shall meet promptly and frequently so as to complete candidate selection by February 1.
i. Method of selection
Candidates shall be selected as follows:
- The Committee shall solicit candidate recommendations from members of the YAA Assembly, duly-elected leaders of constituencies entitled to representation on the YAA Assemblies (classes, clubs, the Graduate School and professional schools’ alumni associations, and the senior class of Yale College), and other such groups as the Committee deems appropriate.
- All candidate recommendations shall be sent to the Secretary of the Committee or the Secretary of the Committee’s designee to determine eligibility and then for Committee consideration.
ii. Candidate eligibility
When reviewing candidates, the Committee shall note that:
- All candidates must be Yale graduates of the first degree who graduated at least five years ago or graduates who have received any degree higher than the first in the University, whether honorary or in course.
- Alumni Fellows who have served full terms may be candidates again after they have been off the Yale Corporation for one year.
- Candidates must be at least age thirty, in keeping with the University Charter’s provisions regarding Alumni Fellows.
iii. Number of candidates
The Committee shall name for each Alumni Fellow vacancy due to occur in that year a sufficient number of nominees so that the total number of nominees for such vacancy shall be no fewer than two nor more than five.
C. The Committee’s report of nominees shall be completed by February 1.
i. Nominee consent
The Chair of the Committee shall secure the consent of each nominee to stand for election.
ii. Nominee withdrawal
Nominees who wish to withdraw shall notify the Chair of the Committee in writing before February l5.
iii. Statement of qualifications
The Secretary of the Committee or the Secretary of the Committee’s designee shall prepare a factual statement of qualifications for each nominee. It shall include degree and year, department or school, residence, occupation, and other information that may be of value in assisting voters to make a choice. The Secretary of the Committee or the Secretary of the Committee’s designee shall deliver the statements to the Secretary of the University or the Secretary of the University’s designee no later than March 1.
The Secretary of the Committee or the Secretary of the Committee’s designee shall report the Committee’s nominations to the Secretary of the University or the Secretary of the University’s designee no later than February 1.
B. Qualified Electors
All graduates of the first degree of five or more years standing and all persons that have been admitted to any degree higher than the first in the University, whether honorary or in course, may vote.
C. Election materials
The Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee shall prepare and send election materials to all Qualified Electors no later than May 1. The election materials shall contain:
i. Biographical sketch. The Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee shall prepare a short biographical sketch of each candidate incorporating the official statement of qualifications of the candidates, as defined in 1.I.C.iii. above. The Secretary or the Secretary’s designee may forward to each candidate such candidate’s own sketch for review but shall make all final judgments about the sketches.
ii. Additional background information. The Secretary or the Secretary’s designee may collect additional background information from and about the candidates for internal purposes or for the purpose of providing additional information to the electorate.
iii. Ballot. The official ballot shall contain the names of nominees listed in alphabetical order with their residences, years of graduation, and a space for indicating the elector’s vote. No votes shall be counted that are not received on this ballot or by other certified voting means.
iv. Ballot return envelope. The return envelope shall be clearly marked “Alumni Fellow Ballot” and addressed to the Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee.
v. Other information. The Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee may include other information pertinent to the election.
D. Replacement ballot
A replacement ballot may be issued to a Qualified Elector only upon written application to the email address or address established for that purpose and published on the university’s website, stating that the original ballot was lost, mutilated, or destroyed.
i. Electors may vote for as many candidates as there are vacancies to be filled. The manner by which electors may cast their votes shall be determined by the Yale Corporation, provided that:
- adequate safeguards are in place to ensure that each elector may cast only one vote;
- the confidentiality of each elector is guaranteed; and
- the accuracy of the tally is ensured.
ii. All votes, regardless of the method of voting, must be cast before the polls close; as provided in the Charter, the polls close on the day next preceding the commencement day of Yale University. The candidate(s) who receive(s) the greatest number of votes shall be elected Alumni Fellow(s) of the Yale Corporation. The candidate who receives the greatest number of votes shall serve for the longest term when there is more than one vacancy.
F. Certification and results
i. The Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee shall appoint a third party to certify the election and to report the results to the President of the University.
ii. The President of the University shall ensure that the Chair of the Committee, the Yale Corporation, and the candidates are notified and shall announce the results publicly. The term of the elected Alumni Fellow(s) shall commence on July 1 following the election.
G. Ballot preservation
The Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee shall preserve all ballots and other records of voting for a period of two months after the results are announced.
H. Reopening of slate
In the event of a candidate’s death, incapacity, or late withdrawal from an election for any reason, the Yale Corporation shall have the right to reopen the slate to fill the vacancy left by the former candidate. In such event, the Corporation may direct the Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee to consult with the Alumni Fellow Nominating Committee to provide a substitute candidate for election. The Secretary of the University or the Secretary’s designee shall then, as soon as practicable, prepare and send revised election materials to all qualified electors.
Section 2: Protection of the Yale Name
The Secretary of the University enforces the proper use of the name, seal, coat of arms, and other insignia of the University, Yale College, the Graduate School, and the professional schools.
II. General Use
A. The use of the name “Yale University,” “Yale College,” or “Yale” as titles or captions of publications, organizations, etc., implying or tending to imply some official connection with the University is prohibited, except with the written permission of the Secretary of the University or his or her duly authorized agents, and under such restrictions and explanations as he, she or they may impose.
B. The schools, departments, and other offices of the University may use the Yale name, the coat of arms, and other insignia of the University, Yale College, the Graduate School, and the professional schools on stationery, reprints, etc., in accordance with policy established by the Secretary of the University.
C. When an official or other employee of the University uses his or her name in connection with the authorship of a book or article or for a lecture or other appearance where it is stated or implied that he or she is associated with the University, his or her exact University title or position shall be specified.
Use of the name, the coat of arms, and other insignia of the University, Yale College, the Graduate School, and the professional schools may be licensed by the Secretary of the University under such terms as he or she shall determine.
IV. Yale Seal
The Yale seal is to be used only to authenticate documents bearing the signature of Officers of Yale University and for such other official purposes of the University as the Yale Corporation prescribes.
Section 3: Patent Policy
I. Encouragement of Patents
In the course of teaching, research, and other intellectual and administrative activity by faculty, staff, fellows, students, and other individuals in the University community, discoveries or inventions both patentable and practical occur. Encouragement of such inventions in appropriate ways is both supportive of the public interest and consistent with the advancement of knowledge for its own sake, the primary purpose of teaching and research in a university. The University Patent Policy states the procedure to be followed in the administration of inventions which result from teaching, research, and other intellectual activity performed under University auspices except as further defined in paragraph VI.
II. Purpose of Patent Policy
The purposes of this University Patent Policy are:
A. to help assure, in the public interest, that the patentability (or other means of exploitation) and practicality of inventions will be evaluated by qualified persons and that the income from inventions will be used to support further research or other desirable University activities; and
B. to define remunerations to the inventor or inventors (hereinafter the “Inventor”) and the University as long as the invention is productive of royalties.
III. Procedure as to Inventions
The University has established a Committee on Cooperative Research, Patents, and Licensing appointed from among members of the faculty and administration. One function of the Committee is to advise the University on matters of patents policy and administration. The University has also established an Office of Cooperative Research to facilitate transfer of its inventions/discoveries in the public interest.
A. Patent Applications. All inventions of the kind referred to in paragraph I shall be reported promptly in writing to the Provost through the Director of the Office of Cooperative Research. The Director, with the advice of the Committee on Cooperative Research, Patents, and Licensing, shall conduct an initial screening followed, when indicated, by a detailed evaluation of the invention. This may be done through an internal review, or by referral to an external organization that manages the evaluation. After evaluation, the University may, alone or with the assistance of an external organization, make application for letters patent. At the request of the Office of Cooperative Research, the Inventors shall execute assignments or other documents assigning to the University all their rights in the invention and any patent applications or resulting patents on the invention. Yale will retain title to all such patent applications and resulting patents. If the University decides that it does not wish, and has no legal obligation, to participate in the patenting or licensing of an invention, the University may release to the Inventor the University’s interest in the invention, and the Inventor shall then be free to dispose of the invention as he or she wishes.
B. License Agreement.
i. If the University decides to participate in the patenting or licensing of an invention, the Office of Cooperative Research will seek to enter into appropriate licensing arrangements to commercialize the invention. The objective of the University is to assure the development of its technology in furtherance of its own educational mission and for the benefit of society in general. Therefore, as a general policy, the University will set the terms of its licenses so as to further the achievement of this objective. Exclusive licenses will be granted if it appears to the Office of Cooperative Research that this is the most effective way of ensuring development to the point that the public will benefit. Any exclusive license agreement will be so drawn as to protect against failure of the licensee to carry out effective development and marketing within a specified time period.
ii. In research grants or contracts sponsored by industrial companies there will typically be a section covering patents on future inventions, if any, as in all government grants. When deemed appropriate, the sponsor may be granted a license to any inventions developed during the term of the grant or contract in accordance with the policies outlined in i) above.
A. Definition. For purposes of this policy, “royalties” shall include running royalties, advances against running royalties, up-front license fees, milestone payments, shares of stock or other securities issued by the licensee or another corporation (“equity”), and any other payments received by the University under a license agreement in consideration for licensing and invention, but shall not include amounts received from a licensee or others in sponsorship of research or under other agreements for other goods, services or rights.
B. Recovery of Expenses. Royalties shall be used first to offset out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the University in applying for, obtaining, and defending a patent and in developing and negotiating license agreements during the life of the patent. Expenses for this purpose will include fees paid to outside legal, consulting, and licensing organizations and any other out-of-pocket costs incurred by the University. The fees paid to the external individuals or organizations for such services may be of fixed dollar amount or may be in the form of an agreed-upon fraction of the gross royalty income, if any, or in any other form directly associated with commercialization/licensing of the invention. In addition, 10% of Royalties, after reduction as provided above for out-of-pocket expenses, received in any year from an invention made on or after April 11, 1992, shall be retained by the University and applied toward the general support of the Office of Cooperative Research; provided, that if the total of such recoveries in any year exceeds the Office’s approved budget, the excess shall be allocated on a pro rata basis among those inventions from which it was recovered and shall be distributed as part of Net Royalties in accordance with subparagraph D).
C. Net Royalties. After recovery of expenses by the University as provided in subparagraph B), the remaining royalties will be designated Net Royalties.
D. Distribution of Net Royalties. The Net Royalties as defined above shall be divided between the Inventor(s) (as defined under the patent law) and the University as follows:
i. The first $100,000 of Net Royalties
- 50% to the Inventor(s)
- 50% allocated to the general support of University research as described in paragraph V.
ii. Net Royalties between $100,000 and $200,000
- 40% to the Inventor(s)
- 60% allocated to the general support of University research as described in paragraph V.
iii. Net Royalties exceeding $200,000
- 30% to the Inventor(s)
- 70% allocated to the general support of University research as described in paragraph V.
For purposes of applying the above Net Royalty distribution formula (i.e., whether aggregate Net Royalties are $100,000 or less, between $100,000 and $200,000, or more than $200,000), equity shall be deemed to have the per-share value agreed upon in a good-faith negotiation between the University and the licensee at the time the license agreement is executed, and the equity shall be deemed received after all cash Net Royalties received at or before the time the equity is issued. In the absence of such negotiated value, the Inventors shall receive 32% of the equity Net Royalties.
In its discretion, the University may either distribute equity to the Inventor(s) when it is received or arrange for the licensee to issue the Inventor’s share of equity directly to the Inventor(s).
As used in this document, the term “Inventor” may represent two or more individuals. These individuals will be expected to agree among themselves on the fractional distribution of the “Inventor” share of any royalties. A written agreement must be signed by all the individuals involved, and deposited for the record in the Office of Cooperative Research. (Appropriate forms are available from the Office of Cooperative Research.) If no written agreement has been deposited at the time of a distribution of Net Royalties, the Inventors’ share of such distribution shall be divided equally among the Inventors.
E. Overriding Agreements with Third Parties. The foregoing provisions of this paragraph and the rest of this University Patent Policy are subject to the terms of applicable grants and contracts with third parties. See paragraph VII.
V. General Research Support from Net Royalties
The University’s share of Net Royalties will be used in support of research, or if not specifically prohibited by the funding agency contract, will accrue to the Science Development Fund or other appropriate research fund, and will be allocated by the Provost. Before allocating funds, the Provost shall, consult with the relevant subdivision of the University concerning the research to be supported.
VI. Inventions Not Under University Auspices
Inventions by University employees usually result from teaching, research, or other intellectual activity involving University facilities or personnel. Accordingly, all inventions by University employees must be reported to the Office of Cooperative Research. When the University determines that an invention by a University employee is unrelated to the activities for which the individual is employed and has not involved the use of University facilities, then the University will make no claim to such an invention. All inventions made or conceived under circumstances involving University facilities or personnel are the property of the University.
An invention made by a faculty member in the course of a paid consulting engagement for a company may be assigned to the company only if it is unrelated to the activities for which the faculty member is employed by Yale and it was not made or conceived under circumstances involving University facilities or personnel. Such an invention will be considered unrelated to the activities for which the faculty member is employed by Yale if the invention arises directly out of consulting activity paid for by the company, and, for example, it is made in response to a problem posed by the company or is based on nonpublic information provided by the company to the faculty member for use in the consulting engagement. It will be considered not to have involved the use of University facilities if no University facilities or resources (including but not limited to space, computers, laboratory equipment and supplies), no University-administered funds, and no University personnel other than the faculty member himself or herself, are involved in the conception or reduction to practice of the invention. All inventions made by Yale faculty members in the course of consulting, and any assignments of rights to such inventions, must be reported promptly to the Office of Cooperative Research. That Office will agree to abide by reasonable confidentiality restrictions for disclosures of inventions and assignments made in the course of consulting.
VII. When Arrangements with Outside Organizations Override this Policy
Arrangements with outside organizations that propose terms that are exceptions to this Policy must be submitted to the President or Provost for review by the University with the advice of the Committee on Cooperative Research, Patents, and Licensing. If approved by the University the terms shall be binding upon all members of the faculty, staff, and employees of the University conducting such research or utilizing such facilities, and will supersede the provisions of the patent policy to the extent that the terms are inconsistent therewith.
VIII. Inventions by Staff Resulting from Performance of the Responsibilities of Their Employment
Not infrequently, in the course of carrying out assigned responsibilities of their employment, staff employees may make commercially useful inventions or develop licensable property (i.e., the employee received salary or wages for the specific function of developing the work which ultimately has commercial value). In such cases, there is no presumption that the University will share royalty (or other) revenues with the employee. Normally, the University does not share revenues with staff except in cases where it appears that the invention or commercially valuable property has not resulted from the performance of assigned duties. In these instances, the invention (or other commercially valuable work) will be reviewed by the Committee on Cooperative Research, Patents, and Licensing and a recommendation will be made to the Provost. In these cases, the division of royalties as specified in paragraph IV.D) of this policy may not apply and the Provost may substitute different provisions after review of the recommendations of the Committee on Cooperative Research, Patents, and Licensing.
IX. Governmental Rights in Certain Inventions
Current governmental regulations permit educational institutions to retain rights and title to patentable inventions which result from federally funded experimental, developmental and research work. Retention of rights by the University is contingent upon the fulfilling of a number of obligations on the part of the University and of the Inventor(s) and these obligations must be discharged in order to protect the interests of all parties. Though the University may retain rights and title to such patentable inventions, the federal government retains a royalty free license and places certain other restrictions upon the ultimate disposition of the patents(s). Details of the implementing regulations may be obtained from the Office of Cooperative Research. Incumbent upon members of the University community who apply for and receive federal funding to support research or who use federal monies in the conduct of their research is the requirement for written agreement that they will promptly disclose patentable inventions to the University and will execute all instruments necessary to protect the rights of the government and/or the University. Forms for this agreement will be provided to all faculty and will be available for other participants (i.e., collaborators, post-doctoral students, graduate students) from the appropriate departmental chair or, at the Chair’s option, from the Departmental Business Office.
X. Revocation or Amendment
This patent policy is subject to revocation or amendment by the Corporation. In case of doubt as to the interpretation of this patent policy, a definitive interpretation will be provided by the President or Provost after receiving the advice of the Committee on Cooperative Research, Patents, and Licensing. This patent policy is effective as to all inventions/discoveries made on or after February 23, 1998.
Section 4: Research Use of the Yale University Archives
I. General Policy
A. All memoranda, letters, or reports issued from any administrator or committee to a school-wide or University-wide audience will be immediately available for public review. All such documents will be maintained by the Yale University Archives as part of the permanent records of the University.
B. With the exception of materials noted below, all other records in the Archives that are more than 35 years old are open to qualified researchers. Archival records are made available in accordance with the rules of the University Library governing the use of manuscript materials.
C. Records of major University officers and administrators, such as the President, Provost, and deans, are closed to research use for 35 years beginning on the date on which the person leaves office; the restriction applies to the entire body of records created during the administrator’s tenure. Accessions of records documenting the activities and functions of other University units and offices are opened for research 35 years after the latest inclusive date of each accession.
II. Categories of Records Closed Longer than 35 Years
Exceptions to the 35-year restriction policy:
A. Minutes of the Yale Corporation and its committees are closed for 50 years.
B. Student records (defined as credentials, grade sheets, correspondence, reports, notes, applications, and all other records pertaining to past and present students) are closed for the life of the student plus five years or 75 years from the date the student graduates or withdraws from the University, whichever is longer. Records of the Yale College Executive Committee and records of student disciplinary matters in the graduate and professional schools are subject to the same restriction that applies to other student records.
C. Personnel records of the University’s faculty and staff, including search committee and tenure review files, are closed for the life of the person plus five years or 75 years after an individual’s retirement or departure, whichever is longer. Records related to personnel recruitment, searches, promotions, or reappointments, as well as disciplinary/grievance procedures for staff and faculty, are considered part of personnel records.
D. Legal and audit records and records relating to donors will be closed permanently. Exceptions to the policy may be authorized on a case-by-case basis by the Secretary.
E. Records of the above types, even where located in runs of otherwise unrestricted material, are still considered closed and not available for use by researchers. Police and medical records are not part of the Archives, and they are subject to restrictions by law.
F. Exceptions that would allow earlier access to documents for scholarly purposes may be authorized by the Secretary after consultation with the Archivist.
III. Access to Oral History Interviews
Access to oral history interviews is governed by the 35 year restriction policy as set forth above, except that oral history interviews granted by private persons in their private capacity (as distinguished from Yale University officers speaking in their official capacity) are governed by the restrictions and stipulations, if any, set forth in the deeds of gift which effect the donation of such interviews to the Yale University Library.
Section 5: Residential College Fellowships
A. Fellows shall be appointed to the residential colleges by the Corporation upon recommendation of the Council of the Heads of College for limited terms.
B. There shall be five basic categories of Fellows: Honorary Fellow, Fellow Emeritus, Fellow, Associate Fellow, and Guest Fellow.
C. A Fellow who resides in a residential college shall be known as a Resident Fellow. A Guest Fellow who resides in a college shall be known as a Resident Guest Fellow.
II. Privileges of Members
The privileges of all members of a residential college fellowship shall be the same except for the meal privilege, which is granted to all but Associate Fellows. Privileges are described in detail in a document entitled “The College Fellowships,” which is available in the Office of the Council of the Heads of College.
Persons eligible for appointment must fall into one of the following categories:
A. Honorary Fellow. Only the current and former Presidents of Yale shall be eligible for appointment as Honorary Fellows.
B. Fellow Emeritus. Only Fellows who hold academic Emeritus status shall be eligible for appointment as Fellows Emeriti.
C. Fellow. In general, members of the University faculty, either teaching or non-teaching, holding one of the ranks listed in Section IX of “The College Fellowships;” managerial and professional employees of the University; and certain chaplains and other persons with pastoral responsibilities at Yale shall be eligible for appointment as Fellows. No person shall be eligible, however, until after service to the University for at least one academic term. These rules are modified by the following exceptions:
i. Full professors appointed to the faculty from outside the University shall be eligible for appointment as Fellows upon appointment, once they have assumed their duties in New Haven as members of the faculty.
ii. The term-of-service requirements for former Fellows that have returned to the University after a period of employment at some other institution and for visiting faculty members that have been Guest Fellows and are then appointed to the Yale faculty or to administrative positions at Yale are defined in Section VI of “The College Fellowships.”
iii. Resident or Resident Guest Fellows shall be members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, senior administrative officers (e.g. an Officer of the University, a Dean of a school, the Director of Athletics, the University Chaplain) or other individuals whose work consistently brings them into regular and close contact with undergraduates.
iv. Persons holding unpaid clinical appointments are not eligible for appointment as Fellows.
D. Associate Fellow. Any person except Yale employees, Yale College alumni who have graduated within the past five years, current Yale students, and postdoctoral appointees at the University, shall be eligible for appointment as an Associate Fellow. Persons holding unpaid clinical appointments shall be eligible for appointment in this category.
E. Guest Fellow. A person holding an academic teaching appointment at some other educational institution, who qualifies under the basic rules of eligibility for Fellow, and whose appointment at Yale is for two years or less is eligible to be made Guest Fellow without regard to term of service.
Section 6: Replacement Diplomas & Certificates of Graduation
I. Lost diplomas
The holder of any Yale degree may secure a replacement diploma upon application to the Secretary of the University, under the following conditions:
A. The applicant shall submit a statement regarding the loss of the original diploma to the Secretary.
B. One year shall have elapsed since the loss of the original diploma unless fire, flood, shipwreck, or other disaster destroyed the diploma.
C. The applicant shall agree to return the replacement diploma to the Secretary in the event the original diploma is found and restored to him or her.
D. The replacement diploma shall bear the word “Iteratum.”
E. The applicant shall pay to Yale University the cost of producing the replacement.
II. Name changes
Diplomas may be issued with a changed name under the following conditions:
A. The applicant shall submit the diploma with the former name to the Secretary.
B. The applicant shall submit a photocopy of the court record authorizing the use of the new name to the Secretary.
C. The new diploma shall contain, in the lower margin (in Latin): “This diploma replaces one previously issued. See statement on reverse.”
D. The applicant shall pay to Yale University the cost of producing the replacement.
III. Certificates of graduation
A. A certificate of graduation, in a design approved by the Secretary and bearing the University’s seal, may be issued to any degree holder upon application to the Secretary.
B. An applicant who requests that the certificate be issued in a legally changed name shall submit a photocopy of the court order by which the legal change of name was authorized to the Secretary.
C. The applicant shall pay to Yale University the cost of producing the replacement.
Section 7: Academic Costume
I. General Guidelines
A. Holders of and candidates for degrees from Yale University may wear approved academic costume on appropriate occasions.
B. Academic costume is to be worn over subdued apparel.
A. Blue gowns shall be of the shade known as “Yale blue” as designated by the Secretary of the University. Yale blue gowns may not be made without having the color and style approved by the Secretary.
B. Holders of and candidates for Bachelor’s degrees shall wear untrimmed black gowns with open pointed sleeves.
C. Holders of and candidates for Master’s degrees may wear untrimmed black or blue gowns with oblong sleeves, open at the wrist.
D. Holders of and candidates for Doctor’s degrees may wear black or blue gowns with velvet facing, bell sleeves, and three velvet bars on each sleeve. If the gown is black, the facing and bars may be black or a color distinctive of the degree. If the gown is blue, the facing and bars shall be black.
A. Yale blue hoods may not be made without having the color and style approved by the Secretary.
B. The material shall be the same as that of the gown.
C. The color shall be black and lined with Yale blue material.
D. The length shall be three feet for Bachelor’s degrees, three and one-half feet for Master’s degrees, and four feet with panels at the sides for Doctor’s degrees.
E. The anterior edge of the hood shall be bound with velvet or velveteen two, three, and five inches wide for Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Doctor’s degrees, respectively. The color is distinctive of the degree conferred: Liberal Arts, white; Architecture, blue-violet; Art and Drama, brown; Divinity, scarlet; Engineering, orange; Forestry, russet; Law, purple; Medicine, green; Music, pink; Nursing, apricot; Management, sapphire blue; Philosophy, dark blue; Public Health, salmon pink; Science, gold-yellow.
A. The cap for all degrees is a mortarboard of black fabric. The Doctor’s cap may be of velvet.
B. The tassel may be black or the color distinctive of the degree. The Doctor’s tassel may be gold or the color distinctive of the degree.
A. Candidates for degrees may wear, on the day of their graduation, the cap and gown of the degree then to be received, but only candidates for Doctor’s degrees and Master’s degrees may wear hoods. Candidates for the J.S.D., L.L.M. and S.T.M. degrees, who took their prior professional degree at an institution other than Yale, may wear a black Doctor’s gown or a gown suitable to that institution.
B. All three-year graduate and professional degree recipients may wear the Doctor’s gown on the day of their graduation and thereafter.
C. Recipients of honorary degrees wear a Yale blue Doctor’s gown at Commencement when their degrees are conferred.
D. Members of the Yale Corporation, during their term of office and thereafter, may wear the Doctor’s gown and the hood appropriate to the degrees that they may severally have received. Their cap may be of distinctive design.
E. The President may wear a gown of distinctive design; the Deans of Schools and Heads of Colleges may adopt distinctive badges subject to the approval of the Corporation.
F. Deans and other senior officials and faculty who have been granted the M.A. Privatim may wear a Yale blue gown commensurate with their earned academic rank when they attend an inauguration or similar ceremony outside Yale as official representatives of Yale.
Section 8: Degrees
Honorary Degrees Conferred
|Bachelor of Arts||(B.A.Hon.)||1705–1879||This degree, referred to as ad eundem grandum, was most frequently conferred upon the holder of a degree earned in the same year at another institution.|
|Bachelor of Laws||(LL.B. Hon.)||1893–||Records indicate degree has only been awarded once.|
|Bachelor of Philosophy||(Ph.B. Hon.)||1858–1885|
|Master of Arts||(M.A. Hon.)||1702–||This degree was the principal honorary degree awarded between 1702 and 1773. Since 1902 it has been awarded privatim to certain persons not already holding M.A. or Ph.D. degrees from Yale: members of the Corporation, members of the faculty appointed to the rank of Professor, and other officers.|
|Master of Science||(M.S. Hon.)||1928–1954|
|Doctor of Divinity||(D.D.)||1773–|
|Doctor of Engineering and Technology||(D.Eng. & Tech.)||2011–|
|Doctor of Fine Arts||(D.F.A. Hon.)||1941–|
|Doctor of Humane Letters||(L.H.D.)||1934–|
|Doctor of Humanities||(D.Hum.)||2004–|
|Doctor of Laws||(LL.D.)||1773–|
|Doctor of Letters||(Litt.D.)||1892–|
|Doctor of Medical Sciences||(D.M.S.)||1990–|
|Doctor of Medicine||(M.D. Hon.)||1723–1871|
|Doctor of Music||(Mus.D.)|
|Doctor of Philosophy||(Ph.D.)||1866–1871|
|Doctor of Science||(Sc.D.)||1905–|
|Doctor of Social Science||(S.Sc.D.)||1968–|
Degrees In Course Conferred
|Bachelor of Architecture||(B.Arch.)||1942–1997|
|Bachelor of Arts||(B.A.)||1702–|
|Bachelor of Civil Law||(B.C.L.)||1887–1917|
|Bachelor of Divinity||(B.D.)||1867–1971||In 1971 the B.D. was changed to the M.Div|
|Bachelor of Engineering||(B.E.)||1936–1966|
|Bachelor of Fine Arts||(B.F.A.)||1891–1975||B.F.A. designated Architecture, Painting and Sculpture 1926–1941 when B.Arch. was established.|
|Bachelor of Laws||(LL.B.)||1843–1971||With honors, approved 1882. In 1971 the LL.B. was changed to the J.D.|
|Bachelor of Liberal Studies||1984–2013||Approved in 1981.|
|Bachelor of Music||(B.M.)||1894–1961||Abbreviation changed from Mus.B. 1968–|
|Bachelor of Nursing||(B.N.)||1926–1936|
|Bachelor of Philosophy||(Ph.B.)||1852–1931||Ph.B. on recommendation of S.S.S. 1852–1921, Yale College 1922-1931.|
|Bachelor of Science||(B.S.)||1922–||B.S. on recommendation of S.S.S. 1922–1945, School of Engineering, 1933–1966, Yale College, October 24, 1945.|
|Master of Advanced Management||(M.A.M.)||2012–|
|Master of Architecture||(M.Arch.)||1944–|
|Master of Arts||(M.A.) without examination||1702–1871|
|Master of Arts||(M.A.) upon examination||1876–|
|Master of Arts in Religion||(M.A.R.)||1961–|
|Master of Arts in Teaching||(M.A.T.)||1960–1971|
|Master of Business Administration||(M.B.A.)||1999–||Authorized in 1998.|
|Master of City Planning||(M.C.P.)||1951–1972|
|Master of Divinity||(M.Div.)||1971–||In 1971 the B.D. was changed to the M.Div.|
|Master of Engineering||(M.Eng.)||1936–1966; 1996–||B.S./M.Eng. degree is offered by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.|
|Master of Environmental Design||(M.E.D.)||1968–|
|Master of Environmental Management||M.E.M.||2000–||Replaced Master of Environmental Studies in 2000.|
|Master of Environmental Science||M.E.Sc.||2000–|
|Master of Environmental Studies||(M.E.S.)||1982–1999||Replaced by Master of Environmental Management in 2000.|
|Master of Fine Arts||(M.F.A.-Architecture)||1927–1940||Conferred on recommendation of the Graduate School.|
|Master of Fine Arts||(M.F.A.-Drama)||1931–||The Master of Fine Arts is awarded by both the School of Drama and the School of Art.|
|Master of Fine Arts||(M.F.A.-Art)||1936–||The Master of Fine Arts is awarded by both the School of Drama and the School of Art.|
|Master of Forestry||(M.F.)||1902–|
|Master of Forest Science||(M.F.S.)||1968–|
|Master of Health Science||(M.H.S.)||2006–|
|Master of Industrial Administration||(M.I.A.)||1958–1967|
|Master of Laws||(LL.M.)||1877–|
|Master of Medical Science||(M.M.Sc.)||1999–||M.M.Sc. supersedes Physician Associate Certificate.|
|Master of Management Studies||(M.M.S.)||2017–||Authorized in 2016 to be awarded by the School of Management|
|Master of Music||(M.M.)||1932–||Abbreviation changed from Mus.M. 1968–|
|Master of Musical Arts||(M.M.A.)||1969–|
|Artist Diploma (Music)||A.D.||1992–||Authorized in 1991.|
|Master of Nursing||(M.N.)||1937–1959|
|Master of Public and Private Management||(M.P.P.M.)||1978–2001||Authorized in 1974 and closed as of 2001 by vote of the Corporation in August 1998.|
|Master of Philosophy||(M.Phil.)||1967–|
|Master of Public Health||(M.P.H.)||1936–||In 1946 holders of the Certificate in Public Health were transferred to the M.P.H.; therefore the M.P.H. list of graduates starts with 1918.|
|Master of Public Policy||(M.P.P.)||2021–||First degrees to be awarded in 2023, the first year of The Yale Jackson School of Global Affairs.|
|Master of Religious Education||(M.R.E.)||1954–1960|
|Master of Sacred Theology||(S.T.M.)||1939–|
|Master of Science||(M.S.)||1899–|
|Master of Science in Nursing||(M.S.N.)||1957–|
|Master of Studies in Law||(M.S.L.)||1974–|
|Master of Urban Studies||(M.U.S.)||1965–1973|
|Juris Doctor||(J.D.)||1972–||In 1971 LL.B. was changed to J.D.|
|Engineer of Mines||(E.M)||1908–1934|
|Master of Science in Civil Engineering||(M.S. in C.E.)||1927–1934|
|Master of Science in Electrical Engineering||(M.S. in E.E.)||1923–1933|
|Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering||(M.S. in M.E.)||1923–1933|
|Master of Science in Mining Engineering||(M.S. in E.M.)||1924–1927|
|Master of Science in Mining and Metallurgy||(M.S. in Min. and Met.)||1925–2006||The degree was awarded only once.|
|Master of Science in Transportation Engineering||(M.S. in Trans. Eng.)||1927–1929|
|Master of Science in Transportation||(M.S.T.)||1930–1934|
|Doctor of Civil Law||(D.C.L.)||1878–1990|
|Doctor of Engineering||(D.Eng.)||1936–1971|
|Doctor of Fine Arts (Drama)||(D.F.A.)||1958–|
|Doctor of Forestry||(D.For.)||1948–1992||The degree was changed to Doctor of Forestry and Environmental Studies (D.F.E.S.).|
|Doctor of Forestry and Environmental Studies||(D.F.E.S.)||1992–2006||In the 2003/04 academic year the D.F.E.S. program merged with the Ph.D. program. No students have been admitted to the D.F.E.S. since 2003/04.|
|Doctor of Medicine||(M.D.)||1814–|
|Doctor of Musical Arts||(D.M.A.)||1973–|
|Doctor of Nursing Science||(D.N.Sc.)||1998-2011||Authorized in 1992|
|Doctor of Nursing Practice||(D.N.P.)||2011–|
|Doctor of Philosophy||(Ph.D.)||1861–||The first in the U.S.|
|Doctor of Public Health||(Dr.P.H.)||1920–|
|Doctor of the Science of Law||(J.S.D.)||1925–|
|Program in Global Medicine||2012–|
|Certificate in Drama||1927–|
|Certificate in Nurse-Midwifery||1961–1974|
|Certificate in Nursing||1976–|
|Post Master’s Certificate in Nursing||1997–|
|Certificate in Performance||1974–||Music|
|Physician Associate Certificate||1976–1999||This degree was superseded by the M.M.Sc.|
|Certificate in Public Health||1918–1935||In 1946 holders of the C.P.H. were automatically transferred to the M.P.H.|
|Certificate in Transportation||1935–1968|
Certificates have also been issued in Art, Music, Nursing (1926–1928), Highway Traffic, and the Institute of Far Eastern Languages.