Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

The Road to Equality

by
Lucia Rafala


Contents of Curriculum Unit 06.03.08:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

Traditionally in our public schools, we celebrate African American History during the months of January and February. We commence this celebration with the birthday of

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and continue the celebration by highlighting various other great African Americans. This unit of instruction is intended to provide a consistent educational framework for the study of African American History in the elementary schools that is consistent with the Keys to Comprehension, writing standards, technology standards, and library media standards of the New Haven Public Schools. By providing such a framework, The Road to Equality enables teachers to provide a quality unit of instruction that supports the current standards-based curricula in addition to providing students with a rich historical perspective of the evolution of equality for African Americans.

The Road to Equality is written specifically for students in the second and third grades. However, there are additional activities and strategies for those students who academically function below or above the second and third grades. This information will enable teachers to plan differentiated lessons that address all ability levels and learning styles. In addition, the adaptation of this unit to include other elementary classes such as first grade or fourth grade would not be difficult. The range of literature and topics selected would support applications in any level classroom through collaboration with the library media specialist.

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Objectives

This unit seeks to develop literacy skills using non-fiction reading materials that pertain to the civil rights movement beginning with early slavery and ending with the death of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Specific objectives are chosen from the Keys to Comprehension, an unpublished New Haven Public Schools document that outlines literacy curriculum in grades two through eight utilizing the Power Standards that are taken from those skills that are measured by the Connecticut Mastery Test. This unit will focus specifically on second and third grade students. Students will use stated or implied evidence from the text to draw or support a conclusion (B-3). Students will select, synthesize and/or use relevant information within a written work to write a personal response to a text (C-2). Students will select and use relevant information from the text in order to summarize events and or ideas in the text (A-3). These objectives were chosen as they coincide with the time period for which this unit will be taught. Utilizing these objectives at different grade levels would not be difficult as these objectives are revisited in each grade. After reading varied texts, students would respond to A-3, B-3, and/or C-2 comprehension questions as a means to measure understanding. These comprehension questions would be scored using the established CMT rubric for each question.

Also, students will identify key historical events that lead to equality for all people. Students will answer questions about the origins of slavery and the life of slaves. They will develop an understanding of how slavery ended in the United States of America and those individuals who played key roles to that end. Students will develop an understanding of the difficulty integrating blacks and whites in all aspects of life. They will answer the question, "When did the Civil Rights Movement begin?" "What role did children play in the Civil Rights Movement?" They will develop a timeline of significant events and people on the Road to Equality.

In addition this unit will contain activities that coordinate with the different time periods of study. Activity exemplars will be used to create a visual representation of The Road to Equality in consultation with the visual arts teacher. I envision a large bulletin board exhibiting a road that travels through history. This road will highlight the historical periods with pictorial representations of the end of slavery, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, relevant Supreme Court decisions, the desegregation of schools, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., to the present time. Exemplars from different activities will be displayed near the appropriate pictorial representation on the road. This visual representation of our project will enable the entire school community to participate in our learning through their interaction with our board. I envision opportunities for conversations and "learning moments" within the many classes at Davis Street Interdistrict Magnet School.

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Strategies

In the beginning, we will develop a common language by creating a "Road to Equality" word wall. Students will generate a list of words that they would expect to use during this unit based upon their prior experiences with lessons pertaining to Black History Month and Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. As the unit is taught, we will refer back to this word wall as we use the words already on the word wall and add new ones that we learn about. Such words will include concepts such as segregation, equality, and racism along with famous people such as Harriet Tubman, Moses, and Ruby Bridges. The word wall will be a fluid display to illustrate the progress of students with this unit. Words will be added through class discussion about their relevance and meaning to this unit.

Throughout The Road to Equality, famous African Americans that broke through the color barrier will be highlighted. These individuals include but are not limited to Harriet Tubman, Rosa Parks, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Marian Anderson. Each person represents an historical period of time that played an important role in the road to equality. There is a multitude of past and current children's literature for students to read as a means to develop background knowledge and enhance their own understanding. Students enjoy reading biographies of their role models as a way to connect with them and somehow emulate the positive characteristics that these role models display. Also, the use of non-fiction provides more opportunities to include the CMT strands A-3, B-3, and C-2 that are being focused on in this unit.

Authentic children's literature is the key to any meaningful unit of instruction. While the internet has its place, there is nothing more meaningful than holding a book in your hand, delving into the mysteries of the past, trying to make meaning for yourself as you attempt to find your place in history. A book can physically connect you to the past. This is especially true when using primary resources. One can truly connect to the slave's desire to learn to read books and then write their own. The skill of reading and writing allows anyone the right to record their own history for others to read. Much of the history that we know of for this unit came from the recorded stories of people who lived the ordeal. These stories were recorded on paper as well as utilizing the oral tradition by word of mouth. Stories were passed down from parent to child in order to keep their history alive. In addition, blacks used quilts to tell their stories using codes in the design of varied quilt blocks. There are many children's books that illustrate this form of storytelling. Quilts or "Show Ways" also told of the road to freedom in its story. These quilts were hung out windows giving directions to escaping slaves. The most recent children's story illustrating this part of history is Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson which was published in 2005.

This unit will be taught in the form of a narrative timeline in history using literature that represents different periods of time as African Americans traveled the road to equality. Our basic text is Sienna's Scrapbook: Our African American Heritage Trip by Toni Trent Parker, published in 2005. Ideally I would teach this unit in small groups of 10-12 students with enough copies of the text for reading and research. Student interest and participation is augmented when there are enough copies of a text for students to touch and interact with. However, this unit could be taught with a single copy if needed.

Sienna's Scrapbook: Our African American Heritage Trip has print that represents a child's handwriting and includes photos and images of primary artifacts. It is written in a child-friendly manner, using high interest visuals and print. The book begins in New Haven, CT with the Amistad. Children will have an opportunity to make a local connection to history by reading this section of the book and visiting the Amistad Memorial downtown and/or taking a tour of the Amistad when it is docked at Long Wharf.

The struggle for equal rights truly began during the time of slavery in the United States. Therefore, background knowledge will be established by introducing students to slavery in America and those individuals who played a prominent role in the quest for freedom and the end of slavery in our country. Such individuals and events include, but are not limited to, Harriet Tubman, President Abraham Lincoln, The Civil War, The Emancipation Proclamation, and Booker T. Washington. I would use the A-3, B-3, and C-2 CMT strands with the following texts: …If You Lived When There Was Slavery In America, …If You Traveled on the Underground Railroad, and "Wanted Dead or Alive" The True Story of Harriet Tubman. These books include sections such as chapters that deal with one sub-topic at a time. For younger children, these types of books provide information in small easily digestible chunks. A teacher could assign a small section with a CMT comprehension question for homework or as seatwork within a classroom. In addition, a teacher could differentiate instruction by providing the easier passages to the more immature student and the more difficult passages to the advanced student. Then all students could report back to the class about what they had learned. Students would utilize their written and oral skills when reporting on information they had learned. The whole class would benefit from this type of interaction.

Next I will introduce readings that talk about the turn of the century when African Americans were free yet did not have all the rights of American citizens. They were not equal to the average Caucasian male. (I specify male because women, in general, did not have equal rights either at this time.) Our society practiced segregation which meant that various services were provided separately for African Americans and Caucasians. For example, there were separate restaurants, water fountains, neighborhoods, and schools. This segregation was most prominent in the Southern states. I would apply the CMT strands to excerpts from the Emancipation Proclamation, and the 13th, 14th, and 15th Constitutional Amendments to the Constitution.

The beginning of the Civil Rights Movement is typically attributed to the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 with the struggles of Rosa Parks. We would read the new book Rosa by Nikki Giovanni and excerpts from Dear Mrs. Parks: A Dialogue with Today's Youth by Rosa Parks. Students will write summaries of Rosa Parks' life and her impact on the Civil Rights Movement. I chose these pieces of literature because of their current status and their great appeal to children. Most students are fascinated by the life of Rosa Parks and want to delve into her life to learn her significance in history.

Next, I would introduce Ruby Bridges, who became the heroine of all African American children by being the first black child to attend an all white elementary school with the courage and dignity beyond her young years. She was escorted to and from school daily by federal marshals while facing angry protesters. This is an important event in the desegregation of public schools in America. The court case, Brown V. Board of Education, will play an important historical role at this point in the unit. We would read The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles and excerpts from Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges. Students will compare their own experience with school to that of Ruby Bridges. Students will respond to a C-2 question that asks how their school experience was the same as or different from Ruby Bridges' school experience.

Next, I would introduce Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to the students, reflecting on his life and importance to the civil rights movement. We would read …If You Lived at the Time of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. by Ellen Levine and Martin's Big Words. Students will summarize his life and determine his importance to their present lives.

In addition, students will look at excerpts from Dr. King's famous "I have a dream" speech. They will also have an opportunity to hear audio clips from his famous speech utilizing the internet. They will analyze its content and then determine ways to illustrate his speech in art. We will then create a visual interpretation of Dr. King's speech using the students' artwork. This visual display will be presented at our school's town meeting in January. At this town meeting, we feature the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and brotherhood among all people.

Students work will also be presented in the form of a timeline outlining the significant events and people that led to equality for all people. This visual display of written work will illustrate the multitude of events that contributed to our present day society where all people can live, play, and work together as a community no matter their cultural background.

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Historical Background: A Timeline for the Road to Equality

I feel that it is important to include an extensive timeline to in order to give the teacher a greater understanding of all the significant events that lead to equality. One must comprehend the enormous suffering that occurred on the part of African Americans from the early 1600's through the mid-twentieth century. It is also important to note that this battle was also fought between southern whites and northern whites on the ground and in the federal courts. Teachers can choose which events would be appropriate for discussion at different grade levels. In addition, teachers are free to choose which historical individuals to focus on during their study of this unit.

On February 18, 1861, Jefferson Davis took the oath of office to become President of the Confederate States of America at the Capital Building of Montgomery, Alabama. President Davis led the Confederate States during the Civil War which was fought over slavery and states' rights. President Davis declared that people had the right to own slaves. It is ironic that at the same place where Davis proclaimed the right to slavery, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. proclaimed the right for equality for people, regardless of race, in 1965. Montgomery played an important role in 1861 as the "Cradle of the Confederacy" and in 1965 as the cradle of the modern civil rights movement. (Wade, 1991)

Slavery, in what is now the United States of America, began in the early 1600's when Africans were brought to America against their will and sold as slaves. Slaves were treated cruelly. A sense of family was discouraged as children and spouses were sold to other people without regard for family units. Slaves were not educated and punished if they tried to learn to read. Also, if a slave should try to escape, he or she could be killed. Some slaves escaped successfully and returned to help others escape. Harriet Tubman was one such person.

In 1849, Harriet Tubman escaped slavery utilizing the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was a system of hiding places that was run by escaped slaves and white supporters. These hiding places led north to freedom. Harriet Tubman made 19 return trips to the south and helped hundreds of slaves escape to freedom. She was never caught and she never lost a slave. During the Civil War, Harriet Tubman joined the northern army as a nurse and a scout. After the war, she assisted black people in many ways such as helping to build schools for them.

There were many black individuals who escaped slavery and helped to better the lives of black people. Frederick Douglass, after fleeing a cruel master, learned to read and write with the help of a sympathetic white woman. In 1838, he escaped to the North, utilizing his talents to help with the fight for black people's rights. Sojourner Truth, a freed slave, became one of the best known speakers of this time, promoting the abolition of slavery in 1843. W.E.B. Dubois became the first black man to graduate from Harvard University with a Ph.D. degree in 1895. He wrote extensively about the discrimination against black people. In 1910, he founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

The road to equality began with the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States in 1861. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 freed some slaves who later fought and died during the Civil War. In 1865, the 13th Amendment to the Constitution outlawed slavery. In 1866, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution protected the rights of freed slaves. In 1870, the 15th Amendment to the Constitution gave the right to vote to black people. Though the road to equality seemed to be going in the right direction, the road did get bumpy with formidable obstacles.

White people in the south did not agree with these laws. After the war, a group of Confederate Army veterans formed a controversial group known as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Their goal was white supremacy. The KKK used terrorist violence to intimidate and/or murder black people and white sympathizers. Between 1882 through 1901, almost 2,000 blacks were lynched. States passed separatist laws, the Jim Crow Laws, requiring separate facilities (restrooms, water fountains, restaurants, schools, waiting rooms, swimming pools, libraries, and bus seats) for blacks and whites. The Supreme Court was not yet ready to proclaim equal rights for all. In 1896, they ruled that separate facilities were fine as long as they were equal. However, that was not the case in the South.

A former slave named George Henry White became the only black U.S. Congressman in the early 1900's. He spoke out against racism and sponsored anti-lynching legislation. He encouraged Congress to enforce the 13th, 14th, and 15th Constitutional Amendments. However, much time passed before equality was truly realized in the South. During the 1920's, white supremacist organizations such as the KKK became more prevalent and violent. For example, the KKK membership grew to two million individuals, which included members who held important government jobs.

The lives of black people began to improve with the election of President Franklin Roosevelt in 1932. He introduced the New Deal which provided jobs and welfare to both blacks and whites. This reform program helped the United States recover from economic disaster known as the Great Depression during the 1930's. In addition, a known black labor leader, A. Phillip Randolph, convinced President Roosevelt to end racial bias in all defense industries, thereby increasing job opportunities for black citizens.

After World War II, black soldiers had an increased understanding of racial oppression after witnessing the atrocities of the Nazi party in Germany. They compared the situation of the Jews to their own. The black soldiers returned to the United States with a loud voice against racial discrimination. As a result of their pressure, President Roosevelt ended segregation within the armed forces in 1945.

In 1942, black Americans formed a group called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Members of this group subscribed to nonviolent ways to encourage equal rights. They were greatly influenced by the peaceful teachings of Mohandas Gandhi, an Indian leader. Civil rights groups such as CORE and NAACP were able to overcome some of the bumps in the road to equality. However the major hurdles would be overcome in the federal court system.

In the 1950's, NAACP lawyers began to prepare a case to end segregation in our public schools in order comply with the Constitution. During this time, black children had to travel long distances to attend a black school that did not have the same resources and their white counterparts. These black schools were usually run-down, lacking the educational equipment that the white schools had. On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court outlawed school segregation in the famous Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The Chief Justice read the decision, "To separate black children solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way very unlikely ever to be undone…Separate educational facilities are…unequal."(Ward, 1991)

An interesting point is that the request for including black children in the common schools was first made in Massachusetts on October 17, 1787. The parents of black children made this request in a letter addressed to the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of the Massachusetts Bay. This petition was raised again by Benjamin Roberts in Roberts v. City of Boston as argued by abolitionist attorney Charles Sumner. Benjamin Roberts wanted his five year old daughter to attend the school closest to his home, a white school. Sumner's fundamental argument was the same argument used in the Brown v. Board of Education. The constitution guaranteed the equality of men before the law. Because black children were denied access to white schools, the black and white children were not equal before the law.

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabaman, a tired, hard working, African American woman named Rosa Parks was told to give up her seat on the bus for a white man. She refused. Rosa was arrested and jailed for her civil disobedience, breaking the Segregation Laws. She had to pay a fourteen dollar fine. African Americans were outraged at the arrest of Rosa Parks. They decided to boycott the use of buses until all people could sit wherever they wanted on the bus. This boycott, which lasted 381 days, hurt the bus company financially. (This peaceful demonstration against segregation also introduced Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to the nation as a Civil Rights Advocate.) This controversy went to the Supreme Court with a ruling that bus segregation violated the Constitution of the United States on December 21, 1956.

While the bus boycott was difficult, requiring sacrifices on the part of Black Americans, desegregating schools was much worse. In September 1957, President Eisenhower ordered federal troops to enforce school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas. These troops were needed to protect nine black students entering high school. In November 1960, four black first-grade girls were integrated into two public schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. Ruby Bridges is one of these girls. Alone, she attended the first grade in William Frantz Elementary School under armed guard provided by the U.S. Marshalls. She endured countless threats as a 6 year old attending school. She spent her time in a classroom, the lone student of Mrs. Henry. Ruby recalls that she never knew that there were other children in the building. The few white children that still attended the elementary school were kept away from her for most of the year. Mrs. Henry finally challenged this isolation with the principal and won her case. The white children were allowed to enter Ruby's class daily for short periods of time. Ruby Bridges' bravery was noted in the writings of John Steinbeck and Robert Coles, the artwork of Norman Rockwell, and the documentary, Eyes on the Prize.In 1962, President John Kennedy sent federal troops to protect James Meredith when he became the first black student to attend the University of Mississippi.

Many civil rights activists realized that in order to make progress, their cause must continue to be highlighted to the public in a peaceful way. In February 1960, four black college students sat in at a "whites only" lunch counter at Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina. Four students grew to 400 students, blacks and some whites, who took turns sitting at the lunch counter in quiet protest to segregation. These sit-ins caught the attention of other young southerners. Soon, sit-ins were staged in more that 100 cities in the south. Approximately 70,000 people participated in the sit-ins with 3,600 having been arrested. In the Deep South, many of the participants were beaten and terrorized. Despite the violence, the participants continued their non-violent ways. Freedom Riders came on the scene to test the bus desegregation laws. In May 1961, they were attacked in Alabama. The federal government had to intervene and reorder the desegregation of bus terminals.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. played an important role in the desegregation of Birmingham, Alabama. Dr. King led peaceful protests and boycotts in Birmingham. At one point he was arrested and placed in jail while leading a boycott. Violence grew in Birmingham leading to President Kennedy's decision to send federal mediators to resolve disagreements. Despite the increase in violence against blacks and their decision to fight back in violence, Dr. King continued to walk through Birmingham encouraging peaceful responses. Ultimately the federal government's decision to end discrimination would not be swayed. Agreements were made to end the segregation of blacks and whites in Birmingham.

One month after resolving the conflict in Birmingham, in June 1963, President Kennedy introduced a civil rights bill to Congress. In August, 250,000 blacks and whites marched on Washington D.C. to support the civil rights bill. At this event, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. made his famous "I have a dream" speech. Support for this bill continued to grow despite two tragic events: the bombing of a church in Birmingham that killed four black students and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The following summer, Congress passed and President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This act ordered all businesses to serve all people regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin. Discrimination in the workplace was outlawed and an agency was put place to enforce fair work practices in all businesses. The act placed a measure of consequences by stating that any place or activity that continued to practice racial discrimination would not receive any federal funds.

Despite the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, voting rights for black Americans were a problem. Many were intimidated or harassed when trying to register to vote. That summer, 1,000 college volunteers traveled to Mississippi to help register black Americans for the vote. This was known as Freedom Summer. They were met with violence. Three civil rights activists were kidnapped and murdered. Eighty civil rights activists were beaten and over 1,000 were arrested. Thirty-seven black churches were burned and thirty homes were bombed. On January 22, 1965, Dr. Reese, a black teacher, led a group of black teachers on a march to the Dallas County Courthouse. They were turned away. While they were not able to register to vote, this small march paved the way for a much larger march.

Black leaders began to plan for a 50 mile march from Selma to Montgomery. On Sunday, March 7, 1965, 600 marchers began the long walk to Montgomery singing "We Shall Overcome". As they reached the end of the Edmund Pettus Bridge, they were met with resistance from Sheriff Jim Clark and his troopers. The troopers attacked the marchers, man and woman alike. More than 50 people were admitted to a local hospital. This date became known as Bloody Sunday. In the 80's, the rock band U2 published a song, "Sunday Bloody Sunday" that commemorated the needless bloodshed of this date. Dr. King heard the news and arrived to help. He promised to lead a march from Selma to Montgomery. His first attempt met with failure, although there was no bloodshed. At the end of the Edmund Pettus Bridge, Dr. King and the marchers were met by troops and ordered to return. After praying, the marchers returned to their church. Their next attempt, two weeks after Bloody Sunday met with success. In order to ensure the safety of the 8,000 marchers, President Johnson signed an order to federalize nearly 1900 men of the Alabama National Guard. In addition he authorized 2000 army troops to protect the marchers. The march took five days but they reached Montgomery with few incidents of violence.

President Johnson recognized the need to end racial injustice. Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the president signed it into law. This law allows many African Americans to fully participate in the electoral process at the municipal, state, and federal level. They now have opportunities to influence the political process with their votes. At the present we continue to ensure equal rights for all people no matter their race, sex, or culture of origin.

In summary, this unit teaches the Road to Equality for African Americans using authentic literature and CMT comprehension strands. This unit is intended for second and third graders but can easily be adapted for other grades. In addition, there are many opportunities for differentiated instruction that challenge those students that are above grade level and meet the needs of those students that are below grade level.

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Lesson Plans: Introductory Lesson

The goal of this introductory lesson is to provide an overview of the civil rights movement in a general manner in order to set our purposes for studying this topic. I will use the poem, This is the Dream by Diane Z. Shore & Jessica Alexander with illustrations by James Ransome.

First, I will present a commonly used organizational device called a KWL chart. This chart is split into three columns. The first column is for what students KNOW about the civil rights movement. The second column is for what students WANT to know about the civil rights movement. The third column is for what students have LEARNED about the civil rights movement. Typically, the third column is completed towards the end of the unit. When I present the KWL chart, I will explain to the students that we will be using this chart to document our exploration of the civil rights movement. I will ask the students what they know about the Civil Rights Movement and record their responses in the first column of the chart. Then, I will present the text This is the Dream. As part of the presentation, I conduct a picture walk of the text and encourage students to comment on the illustrations as they relate to their common knowledge of the civil rights movement. After our initial discussion, I will read the text aloud. This book is an illustrated poem that details major events before, during, and after the civil rights movement.

At the end of this lesson, I will ask the class to verbalize what they would like to learn about the civil rights movement. I will record their responses in the second column of the KWL chart. These questions will provide the framework for our research. At a later date, students will conduct specific related to these questions.

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Lesson Plan: Art

The goal for this lesson is for students to understand the symbolism of various quilting squares as they were used during the time of the Underground Railroad. I will base this lesson on the text Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson and coordinate with the art teacher in my school.

In the beginning, I will show students one of my one quilts and discuss the difference between the word quilt and blanket. A quilt is made by piecing together various small pieces of fabric in a pattern. After discussing this vocabulary word, I would conduct a picture walk of the text Show Way and lead students on a discussion related to the illustrations. Then, I will read the story aloud. After reading the story, the art teacher and I will present various quilt squares and their meanings when used during the Underground Railroad. Students will choose a type of quilt square to create using paper and glue. The art teacher will join all of our squares together to create a paper quilt for display in the cafeteria.

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Lesson Plan: Research

The goal for this lesson is for students to follow the Big Six/Super Three steps for research in order to write biographies of famous African Americans that were part of the Road to Equality. Students will be allowed to choose the individual that they would like to research. They will be given a guide to assist them in the research process.

Students will begin by identifying the individual for research and creating a list of key words that may assist them throughout the research process. Key words are those words that a student may use when consulting an index or table of contents in a nonfiction text. Also, key words are used when conducting internet searches for information related to particular topic. It is helpful for students to identify these words in advance of the actual research process. Students will be required to use at least three sources--a reference source, a non-fiction text, and an internet source. This requirement creates a balance of information and allows the students to evaluate their sources for quality of information. This provides students with an introduction to the concept that not all sources are equal for content or quality of information.

Throughout their time in the library, students will be researching their topic, taking notes, and listing their references. There are a variety of tools that may be used for this process. They are located on the internet. Please check the reference list for those sources. I have included some for the reader's perusal.

To address differentiated instruction, students may be paired up so that they work in teams. Students who struggle with writing yet have an artistic talent may contribute to this project through their drawings and illustrations of the individuals that are being studied. These pieces will be added to the visual display.

At the end of this project, exemplar pieces of research will be included on the visual display entitled, "The Road to Equality". This bulletin board will be on display for the entire school community to observe.

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Annotated Bibliography

Bridges, Ruby. Through My Eyes. Scholastic Press, 1999.

Ruby Bridges tells her own story of breaking the color barrier is the public school system. This book includes photographs taken during this momentous event in our history.

Carey, Charles. The Emancipation Proclamation. The Child's World. 2000.

A non-fiction reference book that details the events leading to and resulting from the Emancipation Proclamation. This book is ideal for children.

Coleman, Evelyn. White Socks Only. Albert Whitman & Co., 1996

A children's story about the separation between the white and black people.

Coles, Robert. The Story of Ruby Bridges. Scholastic, Inc. 1995.

A children's story that details the experiences of a young Ruby Bridges as she begins a new school year in a white school.

Giovanni, Nikki. Rosa. Henry Holt and Company, 2005.

A children's biography of Rosa Parks.

Kamma, Anne. …If You Lived When There Was Slavery In America. Scholastic, Inc.

____2004.

A non-fiction text that details life during Slavery in America. This text is written in short chapters for children to comprehend.

King, Martin Luther & King, Coretta Scott. I Have a Dream. Scholastic, 1997.

A non-fiction text that discusses Dr. Martin Luther King's philosophy and dreams in his own words. Excerpts from his speeches are included.

King, Casey, Osborne, Linda Barret. Oh, Freedom!: Kids Talk About the Civil Rights

____Movement With the People Who Made It Happen. Knopf, 1997.

A non-fiction text that details conversations between kids and Civil Rights Leaders.

Levine, Ellen. …If You Lived At The Time Of Martin Luther King. Scholastic, Inc.

1990.

A non-fiction text detailing life during the time of Martin Luther King. This book is written in short chapters for children to comprehend.

Levine, Ellen. …If You Traveled on the Underground Railroad. Scholastic, Inc.

A non-fiction text detailing life during the time of the Underground Railroad. This book is written in short chapters for children to comprehend.

Martin, Waldo E. Jr. Brown V. Board of Education: A Brief History with Documents.

____Bedford Books, 1998.

An adult research text detailing the evolution of equality within the public school systems of the United States.

McGovern, Ann. "Wanted Dead or Alive" The True Story of Harriet Tubman. Scholastic.

A children's biography of Harriet Tubman.

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Dell Publishing, 1968.

Parker, Toni Trent. Sienna's Scrapbook: Our African American Heritage Trip. Chronicle

____Books, 2005.

A children's book detailing specific landmarks related to African American History in the United States. The book begins in Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut with the Amistad voyage. This book includes photos of actual artifacts related to African American History.

Parks, Rosa. Dear Mrs. Parks: A Dialogue With Today's Youth. Lee & Low Books, Inc.

1996.

A collection of letters written by children to Rosa Parks.

Ryan, Pam Munoz. When Marian Sang. Scholastic Press, 2002.

A children's biography of Marian Anderson that includes the lyrics of the song she sang at the Lincoln Memorial.

Shore, Diane & Alexander, Jessica. This is the Dream. Amistad, 2006

A poem that details information about the Civil Rights Movement (before, during, and after).

Wade, Linda R. Montgomery: Launching the Civil Rights Movement. (Doors to

____America's Past). Rourke Enterprises, Inc. 1991.

A non-fiction text that details the historical basis of the Civil Rights Movement. This book is specific to young researchers in the second through fifth grades.

Williams, Juan. Eyes On The Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965.

____Penguin Books, 1987.

Woodson, Jacqueline. Show Way. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 2005.

A children's story detailing the history of the underground railroad within an African American family. The history of quilts as messages plays an important role in this story.

www.timeforkids.com/TFK/specials/bhm/0,8805,97373,00.html Hear famous speeches during the Civil Rights Movement. (Martin Luther King & President John F. Kennedy)

http://teacher.scholastic.com/rosa/interview.htm#civilrights Read an interview with Rosa Parks.

Public Law 88-352: Civil Rights Act of 1964

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Web Sites Related to the Skill of Research

http://www.big6.com/kids/3-6.htm A kid's site for using the Big6 (Grades 3-5)

http://www.big6.com/kids/K-2.htm The Super3 for students in K-2. Children can use this site.

http://www.hopkins.k12.mn.us/Pages/GlenLake/Pages/Media/medialinks.html A site where kids can learn to cite sources.

http://bensguide.gpo.gov/support/citing.html Ben's Guide to citing sources.

http://www.cyberbee.com/ A teacher's tool for research ideas.

http://www.tekmom.com/students/ A student's guide to research.

http://www.concordox.com/Internet%20Safety/internet_safety_for_kids.htm Internet safety for kids as they conduct their research using the web.

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Contents of 2006 Volume III | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

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