Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

New Haven, Then and Now: A Story in Photographs

by
Jennifer Flood


Contents of Curriculum Unit 06.01.03:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

"Photographs remind us of the persistence of the past in the present -- they show us not only what we have lost, but what such photographs help us to regain."
--Martin W. Sandler (1)

Primary students' knowledge of history is very limited. A five-year old child believes things are as they have always been. History is an abstract concept to children and a verbal explanation will not suffice. Photographs provide a mean for making history much more concrete. This unit is intended to teach primary students about the New Haven of the past in comparison to the New Haven of today. Students will think about how they live their lives today and ponder what it would have been like to live at the turn of the twentieth century. Topics for instruction include play, school, transportation, and the shore. While this unit was written for primary educators in New Haven, it can be easily adapted for older students or other locales. Please see the modifications section for more details.

The first two sections are provided as a reference for the teacher. Sections that follow are meant for classroom use. These remaining sections describe how to use the recommended photographs and often contain optional student activities. The initials TWC are used to refer to photographs from the book This Was Connecticut: Images of a Vanished World by Martin W. Sandler. Please see the Lesson Plans section for more information on teaching the first three lessons.

The best way to use the photos is to scan and burn them to a CD. Ask your school's Library-Media Specialist if you can borrow a laptop, projector, and screen. I have taken and can provide you with the modern-day photographs used in this unit. Please e-mail me at jenjf5678gmail.com for information on obtaining these photographs as well as the historical photographs.

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The Origins of New Haven

"A tree the span of two arms starts from a tiny seedling."
--Chinese Proverb (2)

Originally deemed Roodeberg and later coined Quinnipiack, the city was officially named New Haven in the year 1640. John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton are credited with the settlement of New Haven. When Eaton and his entourage arrived in the winter of 1637-1638, they saw potential. The coastal region provided easy access to the sea and the land was fertile for plantation.

In 1639, Eaton, assisted by John Brocket, devised a plan for a nine-square town plot. The original town perimeter is outlined by York, Grove, State, and George Streets. The eight outlying squares were divvied up to the town's residents. The center square was left untouched for marketing purposes. This square has become New Haven's town green.

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New Haven: What a Difference a Century Makes

"The life of our city is rich in poetic and marvelous subjects. We are enveloped and steeped as though in an atmosphere of the marvelous; but we do not notice it."
--Charles Baudelaire (2)

With a population of 108,027 in 1900, New Haven was the largest city in the state of Connecticut at the turn of the twentieth century. While it was not known as a main harbor city as Theophilus Eaton had hoped, New Haven was thriving. Businesses like the Edward Malley Company Department Store and Moseley's New Haven House Hotel were booming. New Haven's four railway systems had merged into one entity, promoting big business, and providing an effective means of transporting goods. Horse-drawn carriages and electric trolley cars also provided transportation for New Haven residents. The city attracted many immigrants of Italian, Irish, German, and Jewish decent. New Haven had many characteristics of a successful city.

New Haven has vastly changed over the last century. According to Wikipedia and Census data, New Haven's population consists of 123,626 individuals, making it the third largest city in Connecticut. Both Bridgeport and Hartford are larger. The majority of New Haven's residents are now Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic. While the department stores and trolley cars have long since gone, New Haven still has much to offer. Mayor John DeStefano's Citywide School Construction Project has made it possible for schools to be rebuilt and downtown is thriving with restaurants, independently run shops, nightclubs, and theatres.

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Setting the Stage

"The only way to find out anything about what kinds of lives people led in any given period is to tunnel into their records and to let them speak for themselves." --John Dos Passos (2)

Stimulate thinking about the past by asking students to close their eyes. Encourage them to imagine what New Haven and its residents looked like 100 years ago. Ask thought-provoking questions such as, "What are the people wearing? What do their cars look like? What do the buildings look like?"

Display New Haven, 1906 by T. S. Bronson (TWC, page 211). The photograph was taken at the corner of Prospect and Grove, looking north on Prospect. The building in the middle of the picture was the South Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. The structure that stands there now is Strathcona Hall. The building to the right is Silliman College. Hundreds of well-dressed people are walking on the sidewalk. There may have been a special event at Woolsey Hall. Horses and buggies line the street along with a car that appears to be a Maxwell.

Inform students that this photograph shows what was happening in New Haven 100 years ago. Ask them if it's what they imagined. Discuss the photograph. Have the children explain what the people are wearing, their modes of transportation, and the surrounding buildings. Children may notice one woman is carrying a parasol. Explain to them that a parasol is used to provide shade from the sun. Ask students how the people might get home. Point out the horses and buggies and the automobile. Have children explain what they think the people are doing. Ask why the people are all dressed up? What might be written on the papers they are carrying? One man, in the bottom right hand corner, is walking the other way. Ask children what they think he's doing.

Compare T.S. Bronson's photograph to my photograph Graduation Day at Yale, May 20, 2006. This is a modern day photograph taken in the same area as T.S. Bronson's photograph from 1906. It was taken on College Street looking toward Grove Street. The building in the middle is Strathcona Hall and on the right stands Silliman College. Although it cannot be seen in the photograph, Woolsey Hall is to the left. Graduates and their families are dispersing after the ceremony.

Explain to the students that the new photograph was taken 100 years after the first photograph. Ask students to explain similarities and differences. Some of the buildings are the same, but modes of transportation and clothing have changed dramatically. The most obvious difference, however, and the one the students will most likely note immediately, is the color of the photograph. The older photograph is black and white while the newer one is in color. Ask students what else they notice about the photographs. In Bronson's photo, all of the women are in full length dresses while in mine; they are wearing pants or knee-length skirts. No one is wearing a fancy hat in my photograph. Turn the children's attention towards the transportation in the street. While horses and buggies are predominantly seen in Bronson's photograph, my photograph shows technological advances. A white mini-bus is seen parked along the side of the street. There is now a bus stop waiting area on the sidewalk. An SUV is parked on the right side of the street and a car is driving along Grove Street. Traffic lights are also evident in my photograph. Direct the children to look at the trees. The new tree on the left side of Bronson's photograph is now seen as a full-grown tree in my photograph. The trees on the right have grown to cover Silliman College. Point out to the students that Silliman College is still the same building. Ask children to look at the tops of both buildings to see how the architecture is identical. Strathcona Hall has changed. The building in Bronson's photograph was torn down and rebuilt.

Inform students that they will be learning more about what New Haven was like a long time ago. Tell the children to ask their great grandparents, or oldest living relatives, about what life was like when they were growing up. Allow the children to share what they've learned with their classmates.

Play

"The true object of all human life is play."
--Gilbert K. Chesterton (2)

While children played many of the same games at the turn of the twentieth century as they do now at the turn of the twenty-first century, toys have certainly changed. Children of the past had very few toys. While many of today's children play with dolls and trains, they are inundated with electrical gadgets. Video games and computers provide a great deal of entertainment for the modern-day child. They will be shocked to discover that these items have not always existed.

Display historical photographs of New Haven children and their toys. Several such photographs are available at the New Haven Colony Historical Society. The images selected for this unit are found in the Sargent Family Papers: manuscript 70, box IV, folder D. They do not have titles, but are easily located based on the descriptions that follow. Please contact me for assistance.

The first photograph depicts a mother adoringly looking down at her two children. The younger child is approximately one year old and the older child looks to be four years old. The younger child is seated on the mother's lap, smiling. The older child is wearing an oversized bow in her hair and has a reserved look on her face. She is holding three simple looking rag dolls. The dolls do not have hair and they appear to be made of cloth.

Tell the students this picture was taken over 100 years ago. Ask them what they think of it. Lead them to understand that the clothing was very dressy. Today, people don't dress up just to take a photograph unless it's for a special occasion. Tell children that long ago, cameras were not as available as they are now. Many people did not have cameras so having a photograph taken was a special occasion. Ask the children how they think the people in the photo are feeling. Why isn't the older girl smiling? Why is her mother looking at her? What might her mother be saying? Finally, ask the students what the girl is holding. Ask if the girl's dolls look like their own dolls. Have them explain what's different about their dolls. If students had to choose, ask them which doll they would rather have: one of the girl's dolls or one of their own. Have them explain why.

In the second photograph, taken somewhere in New Haven, two children are sitting on what looks like a wagon. It is not a typical little red wagon, though. There are four wheels, which look to be a bit larger than dinner plates. The rear wheels are larger than the front wheels. Attached to the front wheels is a long arm for pulling purposes. The wheels support a platform, or base, of the wagon. Attached to the base are two chairs where the children are seated. The backs of the chairs are only a couple of inches high. The children are dressed in white clothes, typical of the late 1800's and early 1900's. The girl has another incredibly large bow in her hair. Behind the children is a house with a patio and a sidewalk.

Upon displaying the picture, ask the students what type of vehicle they think the children are on. They will inevitably label it a wagon. Ask your students how the wagon in the picture is different from wagons they've seen. They will state that this wagon has larger wheels and chairs instead of small wheels and one big rectangular pan to sit in. Inquire about which wagon might be safer. It would seem much easier to fall off of the wagon in the picture than our modern-day wagons. Ask the children who they think was pulling the wagon. Perhaps it was the person who took the photograph. Finally, have the children decide which wagon they'd rather play with and explain why.

To expand the discussion, inform students that the children in the picture are Sylvia Murray Tilney and Bradford "Brad" Sargent Tilney. Brad was born in 1908 and Sylvia arrived the following year. While Sylvia's history became lost, information and a photograph of Brad can be found in the Rotary Club of New Haven's 1957 Member Book. Show students this photograph and explain some of the things Brad did throughout his life. During the years 1916 through 1926, Brad attended Hamden Hall and Hotchkiss. He received a B.F.A. from Yale Architectural School in 1933 and later became a Fellow at Cranbrook Academy. Brad worked as an architect for several different companies before beginning his private practice in 1940. Pedersen & Tilney, Architects was located at 119 Whalley Avenue. Help students relate to Brad by asking them to think about what they will do as they grow up. What college might they attend? What do they want to be when they grow up? Will they always live in Connecticut?

In a later lesson, display Bridgeport, 1907 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 168). While this is not a picture of New Haven, it depicts children playing hoops. This is not a picture of children playing basketball, but rather rolling wooden hoops with sticks. Explain to your students that Bradford and Sylvia may have played this game. Allow your students to play this game by borrowing hula hoops from the gym teacher. Give each child a hula hoop and a ruler. Line the children up at a starting point. Tell them they must use the ruler to keep the hula hoop rolling upright all the way to the finish line.

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School

"A school is not a factory. Its raison d'ítre is to provide opportunity for experience."
--James Lloyd Carr (2)

According to historian Stephen Lassonde, many New Haven children were employed and contributed to the household income before the turn of the nineteenth century. In 1872, the Connecticut General Assembly made it mandatory for all children ages 8-14 to attend school for at least three months a year, with six weeks of consecutive attendance. This upset employers who needed inexpensive labor and also hurt immigrant families who relied on their children's incomes to make ends meet. Truancy rates were high at first, but by the year 1900 a vast majority of New Haven's children ages 8-14 were enrolled and attended school on a regular basis.

Explain to your students that children didn't always have to attend school. Ask your students what they think children used to do during the day when they were not at school. Responses will most likely center upon things children do on the weekends when they are not at school. After their responses have created an idyllic childhood lifestyle, inform students that the children didn't go to school because they worked. Tell them the children worked long, hard hours in factories and only received $4 or $5 a week! Explain that the children generally did not even get to keep the money, but had to give it to their parents to buy food or pay for other living expenses. Ask students if they would rather go to school where they can learn and play or work tiring hours only to give the money they earned to their parents. If you are dramatic in your presentation, children will understand that attending school is the better option. Tell them that, long ago, many adults realized it was better for children to be in school, too. That's why a law was passed to make school attendance mandatory.

Ask your students to describe how they think children used to dress for school 100 years ago. Display a class photo from 100 year ago. There is one such photo located at the New Haven Colony Historical Society in Manuscript number 17. The photo was taken in 1893 and depicts a third grade class from Grand Avenue School in Fair Haven. Ask the children what they notice in the photograph. Point out the children's formal attire. All of the girls are wearing dresses and hats. The boys are wearing pants with jackets. Ask your students if they think there are more children in their class or in the class in the photo. In the photograph, there are 33 white children. New Haven now has a maximum of 26 students per class in grades K-2 and 27 students per class in grades 3-12. Call your students' attention to the little girl standing in the front of the photo. Ask them why they think she's there. It's possible that she's the sister of the girl behind her. Ask the class if they think they would be allowed to bring their younger brothers or sisters to school.

Place my picture of Barnard School at Strong, 2006 alongside the photo from 1893. The 2006 photograph depicts Miss Stellato's kindergarten class in front of Strong School. Have your students look at the buildings in the background. Ask them if the buildings are the same. Explain that Grand Avenue School burned down and Strong School was built in its place in 1915. Strong School is now a swing site which houses the population of schools under renovation. The Barnard School students in this photograph were at Strong School while their school was renovated. Have your students compare the children in the photographs. The style of dress has certainly changed. No one in the current photo is wearing a hat or fancy clothes. The girls in Miss Stellato's class are wearing their hair up in pony tails or braids and many of the boys are sporting very short cuts. In the 1893 photo, the girls are wearing their hair down and while the boys have short hair, it's still quite a bit longer than most of the boys' hair in Miss Stellato's class. There is also much more diversity now. In the 1893 photo, all of the children are Caucasian. In Miss Stellato's class picture, there are children from various ethnic backgrounds.

Ask your students what they think children did at school all day. After several children answer, tell them that while there were schools that focused on reading and math, there were also trade schools. These schools were primarily encompassed with immigrant children. Elaborate by explaining that immigrants are people who move from one country to another country. Continue to explain how trade schools prepared children for future employment. Ask students what kind of jobs they think children who attended trade schools would get.

Next, display George Bradley's 1895 photograph of the Boardman Manual Training School. This picture can be found in the photo archives at the New Haven Colony Historical Society. Ask the children what they notice about the photograph. Approximately fifty students, all of them girls, are seated at the desks that occupy the room. The desks are organized in rows and the children are seated on benches. Chalkboards alone line the walls. A female instructor walks about the room, monitoring student progress. All of the children are concentrating on tasks. None of them is talking. They look like carbon copies of each other…all looking down attending to their sewing, all wearing dresses, most sporting very short bangs…almost as though they are a product of the factories where they will one day work.

Ask your students why they think the girls are so well-behaved. Inquire about the way your students would behave if they knew they were being photographed. Ask your class what they think the girls are making. Have them think about what kind of jobs these girls will be trained in after they graduate. Ask your students to compare the classroom in the photograph to their own classroom. Have them determine similarities and differences. In both classrooms, children are in school to learn from a teacher. There are desks and boards. The similarities end there. In the photograph from 1895, the classroom is very bland. With the exception of the chalkboards, the walls are bare. Your classroom is most likely filled with brilliant colors, posters that encourage learning, and student work. Classrooms are much more aesthetically pleasing today. The desks in the 1895 classroom are very different. Today, students are usually seated at tables or grouped together at desks. There are also very few gender-based classes now. Boys and girls are given the same opportunities no matter what the field. Inquire whether or not your students would rather attend the school in the picture or the school they are going to now and have them explain their answers.

Show students my photograph of Barnes & Noble Bookstore. Ask them if they recognize the area. Tell them they are looking at the Barnes & Noble on Broadway in downtown New Haven. Explain that Boardman Manual Training School once stood at the corner of Broadway and York Square Place (the latter street no longer exists). Hillhouse and Commercial High School were just feet away creating an academic center until the late 1950's when then Mayor Richard C. Lee sold the land to Yale. The high schools were torn down and replaced by Ezra Stiles and Morse dormitories.

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Transportation

"Costs less to keep than a horse. Doesn't get sick. Doesn't eat when it doesn't work."
--State of Indiana (2)

While the automobile was introduced in the 1880's, many people still relied on other modes of transportation for decades to come. In the early 1900's, there were various transportation options. Some people still relied on horses and buggies, while others reveled in taking a trolley. Bicycles were also used for traveling. Students will be fascinated by the way transportation has changed over the past 100 years.

Ask your students if they own or have ever ridden a bicycle. Since all children are at least familiar with bicycles, ask them to describe what a bike looks like and how it works. After a brief discussion, project Yale Bicycle Club, Westville, c. 1870 by Myron T. Filley (TWC, page 102 - photograph was more likely from the 1880's or 1890's based on attire.). Allow students to discuss the differences between their bicycles and the old fashion bicycles shown in the photograph. The bicycles in Filley's photograph have oversized front tires that are nearly as tall as the men standing besides them. Ask students if they think they would be able to ride such a bike. The obvious answer is no. Even if a child made his way up to the seat, he would still be unable to reach the pedals which are located at the center of the front tire. In the photo, eight men are lined up alongside their bikes. Have them think about what members of a Bicycle Club would do. Ask students what they think happened after the photograph was taken. You may explain to your students that this photo was taken on the track at Hamilton Park which was near Edgewood Park. Hubinger Street now runs through the area which encompassed the track.

Explain to your students that bicycles are not the only things to have changed in the past 100 years. Ask your students to imagine what cars looked like long ago. Prompt students to get them thinking. Were cars bigger or smaller? What did the outside look like? What about the inside? Were they safer or more dangerous? Were they faster or slower than today's cars? Which kind of car would be more comfortable to ride in? After the conversation, show students New Haven, 1909 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 26) and discuss the automobile shown. The photograph was taken at 44 Temple Street and the vehicle appears to be a 1905 Buick. Since it was a nice, sunny day, the top of the car is down, revealing two rows of leather seats. The seats are definitely not as plush as car seats are today. The tires are larger in diameter but smaller in width, probably making for a bumpier ride. The headlights are projected forward from the sides of the grille. The windshield ends below the man's chin, making one wonder just how shielded he could be from the wind. Because the tires are larger in diameter, the car is raised higher up from the ground. Passengers stepped up onto a small platform to get into the car.

Show students my photograph, 60 Temple Street, 2006. The building shown in Bronson's photo has been replaced by Temple Medical Center and the Oak Street Connector. Where the 1905 Buick was once parked, now sits my 2005 Toyota Corolla. Ask students to compare the buildings and vehicles in each picture. Both buildings are brick, but serve different purposes. In 1909, Reichert's Palace Garage was located at 44 Temple Street where gas was fifteen cents a gallon. Now it's a massive medical building. The lighting in the earlier photograph makes the building look much more attractive than the cave-like medical building. The cars have also greatly changed. A brand-new 1905 Buick cost $1,200 whereas a new 2005 Toyota Corolla with many amenities cost $23,000. The Buick may look more appealing because of its uniqueness when compared to today's cars, but the modern Toyota is better suited for traveling. Today's cars are much more comfortable, from the seats to the shocks. Old-fashioned cars could reach top speeds of up to 60 mph whereas today's cars reach speeds of nearly twice that.

Another mode of transportation students may be unfamiliar with is the trolley car. Display New Haven, c. 1910 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 210). This photograph was taken at the corner of Church and Chapel Streets. The town green is on the left. Ask students what they see in the photograph. A police officer is standing on the left, probably directing traffic since there are no traffic lights. It wasn't until 1912 that traffic lights were used in the United States. A horse pulling a wagon turns left onto Church Street as people safely cross the street on the other side. Have students predict where the people were going. Ask them if they ever see horses on the streets of New Haven. Today, police officers sometimes ride horses in the downtown area of New Haven. Explain to students that many people used to rely on horses to pull wagons and buggies. While there are no trolley cars in the picture, there is certainly evidence of them. Trolley rails run through the streets and cables float above. Ask students what they think the rails and cables were used for. Display Norwich, 1905 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 212). Although this is not a photograph of New Haven, it depicts a trolley. Ask students if they've ever ridden on a trolley. If possible, take your students on a fieldtrip to The Shore Line Trolley Museum in East Haven (203) 467-6927.

Display my photograph, Church & Chapel, May 20, 2006. This photograph was taken 96 years after T.S. Bronson's photograph, in the precise location. Have students compare the two photographs. The most interesting comparison is that between the police officer and the traffic light. The traffic light now authoritatively looms over the place in which a police officer once stood. All evidence of trolley cars has vanished. Traffic lights and street lights now hang above the streets. Trolley rails have been paved over. Automobiles, the most popular mode of transportation, now line the painted streets. While transportation has changed, many things have remained the same. The streets have kept their names over time and the town green is still intact. Several of the buildings are still standing. People are still walking through the area, although they are dressed much differently. Complete the discussion by asking students if they would prefer traveling in an old-fashioned vehicle or in a modern one. Have them explain their answers.

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The Shore

"See how peaceful it is here. The sea is everything. An immense reservoir of
nature where I roam at will."
--Earl Felton (2)

The shore has long been a place to retreat to on a warm summer day. The cool breezes sailing in on the ocean waves offer relief from the heat. The way people dress for the beach has considerably changed. Many people went to the beach fully clothed with no intentions of swimming in the water. Men and women who did enter the water did so wearing old-fashioned bathing suits best described as tank tops and shorts. A modern-one piece bathing suit would be considered very risqué and a bikini would simply be unthinkable.

Project Lighthouse Point Beach, New Haven, 1906 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 48). In the photograph, a group of fully-clothed people are huddled together on the sand. Beach blankets were not in use at this time. Two of the women are holding parasols which provided shade from the summer sun. A man in the background is wearing a suit and top hat. The only one who seems to have any idea he is at the beach is the man cropped off in the lower left corner of the photo. Perhaps that's why all the women are gazing at him. Explain to your students that these people are at Lighthouse Point Beach. Ask them what's unusual about the photograph. When they note that none of the people are wearing bathing suits, tell them that many people who went to the beach did not swim in the water. Some people went just because it was cooler there.

Immediately display Lighthouse Point Beach, New Haven, c. 1915 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 47). In this photograph, seven women are heading into the water. They are all wearing bathing suits quite similar to each other. All of the swimsuits are dark. They resemble tank tops and shorts. Many of the women are wearing bathing caps and socks. Tell your students that these women were at the beach to swim. Ask them to describe what the women are wearing. Tell them that people could not wear the bathing suits we wear now. It was necessary for them to wear bathing suits that covered up much more of their bodies.

Finally, show my photograph, A Day at Lighthouse Point Beach, 2006. Ask students to describe what they see. In this photograph, three women are sitting in nylon chairs beneath umbrellas. A blanket is spread out in the foreground and a cooler full of food is behind them. To keep themselves occupied they have board games and what looks like a portable DVD player. Have students compare my photo to the previous two photographs. Ask students what has changed over the past 100 years. What are the people wearing? What are they doing? What's similar in the photos?

Take your students on a fieldtrip to Lighthouse Point Beach. Ask them to pay attention to what people are wearing and doing. When you return from the trip, have students write about what they did and what they saw others doing.

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Culminating Activity

Display the first two photographs used in this unit. Remind students that 100 years has passed between the two images. Once again, have students discuss the similarities and differences. Then ask students to imagine what New Haven may look like in another 100 years. What might the people be wearing? How might they travel from place to place? Will the buildings remain the same or look differently?

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Modifications for Secondary Students and Other Locales

The photographs in this unit are appropriate for all students. It's simply the way you use them that must be modified.

For students in other locales:

· Do not stress that the photographs are from New Haven.

· Create your own before and after series using your local historical society and your current photographs of the same locales.

For secondary students:

· After viewing the photographs, have students write a persuasive piece on why they would rather live in the past or the present.

· Have students research their ancestries, seeking where their relatives lived and how they spent their time 100 years ago. Have students discuss or write about how their lives differ from their ancestors' lives.

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Lesson Plans

Following are the first three lesson plans to aid in teaching the unit.

Lesson 1: Setting the Stage

Objectives

1. Students will:

a. begin thinking about the past.
b. analyze photographs.
c. compare historic and modern-day photographs of New Haven.

Materials

1. CD with photographs:

a. New Haven, 1906 by T. S. Bronson (TWC, page 211)
b. Graduation Day at Yale, May 20, 2006 by Jennifer Flood
2. Projector

3. Screen

Setting a Purpose

1. Stimulate thinking about the past, by asking students to close their eyes. Encourage them to imagine what New Haven and its residents looked like 100 years ago. Ask thought provoking questions such as, "What are the people wearing? What do their cars look like? What do the buildings look like?"

Procedure

1. Display New Haven, 1906 by T. S. Bronson and tell students the photograph was taken 100 years ago.

2. Questions to ask while viewing the photograph:

a. Is this what you imagined when you closed your eyes?
i. How is it the same or different?
b. What do you notice?
c. What time of year is it? (spring or summer)
d. What time of day is it? (noon - shadows are directly under objects)
e. What are the people wearing? (suits, dresses, carrying parasols)
f. Why are they dressed up?
g. Why do you think the people are there?
h. How did they get there? (horse and buggy, car)
i. Where are they going now?
j. What do the buildings look like?
k. Do you think the buildings are still there now?
3. Display Graduation Day at Yale, May 20, 2006 by Jennifer Flood alongside the Bronson photograph.

4. Questions to ask when comparing the photographs:

a. What's different about the two pictures? (color photo, clothing, transportation, bus stop, fire hydrant, street signs, traffic lights, buildings)
b. Is anything the same? (streets, sidewalks, trees, Silliman College on right)
i. How can you tell this (Silliman) is the same building? (details in architecture towards the top of the building)
ii. Point out the tree closest to the left in the old photograph. It looks like it was just planted. In the modern photograph the tree is huge, having grown for 100 years.
c. Why do you think these people are here? (graduation)
d. How did they get here? (car, truck, minivan, taxi)
e. Where do you think the people went once they left?

Closure

1. Inform students that they will be learning more about what New Haven was like a long time ago. Tell the children to ask their great grandparents, or oldest living relatives, about what life was like when they were growing up. Ask children to bring in old photographs of their families. Allow the children to share the photographs and what they've learned with their classmates.

Lesson 2: Childhood Part 1

Objectives

1. Students will:

a. discuss a historical photograph.
b. compare their clothing and toys to the girl in the photograph.

Materials

1. CD with photograph:

a. Mother with two children: Sargent Family Papers: manuscript 70, box IV, folder D
2. Projector

3. Screen

Setting a Purpose

1. Tell the students that they will be viewing a picture that was taken over 100 years ago. Explain that they will be talking about the people in the photograph, paying close attention to the older girl and her dolls.

Procedure

1. Display the photograph and tell students it was taken 100 years ago.

2. Questions to ask while viewing the photograph:

a. Who is in the photograph?
b. What do you notice?
c. What are the people wearing?
d. Do people still wear clothes like that? When?
e. Would you dress up just to take a picture with your mom?
f. When would you dress up for a picture?
g. How are the people feeling? How can you tell? Why do you think they feel that way?
h. What do you think the mother might be saying to her children?
i. What do you see in the photograph besides the people?
j. Do your dolls look like those in the photo?
k. How are your dolls the same or different?
l. Would you rather play with her doll or one of your own?

Closure

1. Tell students that the class will continue talking about children and things they played with. Allow each child to bring in a toy to share. Discuss whether or not children from 100 years ago had similar toys.

Lesson 3: Childhood Part 2

Objectives

1. Students will:

a. discuss a historical photograph.
b. compare their lives to those of the children in the photograph.

Materials

1. CD with photographs:

a. Sylvia Murray Tilney and Bradford Sargent Tilney: Sargent Family Papers: manuscript 70, box IV, folder D
b. Tilney, Bradford S: 1957 Rotary Club of New Haven Member Book
2. Projector

3. Screen

Setting a Purpose

1. Inform students that they will be viewing another photograph of children with a toy. Tell the students they will talk about the toy as well as learn more about the children in the photographs.

Procedure

1. Display the photograph and tell students it was taken almost 100 years ago.

2. Questions to ask while viewing the photograph:

a. Who is in the photograph?
b. What do you notice?
c. What does it look like the children are on?
d. Are there still wagons like this one?
e. What do wagons look like now?
f. What's the same or different about the wagon in the photograph and wagons now?
g. Which wagon might be safer to ride in? Why?
h. Which wagon would you rather play with? Why?
i. Who do you think was pulling the wagon in the picture?
j. What are the children wearing?
k. Do you have clothes like that?
l. What kind of clothes do you wear?
3. Expand the discussion by informing students that the children in the picture are Sylvia Murray Tilney and Bradford "Brad" Sargent Tilney. Brad was born in 1908 and Sylvia arrived the following year. While Sylvia's history became lost, information and a photograph of Brad can be found in the Rotary Club of New Haven's 1957 Member Book. Show students this photograph and explain some of the things Brad did throughout his life. During the years 1916 through 1926, Brad attended Hamden Hall and Hotchkiss. He received a B.F.A. from Yale Architectural School in 1933 and later became a Fellow at Cranbrook Academy. Brad worked as an architect for several different companies before beginning his private practice in 1940. Pedersen & Tilney, Architects was located at 119 Whalley Avenue. Help students relate to Brad by asking them:

a. Bradford went to Yale. What colleges are in New Haven that you might attend? (Yale, SCSU, Albertus Magnus, Gateway Community College)
b. Bradford became a lawyer. What do you want to be when you grow up?
c. It's likely that Bradford lived in New Haven all his life. Do you think you will always live in New Haven?

Closure

1. Tell children they did well in comparing the old-fashioned wagon with modern-day wagons. Explain that they will continue to make such comparisons in future lessons.

Extension Activity

1. In a later lesson, display Bridgeport, 1907 by T.S. Bronson (TWC, page 168). While this is not a picture of New Haven, it depicts children playing hoops. This is not a picture of children playing basketball, but rather rolling wooden hoops with sticks. Explain to your students that Bradford and Sylvia may have played this game. Allow your students to play this game by borrowing hula hoops from the gym teacher. Give each child a hula hoop and a ruler. Line the children up at a starting point. Tell them they must use the ruler to keep the hula hoop rolling upright all the way to the finish line.

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New Haven Standards

Social Studies Content Standard 3.0: Geography

Students will:

1. read, view and listen to multiple sources concerning geography

2. participate in construction of maps and models representing school and community

3. identify their street, address, phone number and zip code

4. describe different types of transportation

Social Studies Content Standard 5.0: History

Students will:

1. read, view, and listen to multiple sources concerning history

2. distinguish between events that are current and those in the past

3. explore historical places in their community

4. explore the history of their school

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Bibliography

Kagan, Myrna. Visions in the Sky: New Haven's Early Years, 1638-1783. Hamden, Connecticut: Linnet Book, an imprint of The Shoe String Press, 1989.

Recalls the history of New Haven from its beginning to the end of the Revolutionary War.

Lassonde, Stephen. Leraning to Forget: Schooling and Family Life in New Haven's Working Class, 1870-1940. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

Focuses on the schooling and home life of children belonging to Italian immigrant working-class families in New Haven.

The New Haven Colony Historical Society. Photo Archives. Schools.

The Boardman Manual Training School photograph is located in these archives.

The New Haven Colony Historical Society. Sargent Family Papers. Manuscript 70, Box IV, Folder D.

The photographs from the childhood section of this unit can be found in the Sargent Manuscript at The New Haven Colony Historical Society.

Osterweis, Rollin G. Three Centuries of New Haven, 1638-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Describes the history of New Haven from the moment it was founded up until 1938.

Rae, Douglas W. City: Urbanism and Its End. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Discusses how New Haven has changed throughout the last century.

Rotary Club of New Haven. NP: Rotary Club of New Haven, 1957-1958.

A photograph of Bradford Sargent Tilney as an adult is located in this book which can be found at The New Haven Colony Historical Society.

Sandler, Martin W. This Was Connecticut: Images of a Vanished World. Canada: Little, Brown & Company, 1977.

Contains many of T.S. Bronson's historical photographs of Connecticut. Most of the photographs used in this unit were taken from this book.

Townshend, Deb. Evolution of New Haven Public Schools: From 1638 to the Present, An Overview. Copyright Pending.

Provides an overview for each of New Haven's public schools. Information includes where each school was located, when it was erected, and how it was named.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_light

This website contains information on the development of traffic lights.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Haven

Wikipedia provides an overview of New Haven from the time it was first founded up until today.

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Endnotes

(1) Sandler, Martin W. This Was Connecticut: Images of a Vanished World. Canada:

Little, Brown & Company, 1977.

The book contains many of T.S. Bronson's historical photographs of Connecticut.

(2) http://education.yahoo.com/reference/quotations/category_index

This website contains a collection of interesting quotations

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