Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

Conflict Resolution through Classic Storytelling

by
Dyanne D’Angelo


Contents of Curriculum Unit 04.02.04:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

I am a first grade dual language teacher who teaches the English component of an integrated-science based curriculum. I teach two groups of students. Both classes are divided into one-third Spanish dominant, one-third English dominant, and one-third balanced bilingual. Educating these learners can be very difficult. Not only do we have to consider diverse learning styles and adapt our teaching styles to meet the needs of these learners, we also have to consider language and cultural barriers. In addition, uncontrollable environmental influences also can affect their learning.

Our children not only experience frustration learning fundamental skills in one language, but also have the additional challenge of applying these learned skills in a second language. At this stage of development, children are still seeking guidance as they develop their concept of self, identity, social skills and responsibility. Therefore, we as teachers must wear many hats as we teach them the skills to survive and adapt to the environment around them. Developing social skills can help children learn to exert control over their actions and obtain suitable relationships with family, friends and the community in which they reside. Developing these skills can in turn reveal why learning is important in itself.

I would like to present a unit in which the comprehension of literacy elements can be made relevant to solving problems that learners may encounter in their daily lives. Promoting child development through literature can play a significant role in a child’s life if one selects the appropriate text. Introducing literature that students can relate to will allow them to make connections to the environment in which they live. Selecting literature that reflects the stages of language, cognitive, personality and social development of our students will allow them to understand conflicts or situations that the characters in the story are subjected to and how they resolve their problems in a specific manner. Providing my students with literacy pieces that they can relate to their personal experiences will help them to learn skills from their favorite characters as well as appreciate literature. These selections can address the needs of a child throughout the maturing process and influence their understanding and response to literature (Norton 6).

In this unit I will be selecting age-appropriate literature that is related to conflicts children may encounter throughout social development at that age. This unit will focus on specific characteristics of social development such as (1) understanding consequences of good versus poor behavior, (2) dealing with aggression and other emotional behavior, (3) developing responsibility, (4) self-directed learning and problem solving, and (5) developing self-worth.

My goal is to develop literacy skills and problem-solving skills through retelling selected story elements. I would like the plot and problems the characters encounter in the stories to be related to conflicts that arise in my student’s personal experiences. As they learn the elements of a story I would like the learners to be able to identify the characters, setting and problem in the story, the events in the story, and how the problems are resolved. As they learn the literacy elements, I would like them to make connections to real life problems they encounter. I would like them to be able to identify a problem, discuss strategies and steps they will use to reach a solution to the problems they face. I also want them to self-reflect upon their decisions and determine if the solution they chose was appropriate; and, if not, is there an alternative solution they could use that may produce a better outcome?

To meet the needs of the variety of learning styles in my classroom I plan to begin with whole group instruction, which will introduce the text. Through whole group instruction and modeling, we will analyze the story elements and story sequence. Next, visual reminders will be incorporated into the lesson as a tool to practice comprehension by retelling a story. A triangle will be used to represent the beginning of a story. Understanding that the shape has three sides, I would like them to remember three things they learn in the beginning of the story: characters, setting and the problem. Next, a rectangle will represent the middle of the story. Recognizing the shape has four sides I would like them to remember four events in the story in sequential order. Finally, a circle will represent the end of a story, in which the characters resolve the problem (Benson).

Once the elements and graphic organizer materials have been modeled and practiced, instruction will transfer to small group activity centers. The students will practice the strategies they learn in activity centers. The centers will focus on oral language development and be designed to incorporate joint productive activities, challenging activities, and a teacher facilitated group where the children are engaged in instructional conversation. By beginning with whole group instruction, the students will be provided a model of what is expected. They will be given the opportunity to practice the modeled strategies, which will equip them with the oral language development they will need to become storytellers.

Integrating social development with literacy will help to increase self-concept, and identity. I would like my students to become storytellers by retelling the stories they hear to their peers or families and take ownership of the stories they create. Keeping with the state standards of reading, my students will learn to become storytellers by using a retelling format that includes the story elements, and reenacting the stories they hear. Giving the students ownership of the story will help to increase their confidence, their concept of self and their awareness of responsibility to become social and academic problem solvers.

Once the learners have grasped the concept they will be introduced to activity centers where they will use the strategies they learn through literacy in a social environment to collaborate with peers by working together to complete a collective group project (joint productive activity), or inclusive challenging activities. The activity centers will allow students to be grouped heterogeneously English/Spanish dominant, including pairing low ability and high ability for peer assistance. This provides my learners the opportunity to socially interact, to increase oral language development and build confidence.

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Overview

The students I teach are participants in the first grade science based, dual language program. The groups are devised into one-third Spanish dominant, one-third English dominant and one-third balanced bilingual. The majority of my learners are predominantly of Hispanic descent, with the remaining from African American descent. At the early stage of language, cognitive, personality and social development, I recognize that not all children progress at the same rate through these stages of development. The majority of my learners are impacted with everyday challenges that many children do not experience throughout child development. Understanding the type of factors that affect the children throughout their development and selecting educational tools to benefit them can serve as guidance.

Strategies that I will use:

The strategies I will use to teach my dual language students are the Five Standards for Effective Pedagogy adapted from the Teaching Alive Program created by the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. This program is designed to help teachers meet the needs of English language learners, but serves as a valuable resource for any classroom (www.crede.ucsc.edu).

- Joint Productive Activities: Teachers and students producing together
- Language Literacy Development: Developing competence in the language and literacy of instruction across the curriculum.
- Contextualization: “Making meaning.” Connecting teaching and the curriculum to experiences and skills of students’ home and community.
- Challenging Activities: Challenge the students toward cognitive complexity.
- Instructional Conversation: Engaging students through dialogue with a goal that guides conversation with students.

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Standards

Content Standard 1.0: Reading

Demonstrate Strategic Reading Skills.

- Students will demonstrate strategic reading behaviors before specific reading
- Establish a purpose for reading (gathering information, enjoying a literary experience, performing a task).
- Use prior knowledge to connect previous experience to material being read (e.g., KWL Charts).
- Preview selections and predict what will be included in them.
- Demonstrate confidence and view themselves as readers.
- Use the structure, organizational pattern and/or characteristics of text. (e.g., poetry, word problems, maps, rhymes, etc.).
- Students will demonstrate fluency through reading aloud.
- Students will demonstrate fluency through shared reading.
- Students will demonstrate fluency through guided reading.
- Students will demonstrate fluency through independent reading.
- Students will demonstrate comprehension through retelling.

Content Standard 2.0: Writing

Demonstrate Appropriate Writing Skills

- Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate concepts and conventions of language. (e.g., word use and editing)

Content Standard 3.0: Speaking

Demonstrate Strategic Speaking Skills

- Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate speech and grammar.
- Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate language of social interaction skills.
- Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate language and literacy skills.
- Students will demonstrate developmentally appropriate language and thinking skills.
- Students will reflect, use feedback and assessments, and conference to develop plans for improvement.
- Students will develop confidence and view self as an effective speaker.

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Literature Selected

To establish a purpose for reading, I selected stories that children can make connections to. I chose literature that focused on specific problems or issues I have observed in my classroom with my students. The topics I favored recognize classroom behavior, rules and regulations, personal social and emotional factors, coping with conflict and factors that affect an individual or group, and problem solving techniques to overcome obstacles.

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Recognizing Behavior and Consequences

Week One-Day One: Introduction to the unit

Catch them doing something right! We always want to instill positive attitudes in our classroom. Therefore we create rules for the classroom. The hardest part is reinforcing those rules over and over. We should teach our children to recognize appropriate behavior, work as a team, and praise each other.

Objectives:

- To generalize between appropriate and inappropriate behavior of a character
- To differentiate right from wrong
- To respond to literature

We are all looking for a resource to model and practice the expected routines and procedures in the classroom. David Goes to School by David Shannon is a great selection for establishing classroom rules. Shannon recreates a book that he made as a child where the text consisted entirely of the words “no” and “David” (the only words he knew how to spell). David is a high-energy student who does all sorts of things that he is not supposed to do. “No pushing; no yelling; no running in the halls; you’re tardy; sit down; keep your hands to yourself; wait your turn; raise your hand; pay attention” (Shannon 2-4). Although everything is exaggerated and sounds a bit negative, the author manages to touch his readers through his humorous child-like illustrations and text. The children cannot resist David with his spiky hair and sharp, pointy teeth.

Incorporating this enjoyable literature will surely spark a discussion about the importance of rules in a classroom. The children will be able to relate to the character in the story whose antics cause trouble in the classroom. The students will be able to respond to the story. They will talk about the character and draw from their prior knowledge about following classroom rules and accepting consequences when the rules are broken. This interactive discussion will give the children ownership while creating and teaching the classroom rules. It will also provide the opportunity to model what is expected, and practice the classroom rules and procedures.

Utilizing the story David Goes to School, we will create a visual reference to be displayed in the classroom. By replicating the pictures from the story or creating our own, we will make a poster board and label the left side “good behavior” and the right side “poor behavior.” Presented with the pictures, the students will place their illustrations under the correct category. They will be able to review the pictures and discuss why the behaviors are appropriate or inappropriate in relation to the classroom rules.

For a writing piece, an illustration from the book will be displayed for a shared writing experience. Modeling a problem solving strategy, I will ask the students to contribute responses or advice they would give to David to help him follow our classroom rules. Utilizing sequential vocabulary, the children will orally explain what they would like David to do first? Their responses will be recorded on large chart paper. The students will continue to explain the sequential order of events by explaining what will happen next, then, and last. At the completion of this activity, the sequential vocabulary will be posted as a point of reference.

Week One- Day Two

Our feelings can cause us to act without thinking. Sometimes we act a certain way due to environmental factors that have affected our daily routines. In turn, this may elicit emotional responses we cannot ignore. Our students need to recognize that they may not be able to control outside factors that affect their everyday lives, but they can use strategies to control how they react.

Objectives:

- To identify a problem
- To discuss positive solutions in response to problems

Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good Very Bad Day, by Judith Viorst is a great selection that portrays numerous examples of how our daily lives are affected by things beyond our control. Everyone experiences bad days. Throughout the stages of social development, many children do not understand that they cannot control outside factors that affect their lives. This literature selection is about a young boy who begins his presumed terrible day as he wakes up with gum in his hair. His pessimistic attitude causes him to believe that he will face a “terrible, horrible, no good, very bad day.” As if waking up with gum in his hair wasn’t enough; at breakfast Alexander does not find a prize in his cereal like his brother. At school his teacher is not impressed with his drawing of an invisible castle and says that he sings too loud. He also discovers that he is no longer Paul’s first best friend, but his third best friend. As the day continues, at his dentist appointment he finds out that he has a cavity, his brother gets him in trouble, and he has to buy white sneakers instead of the pair he liked. To conclude his day, lima beans are served for dinner, which he hates; his bath is too hot; and he has to wear his railroad-train pajamas. Yuck! To complete his day the night-light burns out, he bites his tongue, and his cat wants to sleep with his brother instead of him. The mishaps that occur throughout the day one after the other bring comedy to this story. His thought process is also hysterical in that he thinks the way to rid his day of these occurrences is to move to Australia. He comes to realize that some days are just like that, even in Australia.

Throughout the reading the children will act as detectives, trying to determine how Alexander is feeling and what factors cause him to feel the way he does. After the reading the students will be asked to contribute a description of Alexander’s feelings and what causes him to feel the way he does. As a whole group we will list positive responses to Alexander’s dilemmas. As a closing joint productive activity the children will be placed into groups of four or five and given illustrations of the story. As a team, they will role play positive responses to Alexander’s tribulations.

Week One-Day Three

Objectives:

- To identify feelings that are presented in literature
- To express feelings in a positive manner

Beginning school can be very difficult for many children. Many children feel anxiety over being in a new environment, without their parents, but a most common worry of many children is will they make friends? Will I Have a Friend? by Miriam Cohen is a wonderful story that young children can relate to. It is Jim’s first day of school and he expresses to his dad that he hopes to find a friend. As he walks to school the reader can sense the anticipation of Jim as he asks, “Will I have a friend?” The story takes Jim through his day at school introducing him to his new classroom, activities and routine. As you can guess, Jim makes many friends. This story is great for introducing children to positive social skills.

We will begin with an icebreaker activity. My students and I will pass a tennis ball to introduce us to our classmates. For example, the person holding the ball will say, “Hello, my name is Jim, I am seven years old, and I feel happy today because I am at school.” Using this format will focus on using oral language to express our feelings.

Week One- Days Four and Five

Objectives:

- Students will follow directions
- Students will recognize the sequential pattern of events
- Students will utilize sequential events to resolve a problem

How do you get children to follow rules? Refusing to comply with rules and regulations can lead to serious consequences. The children love Arthur stories, so I chose to use Arthur’s Computer Disaster by Marc Brown. Arthur wants to play his computer game Deep, Dark, Sea every chance he gets. When his mother leaves for work, and asks him not touch the computer, Arthur can’t withstand. Breaking the rules, Arthur takes a risk and his temptation causes a computer disaster. As he and his friend, Buster, attempt to play the game together, the computer screen goes blank. The challenge they face is to try to fix the computer before mom returns home. As the story unfolds we see the attempts Arthur makes to fix the problem with the computer. Arthur takes responsibility for his actions and admits to his mother that he disobeyed her. He then accepts the punishment for his actions. This story is a great resource to use when discussing lying and following the rules. As the problem arises I will ask the children to tell what they would do.

Using the story, we will discuss the elements that make up a story. We will focus on the beginning of the story. To converse about the beginning of the story we will use a shape. The shape we will use to represent the beginning of the story is the triangle. The triangle has three sides. Each side will symbolize one thing we find out in the beginning of the story. The first is the characters in the story, the second, the setting of the story, and the last is the problem in the story. Once these ideas are presented, the use of the organizer will be modeled and practiced.

Next, the students will be separated into cooperative learning groups where they will receive an oak tag triangle to use as a piece of a visual organizer. Illustrations from each story depicting the characters, setting and problem will be given to the students. As a team, the students must place the pictures under the correct heading at each corner of the triangle. In addition, they will also receive sentence strips that match the pictures and retell vocabulary. They must use their reading skills to match the strips with the appropriate picture to identify the problem and utilize the resource they created to retell the beginning of their story.

We will also discuss the middle and ending of a story. A rectangle will represent the middle of the story, and a circle will represent the end of the story. A rectangle has four sides. Each side will symbolize one event. The events will be discussed in sequential order using the terms first, next, then and last. These events, similar to problem solving methods, will pinpoint the actions the characters in the story take to resolve a problem, or arrive at the solution. The circle will signify the end of the story; indicating that every beginning has an end. This means that once the problem is identified, the events taken lead up to a resolution.

Once again the children will use the graphic organizer shapes and manipulatives in their groups to choose the correct sequence, and retell the story.

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Dealing with Aggression and Other Emotional Behavior

Week Two, Day One

Objectives:

- To identify steps that lead to problem solving
- To apply those steps to real life experiences

Many young children do not obtain the skills to solve problems. They are unsure of how to approach a situation that is upsetting them, hence their initial reaction may be to hit or shout. We need to provide them with a foundation to approach a problem and steps to resolve their conflicts effectively. At times young students have difficulty expressing their anger. We model for them how to use relaxation techniques, or allow them to draw a picture of what is bothering them.

In the story, When Sophie gets Angry, Really, Really Angry, by Molly Bang, the author portrays Sophie’s anger through use of metaphors. For example, she writes “Sophie is a volcano ready to explode” (11 Bang). As Sophie becomes angry we see her anger revealed in many ways. She yells, she kicks and she screams, then she decides to run to the forest to calm herself. I do not want to reinforce a behavior of running away, so I tell my students that she is not running away from home; she is imagining a quiet place to think. Sophie’s quiet place reflects tranquility through use of nature. She sees trees, hears birds singing, and feels the breeze. The environment soothes her and she recovers from her anger, and returns home to her family.

The activity we will use will incorporate our graphic organizer to plan a new strategy for Sophie to approach her problem. The following questions will be asked to help us arrive at a solution: What steps did she take to overcome her problem? How did Sophie solve her problem? Is there another way you would advise her to conquer her problem? What are the steps you would advise her to take to find a resolution to her problem? By giving the responsibility to the students, I am building a foundation for retelling a story by focusing on the sequential steps and critical thinking process that lead to the problem being resolved.

Week Two, Day Two

Objectives:

- To develop strategies to approach problem solving
- To utilize language to discuss the approaches and outcomes

Many of my students have younger siblings and are learning to cope with no longer being an only child. This frustration also carries into the classroom where the child may become defiant or act out to receive the attention he or she is lacking at home. In the selection, Peters Chair by Ezra Jack Keats, Peter is coming to accept his new baby sister. He realizes that he has outgrown the small things he used as a baby. The turning point occurs when Peter sits in his little chair, and discovers that it is too small. This helped him to understand he was becoming older and could give his things to his new sister.

As a follow up activity to this story, I would brainstorm with the students things that they would be willing to give up because they are too old to use them. This would include things like a stroller, blanket or bottle. The students could vocalize why they would be embarrassed to have a friend see them using these items at this age. Then, they will create a sequential booklet of the selected item, and write about how it was used, and how they will dispose of it.

Week Two, Day Three

Objectives:

- To recognize differences and similarities through literature
- To appreciate cultural, social and physical differences

Many students are teased. Children go through an awkward stage of physical and social development. Some students have difficulty responding to change. For these reasons, they choose teasing or mockery to compensate for their insecurity. The victim of the teasing experiences hurt feelings during the development of his or her self-identity. We as educators must guide our students and assist them to recognize, acknowledge, and respect the differences of others.

The story Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes is a story about a little mouse that is teased because of her name. A beautiful flower called a Chrysanthemum inspired her name. At the beginning of the story Chrysanthemum is extremely proud of her name, she chants it as she walks to school, and writes it in the sand. Chrysanthemum’s disposition changes when she is at school. Her classmates snicker when her name is mentioned; they tease her about her name, and create silly names for her. She becomes the focus of mockery throughout the day until the students have music class. The music teacher discusses her own name and Chrysanthemum realizes that she and her teacher have something in common; they both were named after flowers. Chrysanthemum regains her confidence and her classmates become envious after the teacher tells them that she named her newborn baby Chrysanthemum.

Students will be paired together. They will complete a questionnaire while interviewing their partner. They will take turns introducing their partners to the class. This activity will promote good self-esteem and create a positive atmosphere among the students in the class. This activity will enable the students to recognize their similarities and differences.

Week Two, Days Four and Five

Objectives:

- To appreciate the differences of others

Arthur’s Eyes by Marc Brown, is another story that shows how teasing can affect one’s confidence. “Four-eyes!” The children shout to Arthur as they recognize his new accessory. Teasing becomes unbearable for Arthur, even worse than when he could not see the blackboard in class, or missing baskets at gym class. As the teasing continues Arthur decides to hide his glasses, which causes mayhem. Arthur mistakenly walks into the girl’s bathroom because he cannot read the sign on the door without his glasses. After the chaos, he tries his glasses again and realizes that they are a positive feature. He was then able to read and solve all of the math problems, and make numerous baskets during gym class. His outlook changed and he became proud of his new look.

Students will create a mural where they each do a self portrait. These illustrations will demonstrate the differences in each student.

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Applying Strategies and Obtaining Responsibility

Week Three, Day One

Objectives:

- To comprehend the steps to solving a problem
- To explain problem solving strategies

In order to become team problem solvers groups need to learn how to cooperate. Learning to work together at something can decrease stress and anger and make the learning environment more enjoyable. We will focus on team-building activities to develop community in the classroom. The activity will focus on building social skills such as active listening, sharing, and conflict resolution.

We will begin by creating groups of four or five. An odd number of cookies will be placed on the table. The children in each group will need to come up with a strategy to share the cookies. The facilitator can prompt each group by asking, “How can we be sure that each of the group members receives the same number of cookies? What steps will you take to pass out the cookies?” Each group will be facilitated on a timely schedule to allow time for instructional conversation. The students will be asked to describe the steps they took throughout the activity to ensure that the cookies were divided equally by restating the procedure they used.

The Doorbell Rang, by Pat Hutchins is a great story to integrate with math and modeling a problem solving strategy. The story begins with mom baking cookies for her two children. As the first batch is finished, the children sit to taste the cookies and the door bell rings. When they answer the door, some friends are waiting. They invite them in to share the cookies. As they divide the cookies, the doorbell rings again. This process continues three or four times until each child has one cookie. When the doorbell rings again, the problem becomes “What will they do now that there are no more cookies?” The solution becomes apparent when grandma arrives with a new batch of cookies. Using a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the strategic activities of the characters in the book and the students is a great way to arrive at alternate solutions.

Week Three, Day Two

Objective:

- To promote sharing among students in the class

Sharing is a great strategy for problem solving, and it also portrays a feeling of self-worth. In the story The Rainbow Fish by Marcus Pfister, a beautiful fish whose scales consist of purple, green, pink, and shiny silver scales learns that by being selfish he is lonely. The other fish in the ocean admired the rainbow fish’s beauty. They would ask him to play but he would swim by and ignore them. One day a little fish asks the rainbow fish for one of his shiny scales. The rainbow fish shuns him and tells him to go away. The little fish expresses his unhappiness to the others and they choose to pay no attention to the rainbow fish. Now the rainbow fish is the loneliest fish in the sea. He decides to ask the other animals why nobody likes him. The wise octopus tells the rainbow fish that to discover happiness he must give each of the fish one of his shiny scales. He follows this advice and gives the little fish one of his scales. When he observes how happy the fish is, he feels good about himself. He then decides to offer his shiny scales to the rest of the fish. The more he gave away the more pleased he became. The other fish came to respect him for his generosity and this made him jubilant.

After reading the story we will discuss how the rainbow fish felt after sharing his shiny scales. As a team we will promote sharing behavior in the classroom. Each time a student recognizes a sharing behavior, they will place a marble in a jar. When the jar is full, they will receive a reward.

Week Three, Day Three

Objective:

- To understand that we can learn from our peers

There are many arguments over who will go first, next and last whether it is in line, answering a question or playing a game. Many of our young students are unsure of how to solve these conflicts by taking turns, or working together. This story touches upon these issues and the author does a great job by using two twins, in a school setting, who learn from each other how to take turns and work together. Meet the Barkers: Morgan and Moffat Go to School, by Tomie DePaola depicts two twins that have very different personalities. Moffat was the first twin born therefore; she feels that she must be the first to do everything. Her brother Morgan is easy going and doesn’t mind that Moffat always has to be first. At school for the first time the twins are in class together. Moffat, who always likes to be on top, wins many gold stars, and Morgan, makes friends with his classmates.

As the week progresses Moffat continues to speak out, winning more gold stars but not allowing anyone else a turn. Mrs. Shepard, the teacher, has a talk with her about taking turns. Moffat leaves the conversation frustrated and discovers that she has no one to play with. She argues with a classmate who has used all the blocks she wanted. Morgan teaches Moffat to resolve the difference by working together with the classmate. By the end of the week, Morgan learns how to receive gold stars and Moffat gains a friend.

As a culminating team activity, the students will work in groups of four to build a gingerbread house. They will need to follow a recipe to create an edible structure from beginning to end.

Week Three, Day Four and Five

Objective:

- To learn that behavior can have positive or negative outcomes.

We are all familiar with the story of The Little Red Hen by Paul Galdone. Galdone creates a human like world for his characters in a farmhouse that is furnished with chairs, tables, tools and a stove. The little red hen, an authoritative figure, tries to keep order in the household. She has to do all the work by herself, from cleaning the house to planting the wheat, to tending to the crops, and baking the cake while her friends, the cat, mouse, and dog sleep all day. The lesson learned in this story is that when you take responsibility, you share in the rewards.

To foster responsibility, each child will be assigned a job in the classroom. The jobs will be posted on a job wheel that will rotate weekly.

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Suggested Extension Activities

Students need to be given the opportunity to apply what they have learned. Developing a culminating activity that allows the students to show the new skills they have learned, and practice them in front of parents and friends gives them positive reinforcement, as well as the confidence to listen, read, speak, write and become successful learners.

(1) To develop oral language and social skills

Select a dialogue from familiar stories. Display the dialogue on sentence strips in a pocket chart. Have the students read the strips for a shared reading activity. To practice oral language development and fluency, prepare a script for each student to read from. Pair the students and have them practice the dialogue. Next, have the students prepare puppets for the characters, illustrating the feelings of each character. Have them role-play the conversation using the puppets.

(2)To gain fluency and develop oral language

Allow the students to select a story they would like to reenact. Create a Reader’s Theater, where a play is designed from the text and each child receives a part in the play. The children will practice reading their lines until they feel confident, or fluent. Once the students have become familiar with their parts, they will role-play each scene. They will incorporate proper facial expressions to portray how their character is feeling. Then, the students will dress as their character and act out their parts in the play.

(3)To gain fluency and express feelings students will retell a story they create. Students will work in cooperative groups to prepare story props. First, they will recreate the setting of the selected story. They will exhibit their recreation in accordance to the story. Next, they will set up pictures of the characters, and sequential events on a roll of paper resembling a comic strip. Finally, they will prepare a mock television broadcast to retell the story using the correct story elements.

(4) To promote self-confidence

To provide our children with encouragement and self-esteem we also like to invite

parents, school staff and students to attend the presentation of our storytellers.

A narrator will describe the story setting and its characters. The storytellers will tell their stories incorporating prior knowledge of story elements, emotions, and problem-solving strategies.

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Teacher Bibliography

Benson, Vicki. The Power of Retelling. New York: Wright Group publishing Inc, 2000. Vicki Benson has created an excellent resource that provides techniques to teach our students how to retell a story for comprehension. The techniques are adaptable for all grade levels.

Celce-Murcia, Marianne. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, Massachusetts, Heinle &Heinle, A Division of Thomson Learning, Inc, 2001. This text provides a theoretical background and practical applications you need to decide which materials, methods and resources can be used in the classroom.

Harrington, Margaret M. and Maria Brisk. Literacy and Bilingualism: A Handbook for ALL Teachers. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2000. This handbook is a great tool for teachers at all levels. It provides strategies for improving literacy for second language learners.

Norton, Donna, E. Through the Eyes of a Child: An Introduction to Children’s Literature 5th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1999. This is a great resource for selecting literature to read in your classroom. It provides a section on evaluating and selecting literature for children, traditional literature, fiction and nonfiction selections, multicultural literature, poetry, and historical fiction.

Pavelka, Patricia. Creating Independent Learners. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books. 1999. Patricia Pavelka focuses on building foundations that assist with motivating children to learn. This resource also gives ideas for language arts and home/school connections.

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Online Resources

Center for Research on Education, Diversity, & Excellence (C.R.E.D.E)

www.crede.ucsc.edu. This site provides the description of CREDE and their involvement in research for education. This site also discusses the five standards of pedagogy accompanied by the research.

New Haven Curriculum Standards

www.nhps.net. This site posts the standards for each discipline, and the additional requirements for the K-12 curriculum.

New Haven Social Development Program. Incredible Years a Social Development Program. www.nhps.net . Describes the use of the social development program and how it is integrated into the curriculum standards.

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Children’s Bibliography

Bang, Molly. When Sophie Gets Angry-Really, Really Angry. New York: The Blue Sky Press, 1999. This is a creative story that depicts a young child’s anger and frustration. Through the use of colorful illustrations and similes, it is easy to relate to the way this child is feeling.

Brown, Marc. Arthur’s Computer Disaster. Canada: Little, Brown and Company, 1997.

Arthur can’t wait to play his computer game. He plays it every chance he gets. When mom tells him not to touch the computer, Arthur can’t help himself and disaster strikes.

Brown, Marc. Arthur’s Eyes. Canada: Little, Brown and Company, 1979. Arthur is having trouble with his vision and needs glasses. As he arrives at school his classmates tease him because of his new glasses.

Cohen, Miriam. Will I Have a Friend? New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1967. A pleasant story about a young child named Jim who experiences his first day of school. He expresses his worries to his father but discovers that his day was even better than he would have expected.

DePaola, Tomie. Meet the Barkers: Morgan and Moffat Go to School. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2001. This is a story about a brother and sister who help each other learn how to make friends and win gold stars.

Goldone, Paul. The Little Red Hen. New York: Clarion Books, 1973. This story teaches young children the importance of responsibility and the rewards of working hard.

Keats, Ezra, Jack. Peter’s Chair. New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1967. Ezra Jack Keats uses vivid color and collage pictures to attract the young readers. She teaches the reader the importance of growing up and coping with a new family member.

Pfister, Marcus. The Rainbow Fish. New York: North-South Books Inc.,1992.

The colorful and appealing illustrations grasp the attention of the young readers. A beautiful fish learns to make friends by sharing his valuable shiny scales.

Shannon, David. David Goes to School. New York: An imprint of Scholastic Inc, 1999. This is a cute story written in child-like print accompanied by children’s illustrations. David is an active child whose antics get him in trouble at school.

Viorst, Judith. Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day. Atheneum, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1972. A comedic story about a young boy named Alexander who experiences a day where nothing seems to be in his favor.

Zolotow, Charlotte. The Quarreling Book. New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row Publishers, 1963. This is a story about a family who is affected by outside factors that cause them to react negatively towards one another.

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Contents of 2004 Volume II | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

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