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Using Film and Literature in the Elementary Classroom: The Jungle Book

by
Gretchen L. Gallagher


Contents of Curriculum Unit 95.02.05:

To Guide Entry


The playful rays of sun peek between the large, flat green leaves of the towering trees. The young boy rubs his eyes and sits straight up. The first thing he sees is the slumbering black, muscled panther curled up peacefully next to him. His friend, an enormous brown bear, has just returned with some bananas for the boy’s breakfast. As he eats, the boy imagines what adventures he and his friends will have that day. Perhaps they will meet their good friend the python. Maybe he will return to the cave where he grew up and visit his brother wolves. He hopes they will not meet the fierce tiger that longs to kill him. The young boy finishes his breakfast and smiles to himself. He loves his life in the jungle.

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Introduction

The faces of the third-grade boys light up and come to life when told they will learn about a boy their age who lives in the rain forest, or jungle, and whose best friends are a loyal brown bear and a wise black panther. Their attention span suddenly increases, and they begin to ask many questions as their imaginations sputter to life, trying to visualize the exciting, frightening world of the jungle.

The students for whom this unit is designed are a group of bright, funny, energetic third grade boys. They come from all corners of the city to attend our school, leaving impoverished neighborhoods, sparsely furnished homes, and often overwhelmed, well-intentioned parents or guardians. Some of these students have attended this school for a few years, but most transferred here from their neighborhood schools within the past year because of emotional and behavioral problems. Although they are only eight years old, they have had more failure than success in school. Because of their emotional and behavioral difficulties, these boys are at least one year below grade level in all subjects. They need a great deal of positive reinforcement, and a well-structured classroom environment with clearly defined expectations and enforced limits. With support and patience, they eventually begin to develop self-esteem, an increased comfort with and better attitude toward school, and improved academic skills.

This unit consists of a reading of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book, concentrating upon the adventures of Mowgli, the boy raised by wolves, and his friends Bagheera, the panther, and Baloo, the bear. In addition, the Walt Disney Pictures films based upon The Jungle Book will be compared and contrasted with a reading of the children’s novel. These lessons share the common goal of improving students’ comprehension skills, and igniting a spark of excitement in the minds of these boys regarding the adventures that are possible through the use of literature. and film will be an added bonus.

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Using a combination of film and literature in the classroom

This unit was developed around this particular novel and these films because of their exotic location, the fact that the hero of the story is a young boy, and the fact that the villains in the story are fearful and awe-inspiring wild animals. In addition, The Jungle Book has been adapted for the screen in both live-action and animated narrative forms. When Carole Cox conducted a study which posed the question “What films do children like,” she presented upper-elementary aged children with short films, and asked them to rank the films on a scale of one (well-liked) to four (disliked). Interestingly, she found that the children preferred live-action narrative films over all others. Cox concluded that “apparently children prefer the qualities of story, or narrative, and human characters in realistic surroundings and situations, recorded through live-action filming techniques.”1 Animated narrative films ranked next (other films were non-narrative live-action films and non-narrative animated films). Since The Jungle Book is available on video-cassette in both of the preferred movie styles, it will appeal to children who prefer live-action films as well as those who prefer animated films.

In addition, both movie styles have strengths and limitations to explore. For example, the live.-action movie takes liberties with Kipling’s original story, greatly expanding the role of humans. Most of the movie focuses upon Mowgli’s relationships with the Englishmen who wish to have Mowgli lead them to a vast treasure. The arch-villain in this movie is an evil English soldier rather than Shere Khan, the tiger; in fact, Mowgli and Shere Khan unite in friendship against the Englishmen. The nature of animation, on the other hand, allows this narrative to remain more true to Kipling’s The Jungle Book. The focus of the animated film is on Mowgli’s relationships to the jungle animals which are his friends. This version is more a fantasy than the live-action film, as is the novel. The wild animals speak, sing, and dance: these feats are impossible to accomplish in a live-action film.

Reading The Jungle Book with the students, concentrating on the Mowgli stories, as well as viewing both films, will encourage the students to develop critical thinking skills by comparing story elements of text and film. Rickelman and Henk assert that “video technologies and their respective media can make a significant contribution to a literature-based reading curriculum [as long as] the media preserves the integrity of the technology, and entices the child[ren] into exploring the book firsthand.”2 Duncan states that films serve as models for a creative response to literature by allowing students to look at the way movement, scenery, and speech operate to bring a narrative to life.3

Further evidence to support the use of both literature and film to improve comprehension skills is presented in a study carried out in the Netherlands by Beentjes and van der Voort which compared children’s written accounts of televised and printed stories. Children either watched a televised story or read its printed version, and then retold the story in writing. Results showed that stories written by those who saw the televised version were. more complete and contained fewer errors. However, stories written by children who read the printed version were easier to understand as they contained specific character references and more descriptive details.4

Combining the mediums of film and literature to spark interest and creativity, then, should, at the same time, help to improve the academic and social skills of the students. Cox reminds educators that the use of films can be “critical to the creation of a positively charged instructional atmosphere in a classroom, [but that it] requires the same careful thought, planning, and evaluation that go into any component of instruction which links the, arts with language and provides children the raw material with which to sense, feel, think, and use an expressive mode themselves.”5

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Before beginning the lessons

This curriculum unit was designed as the culmination of a unit about the rain forest. As an alternative to teaching an entire rain forest unit, one may wish to provide a brief introduction to the rain forest, with a focus on India’s jungles and the animals which live there, since the novel and films are set in India. As global awareness of the plight of the rain forests has increased, so has teaching material about these critical resources. The student and teacher bibliographies at the end of this unit list several sources of information about India and about rain forests.

Rain forests

Whether the teacher decides to provide a brief introduction or to teach an entire rain forest unit, there are several important rain forest elements which should be covered. One may begin by assembling pictures of the following or the items themselves: bananas, cashew nuts, vanilla, avocado, things made from rubber or mahogany. This display will acquaint students with products and everyday items which are supplied by the rainforests of the world. One may then show students pictures of animals, insects, and plant life that exist in the rainforests. Activity 1 “Where in the world are the rain forests?” included in this unit will demonstrate for students where rain forests are located on our seven continents.

After completing Activity 1 and before Activity 2, the teacher should present the. structure. of rain forests. They grow in layers. The highest is the emergent layer, which includes the tops of the very tallest, oldest trees. The animals found at this layer include reptiles, insects, parrots, and some monkeys. Below that is the canopy, where ninety foot trees grow so close together that their leaves form a “roof,” allowing little sun to reach the lower layers. Because this layer receives a great deal of light and has an abundant food supply, many mammals live-here. Orangutans, howler monkeys, flying squirrels, and sloths live in the canopy layer. The understory of the rainforest consists of young trees and the trunks of the canopy and emergent layers. This understory sports brilliantly colored flowers and provides homes for leopards, pythons, butterflies, frogs, and gorillas. The floor of the rain forest is home to insects, reptiles, and easily camouflaged animals such as the tapir, anaconda, and jaguar.

It may be interesting to point out that rain forests contain nearly half the trees that grow on earth and more than half the animal species that live on earth. Most of the plants and animals in the rain forest grow nowhere else. Because Of logging, farming, and ranching, rain forests are being cut down or burned at the rate of ninety to one hundred acres per minute.

When teaching about the rainforest, use as many photographs, illustrations, or videocassettes as possible. This region of the world is so visually stimulating that these methods should be utilized to the fullest. In addition, rain forest life does not survive in a sound-proof environment. The sounds of the tropical rain forests may be as interesting and pleasing as its sights. Useful audio- and videocassettes, and books are listed in the bibliography and resource sections of this unit.

India

In addition to background information about the setting of The Jungle Book it will be helpful to present information about Rudyard Kipling, the creator of the Mowgli stories, and his life in India and in England. Concepts such as foreign countries and earlier time periods are very abstract to the students with whom this unit will be used. Therefore, it is important to introduce nineteenth century India and Rudyard Kipling’s life there., but not to go into a great amount of detail.

Briefly, India is a nation whose five thousand-year history is evident in its literature, architecture, and religions. Its eight hundred thirty-five million people represent a larger variety of races than any other country in the world. It has six seasons: winter , spring, summer, summer monsoon, autumn, and winter monsoon. The southwestern, southeastern, and eastern portions of the country are regions of dense tropical rain forests. home to tigers, Indian elephants, and many poisonous snakes. One has an above-average chance of encountering a dangerous snake in India. Indians believe that food influences behavior, attitudes, and well-being.

In addition to presenting facts about the country of India, one may wish to use books or magazines which contain vivid photographs or illustrations. As there are several Indian restaurants in the greater New Haven area, one may wish to have students sample traditional Indian fare. Additional activities might include drawing maps of India, listing its principal exports, making flags of India, or writing reports about animals found in its rain forests.

Rudyard Kipling

Gloria Kamen wrote a children’s biography of Rudyard Kipling. This book may be read aloud in its entirety to the class, or only the parts which pertain to his childhood and his writing of The Jungle Book may be shared. Rudyard lived in India with his parents and younger sister until the age of five, when he traveled to England to live with a couple who were strangers to Rudyard’s parents, but who offered to let Rudyard and his sister live with them until he was old enough to attend boarding school. This situation came about because Rudyard’s parents wanted him and his sister to be educated in England, but could not themselves leave India. Some of the details of Rudyard’s childhood may be interesting to the students for whom this unit is designed. In order for them to identify with the. author of The Jungle Book and many other stories, it may be helpful to highlight these characteristics.

—Rudyard was separated from his parents at the age of six and grew up thousands of miles away from them with people who were strangers to him.
—Rudyard had difficulty reading, and was often scolded or punished because of his behavior and because he did poorly on his lessons.
—Rudyard had only a few old, broken toys to play with, so he spent his days using his imagination to create stories about the jungle where he lived until he was five years old.
Eventually these stories which he invented as a child became The Jungle Book and other stories which are so popular one hundred years after the were written. Presenting these details of Rudyard’s childhood may help students to identify with him, as they may be experiencing some similar difficulties themselves. Rudyard Kipling may become a model for these children: taking a sad, lonely childhood and turning it into timeless, delightful stories, which have also become films.

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Using The Jungle Book lessons

One may use this curriculum unit in isolation, providing only a brief exposure to the rain forest, India, and Kipling. One may use this unit as part of a larger unit about the rain forest. Once the students have been introduced to these concepts, they will have a frame of reference to support their new knowledge about The Jungle Book.

The following lessons propose reading The Jungle Book with students before. viewing the movie. With all they have learned about rain forests, and with the pictures they have seen of its animals and plants still fresh in their minds, they will be well equipped to visualize their own jungle book as they listen to the teacher read Kipling’s Jungle Book aloud. The portion of The Jungle Book that concerns Mowgli and friends is approximately one hundred twenty-one pages in length. I expect to take five to ten twenty minute sessions to cover this part of the unit. Because the language Kipling uses may sound odd, and in order to keep portions of the book that have already been read in the students’ minds, one should ask literal and inferential questions of the students after each portion of the book is read. Lesson I divides the three stories, “Mowgli’s Brothers,” “Kaa’s Hunting,” and “Tiger! Tiger!” into several-page chunks and provides suggested questions to ask after each chunk or portion is read.

Because the stories of Mowgli do not occur in linear time, it is suggested that the teacher keep a timeline of Mowgli’s adventures with the class. One may use the blackboard or chart paper to record a class timeline, or distribute empty timelines and have the students supply the important details after each story is read. An example of a completed timeline is included at the end of this unit.

To prepare. students to see the animated and live-action versions of The Jungle Book, a storyboard activity may be completed once the novel has been shared with the students. A storyboard is used by film makers when they are planning the way they will shoot each scene of a film. Every scene in a screenplay is mapped out onto a storyboard. To reinforce the concept of sequencing and to review such story elements as setting and characters, a storyboard like the one included in this unit may be completed by students. They may either map out the plot of the entire Jungle Book, or pictorially summarize one particular adventure. Regardless, the components of the storyboard remain the same: setting (where the action takes place), characters (who is involved), the beginning event, what occurs in the middle, and the action that takes place at the end. An extension of this activity would be to have the students make flip books of the story or parts of the story they have just illustrated on their storyboards. Several books about film making and animation techniques for children are available at local libraries, and the bibliographies at the end of this unit suggest some that may be particularly helpful for this activity.

Walt Disney Pictures created the animated version of The Jungle Book almost thirty years ago. Last year, in 1994, a live-action version based upon the Mowgli stories was released. Showing both movies to the class will help introduce them to different styles of movies, and will show them the differences and similarities between the two interpretations of Kipling’s work. As was previously mentioned, the live-action version takes many liberties with the original story. The entire focus of the movie is on Mowgli’s relationships with the Englishmen who have found and “adopted” him. This version is more realistic, in that the animals do not actually talk, but communicate with Mowgli with their eyes, movements, and growls or roars. However, the live-action Mowgli is sixteen or seventeen years old, a marked change from the ten year old hero in Kipling’s novel or in the animated film. The students will find it easier to identify with the younger Mowgli.

Once the movies have been seen (it is recommended that they be seen over a span of two to four days, so that similarities and differences will be fresh in the students’ minds) and discussed, a culminating activity would be to have. the students write their own reviews of whichever Jungle Book appealed to them: novel, animated film, or live-action film. A sample review worksheet is included in this unit.

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Lesson I-Reading The Jungle Book

Objectives:

1. After listening to portions of The Jungle Book read by the teacher, the students will
____-orally answer literal and inferential questions
____-predict outcomes and draw conclusions
____-summarize parts of the story
____-sequence events using a timeline
2. After the teacher has completed reading the section of The Jungle Book the students will
____-complete a story board which contains setting, characters, and beginning, middle and ending events from the story

Materials:

-The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling

-copies of the timeline included at the end of this unit, one for each child

-copies of the story board included at the end of this unit, one for each child

Procedure:

The Jungle Book is made up of seven stories, three of which are about Mowgli and his adventures. Only these three stories will be read to the students for the purposes of this unit. These stories will be read in portions, or chunks. After each portion, the teacher should ask questions of the students. Sample questions are included here, but the teacher should not feel limited to these questions.

A.”Mowgli’s Brothers”
In this story, an infant Mowgli crawls into the wolves’ den and is adopted by Mother and Father Wolf who protect him from Shere Khan, the tiger who wants to kill Mowgli, and from the other wolves who want him to return to the man’s village. The wolves allow Mowgli to stay after Baloo and Bagheera promise to care for him and to teach him the Law of the Jungle. The story then jumps ahead ten years, to a time when Akela, the leader of the wolf pack, is about to be killed because he is old and weak. Mowgli, using fire, saves his own life and that of Akela. He then goes to the man’s village to live, but vows to return and to kill Shere Khan.

Questions:

1. p. 3-13
____What did Mother and Father Wolf name the baby that crawled into their cave?
____Why do you think they called him “Little Frog”?
____Why did Shere Khan want to kill Mowgli?
____Why don’t the wolves like Shere Khan?
2. p. 14-20
____Who promised to teach Mowgli the “Law of the Jungle?”
____What price did Bagheera pay to allow Mowgli to stay with the pack?
____Why do you think Mowgli was not afraid to be with the wolves and panthers?
3. p. 20-31
____How many years have gone by?
____What do you think Mowgli’s life was like during those ten years?
____Why do the animals want to kill Mowgli?
____What is the Red Flower?
4. p. 32-40
____How did Mowgli save Akela’s life?
____Why did Mowgli return to the man’s village?
____What promise did Mowgli make before he left?
____Do you think he will keep this promise?
____How did Mowgli feel about leaving the jungle?
After finishing the first story about Mowgli, the students will fill in their timeliness with the assistance of the teacher. This is especially important because this first story tells about the beginning of Mowgli’s life in the jungle, and then skips ahead ten years. The next story, “Kaa’s Hunting,” goes back and fills in part of the empty space that the ten year gap left in the tale.

B. “Kaa’s Hunting”
The second story in The Jungle Book describes an event which occurred during the ten years while Mowgli was growing up in the jungle. A few years before Mowgli was asked to leave the wolf pack, he was kidnapped by the Monkey People, the Bandar-log, who took him to the ruins of what was once a wealthy, beautiful city. Baloo and Bagheera enlisted the help of their acquaintance Kaa, the python, in rescuing Mowgli. Once they have saved Mowgii, Kaa charmed the monkeys and then feasted upon them.

Questions:

1. p. 45-.56
____Why did the jungle animals dislike the Monkey People?
____Why did Mowgli first go to speak with the Monkey People?
____Why did the Monkey People want Mowgii to live with them?
____Do you think Mowgii will go to live with the Monkey People?
2. p. 56-69
____How do you think Mowgli felt swinging through the tops of the trees with the Monkey People, being taken from his friends?
____Who told Baloo and Bagheera where Mowgli was?
____How did Baloo and Bagheera feel when they discovered what had happened to Mowgli? Who did Baloo and Bagheera ask to help them find Mowgii? Do you think they will rescue Mowgii?
3. p. 69-77
____Where did the Monkey People take Mowgli? What did Mowgli think of the Monkey People?
____Do you think that the Monkey People will be able to keep Mowgli in their city?
____Why did Bagheera and Kaa leave Baloo behind as they rushed to save Mowgii?
4. p. 77-92
____Why didn’t the Poison People (the snakes) hurt Mowgli?
____Who frightened the Monkey People away from Baloo and Bagheera?
____How do you think Mowgli felt when he saw his friends?
____What did Mowgli promise Baloo, Bagheera, and Kaa to thank them for saving him?
____How did Kaa charm or mesmerize the monkeys, Baloo, and Bagheera?
____Why didn’t Kaa’s charms work on Mowgli?
Again, upon completion of this second story, the students will review the sequence of events and continue to fill in their timeliness They will only write important details in the timeline, and this will help them to summarize the story when they have finished it.

C. “Tiger! Tiger!”
The last of the three Mowgli tales in The Jungle Book picks up where the first story leaves off. Mowgli has left the jungle, and has been “adopted” by a woman whose son was killed in the jungle. He had difficulty adjusting to life in the village, but was allowed to herd buffaloes, which made him feel more comfortable. During the several months that he was in the man’s village, Mowgli spoke with Grey Brother, one of Mother Wolf’s cubs. Mowgli, with the help of Grey Brother, Akela, and the buffaloes, successfully trampled Shere Khan to death. The villagers forced him to leave after this triumph because they believed he was a sorcerer who could make animals do his bidding. Mowgli returned to the jungle, but not as leader of the wolf pack. He decided to hunt alone, but for the company of Baloo and Bagheera and his wolf brothers.

Questions:

1. p. 97-107
____Why was it difficult for Mowgli to stay inside the man’s huts?
____Why did Messua “adopt” Mowgli?
____How did Mowgli find out what was happening in the jungle?
____How did the other children treat Mowgli?
____Why didn’t he get angry at them?
____What job was given to Mowgii?
____Do you think he will do this job well?
____Why?
2. p. 107-115
____Who has returned to Mowgli’s part of the jungle?
____What is it like to herd buffalo?
____Who has come to help Mowgli kill Shere Khan?
3. p. 115-127
____How did Mowgii, Grey Brother, and Akela kill Shere Khan?
____Who tried to steal the tiger skin from Mowgli?
____Why did the villagers chase Mowgli from their village?
____Where did Mowgli go to live?
Upon the completion of these tales, the students will finish their timeliness The children will review the events of the story in preparation for making their story boards.

D. Storyboard Activity
A storyboard is used by film-makers when they are planning how they will shoot each scene. The screenplay, or in this case, the story, is represented pictorially so that the director will be able to clearly set up each shot and to shoot it correctly. The storyboard will be used in this case to reinforce the main details of the story that the children just heard, and also to prepare them to view the film versions of The Jungle Book. In completing their own storyboards, they will feel as though they were the ones to create or direct a film version of the story they have just heard. They will also be able to see whether the events that they chose to include in their storyboards were included in the films they have seen.

The teacher may copy the storyboard worksheet onto construction paper or oaktag, if possible, and then distribute one copy of the storyboard worksheet to each child. The children should be instructed to draw the setting of The Jungle Book as they imagined it to be while listening to the story in the box at the top left of the page. They should draw the main characters from the story as they pictured them in the box at the top right of the page. Beneath these two boxes are three boxes. The children will draw pictures showing what happened in the beginning, middle, and end of the story in these boxes.

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Lesson 2-Viewing The Jungle Book films

Objective:

After viewing both films, the students will

-discuss as a class the similarities between the films and between the films and the novel
-discuss as a class the differences between the films and between the films and the novel
-write a review individually about which of the versions they preferred (novel, live-action film, animated film)

Materials:

-The Jungle Book, 1967 Wait Disney Pictures animated film

-The Jungle Book 1994 Walt Disney Pictures live-action film

-examples of movie and book reviews clipped from magazines or newspapers

-copies of the review worksheet included at the end of this unit Procedure:

View both Disney films with students. In order for students to remember details, and because this is the culminating activity for a long unit, the students will see one film per day for two days. The films should be divided, if possible, so that half of each movie will be viewed and discussed in the morning, and half will be viewed and discussed in the afternoon. On the third day, the students will orally summarize each version, and compare and contrast all three with teacher assistance. Then, the students will become familiar with actual movie and book reviews. These will be discussed. The students will then individually complete their own review worksheet, or write their own review, with assistance, based upon the medium they preferred: novel, live-action film, or animated film.

Jungle Book Timeline (completed)

Infant:
Mowgli crawls into the den of Mother and Father Wolf.

Mother Wolf saves Mowgli from Shere Khan.

The Wolf Pack allows Mowgii to stay.

Baloo and Bagheera promise to look after and to teach Mowgli.

eight years old
Mowgli is captured by the Monkey People.

Baloo and Bagheera ask Kaa to help them.

The friends rescue Mowgli.

Kaa charms and feasts upon the Monkey People.

ten years old
Bagheera tells Mowgli he must soon return to the man’s village.

Mowgli gets the Red Flower from the village.

Mowgli saves his and Akela’s lives.

Mowgli promises to kill Shere Khan someday.

Mowgli leaves the jungle and the pack.

Mowgii lives in the man’s village.

While herding cattle, Mowgli plans to kill Shere Khan.

With the help of Akela and Grey Brother and the buffaloes, Mowgli tramples Shere Khan.

Buldeo tries to take the tiger skin from Mowgli.

Mowgli is chased from the man’s village.

Mowgli returns to the jungle to hunt with his wolf brothers, Baloo and Bagheera.

The Jungle Book Story Board

(Figure Available in Print Form)

Write Your Own Review

A review tells what someone liked or didn’t like about a book or a movie. Write your own review below of The Jungle Book novel or films.

1. My favorite version of The Jungle Book is:

2. I like it because

3. My favorite part was:

4. I didn’t like the part when:

5. The character I like the best was:

6. That character was my favorite because:

7. The character I didn’t like at all was

8. I didn’t like that character because

Activity I-Where in the world are the rainforests?

Objective:

Given a worksheet of a map of the world, with areas of rainforest shaded in, the students will

-correctly color the map according to the directions
-identify the continents of North America and Asia
-state that the United States (where the students live) is in North America and that India (the setting of The Jungle Book) is in Asia.

Materials:

-copies of the map worksheet included at the end of this unit, one for each child
-crayons, markers, or colored pencils
-photographs of the rainforest

Procedure:

Distribute copies of the map worksheet to each child. It may be helpful to enlarge this map, display it, and complete it as students complete their own worksheets. Explain that the picture on the worksheet is a map of the world, of its oceans and its continents, which are large pieces of land. Explain that the shaded areas are places on each continent where rainforests are located. Read the instructions with the students, if necessary, including the labels on the map. Assist students as they complete their maps in the following manner:

1. Color over the shaded areas of the rainforests green.

2. Color the United States red, and the rest of North America yellow.

3. Color India orange and the rest of Asia purple.

4. Color the other continents brown.

5. Color everything else (the oceans and bodies of water) blue.

Discuss the completed map with the students and ask questions to achieve the above objectives. The students should learn that we live in Connecticut, which is in the United States, which is on the continent of North America, and that Mowgli and his friends are imaginary characters who have adventures in the real country of India which is on the continent of Asia.

At this point it may be helpful to show the children books which contain pictures of rainforests. The. teacher may wish to read the Ranger Rick big book entitled Life in the Rainforest with the students or share the National Geographic Kids Video Really Wild Animals series of videos, especially the ones entitled Totally Tropical Rainforest and Adventures in Asia.

Map Worksheet

(Figure Available in Print Form)

Activity 2-Rainforest products and animals

Objectives:

After making a “jungle products and animals” collage, and making rainforest snacks, the students will

-identify many products which we use everyday that come from the rainforest
-identify many animals that five in the rainforest
-state that the destruction of the rainforest means that we may not be able to use these products anymore and that many rainforest animals will become extinct

Materials:

-list of rainforest products

-list of rainforest animals

-posterboards, glue, scissors, colored paper, markers or crayons, magazines

-recipes and ingredients for rainforest snacks

Procedures:

For the jungle products and animals collages, brainstorm as a class a list of products and animals that students have already learned about that come from the rainforest. The lists may include, but are not limited to, the following:

________Products

avocadosbananastea
chocolategrapefruitbalsa wood
cardamoncinnamoncocoa
coconutgingerguava
limesmacadamia nutsmangos
mahagonynutmegpapaya
paprikapassion fruitpeanuts
pepperspineapplesplantains
rosewoodsesame seedstangerines
Animals
anteaterocelotpuma
toucanjaguarboa constrictor
pythonparrotsloth
butterflymacawmonkey
termitetapirlemur
tree froggorillaorangutan
tigerflying squirrelquetzal
spiderIndian elephantarmadillo
Divide the class into two groups, products and animals. Each group will cut pictures from magazines of as many items from their lists as possible. Ranger Rick and National Geographic magazines are good sources for pictures of these kinds of items. If students cannot find a picture of an item, they may draw a colorful picture of the product or animal, based on pictures in books or encyclopedias. The students will then glue their pictures onto posterboard, making a collage.

After making rainforest snacks with the students; discuss the fact that everything that is included in these treats comes from the rainforest. Remind students that rainforests are endangered, and that if people continue to destroy the world’s rainforests, these products may no longer be available to us.

Jungle Juice

1 liter lemon or lime-flavored seltzer water

1 ripe banana

1 cup orange juice

1 cup pineapple juice

1 pint lemon sherbet

Place banana in a blender and puree it. Add the orange and pineapple juices and blend. Add the seltzer water and mix well. Just before serving, add a spoonful of sherbet to each glass. Makes about two quarts.

Tropical Treats

1 cup peanuts

1 cup chocolate bits

1 cup cashew nuts

1 cup sesame seeds

1 cup dried orange or tangerine pieces

1/2 cup coconut pieces

Mix the ingredients in a large bowl. Place in small paper cups for individual servings. Makes about two pounds.

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Notes

1. C. Cox, “Children’s Preferences for Film Form and Technique, 234.
2. RJ. Rickelman & W. A Henk, “Children’s Literature and Audio/Visual Technologies, “ 682.
3. P.H. Duncan, “I Liked the Book Better: Comparing Film and Text to Build Critical Comprehension,” 721.
4. J.WJ. Beentjes & T.H.A. van der Voort, Children’s Written Accounts of Televised and Printed Stories,” 15.
5. C. Cox, 236.

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Teacher Bibliography

Arden, H. “Searching for India Along the Grand Trunk Road”. National Geographic 177 (1990): 118-138. Photographs of everyday life in India.

Beentjes, J.WJ. & van der Voort, T.H.A “Children’s Written Accounts of Televised and Printed Stories.” Educational Technology Research and Development 39 (1985):15-26.

A study which compares written accounts of stories watched on television with printed stories read by children. The study discovered that children exposed to the television film reproduced the story more completely and made fewer errors, but that written reproductions of the story by children who read the printed versions were easier to understand because characters were referred to more specifically and details were more descriptive.

Cox, C. “Children’s Preferences for Film Form and Techniques.” Language Arts 59 (1982):231Ð238.

This article reports results of a study which answered the question “What films do children like?” Results indicated that children liked live-action narrative films and animated narrative films best.

Duncan, P.H. “I Liked the Book Better: Comparing Film and Text to Build Critical Comprehension.” The Reading Teacher 46 (1993):720-725.

This presents several suggestions for using films in the classroom to enhance children’s understanding and appreciation of some stories.

Morse, S. “Generating Creative Energy Through Films.” Language Arts 54 (1977):406-407.

The author uses examples of activities conducted through the viewing of films in order to entertain and to stimulate creative energy in her students.

Edwards, M. “When the Moguls Ruled India.” National Geographic 167 (1985): 462-493.

Provides photographs of the people of India.

Hodgson, Bryan. “Mirror of India: New Delhi.” National Geographic 167 (1985): 506-533.

Excellent photographs of the people and places of late twentieth century New Delhi.

Miller, H. “Wild Elephant Roundup in India.” National Geographic 135 (1969): 372-385.

Photographs of the herding of Indian elephants in the jungles of India.

Rickelman, RJ. & Henk, W.A. “Children’s Literature and Audio/Visual Technologies.” The Reading Teacher 43 (1990):682-684.

This article asserts that audio and visual technologies and their respective media can make a significant contribution to a literature-based reading curriculum.

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Student Bibliography

Baxter, L. Let’s Draw! Action and Animation. Nashville: Ideals Children’s Books, 1989.

One in a series of books which teaches children how to compose and construct pictures and how to create space and movement. The book is easy to read, and should be used as a workbook, if possible, as students are provided with space to draw their own pictures.

Berger, M. Life in the Rain Forest. New York. Newbridge Communications, 1993.

A Big Book, part of the Ranger Rick series, provides glorious photographs of the flora, fauna, and people of the rain forest.

Catchpole, C. The Living World: Jungle. New York. E.P. Dutton, 1983.

Text, illustrations, and photographs present the many beautiful and unusual forms of life that thrive in the jungle.

Dixon, D. A Closer look at Jungles. New York: Gloucester, 1984.

Text and illustrations about the structure, people, animals, and plants of the jungle.

Kamen, G. Kipling: Storyteller of East and West. New York: Atheneum, 1985.

A brief biography of the teller of tales about East and West, from his early years in India and schooling in England to his later success as reporter, poet, and short story writer.

Kaur, S. Food in India. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Publications, 1989.

Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in India, describing regional dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

Kipling, R. The Jungle Book. New York. Grosset & Dunlap, 1950. A classic.

Lepthein, E. U. Tropical Rain Forests. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1993.

Describes the structure of a rain forest, typical plant and. animal life, climate, and the need for conservation.

Sarin, A.V. India: An Ancient Land, A New Nation. Minneapolis: Dillon, 1985.

Discusses the people, history, myths and legends, worship and celebrations, family life and food, school life, and sports of one of the world’s most populous and diverse countries.

Schwartz, P. How to Make Your Own Video. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1991.

Covers all the technical basics of making a video using a camcorder, and focuses especially on elements of production, direction, and creative uses of subjects and scripts, including the storyboard.

Schwartz, P. Making Movies. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1989.

Describes what happens during the production of a motion picture, and the jobs undertaken by all the people who are involved.

Srinivasan, R. Cultures of the World: India. New York. Marshall Cavendish, 1992.

Introduces the geography, history, religious beliefs, government, and people of India. Provides excellent photographs and maps.

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Multimedia Resources

Gentle Persuasions, The Sounds of Nature: Sounds of the Tropical Rain Forest. Hackensack, NJ: The Special Music Company, 1989.

An hour-long cassette that highlights bird and animal calls, waterfalls, etc. that are heard in the rain forest.

The Jungle Book. Burbank, CA: The Walt Disney Company, 1967.

The animated tale.

The Jungle Book. Burbank,CA: The Walt Disney Company, 1994.

The live-action version of Kipling’s Jungle Book.

National Geographic Kids Video: Adventures in Asia. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1994.

A forty-minute videocassette, narrated by Dudley Moore, that highlights the lives of animals living on the continent of Asia.

National Geographic Kids Video: Totally Tropical Rain Forest. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1994.

A forty-minute. videocassette, narrated by Dudley Moore, that explores the life-filled rain forest of Central and South America.

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