|Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute||Home|
Devra L. Doolin
Volts and Watts are ways of measuring different aspects of electricity.2 A volt measures the amount of pressure used to send the penny through the circle. When it is sent with little force, it is similar to a faucet with lightly running water. When it is sent with great force, it’s like running water which comes out hard because the knob is turned all the way. Watts measure the strength needed to do each job. More strength or watts are needed to lift a chair than are needed to lift a coffee cup.
The standard amount of pressure used to send electrons through the path in our homes is 120 volts. The amount of strength needed to power a kitchen appliance depends on the unit. For example, an electric hand mixer may require 100 watts of strength to thoroughly combine a batter mixture; however, a blender may require 1000 watts of strength because it must be able to cut or chop hard raw foods. This requires much more effort on the part of a unit. Both convert electricity to mechanical energy with varying degrees of strength. Once the unit is “on,” the function performed may be done by changing the electricity power to heat energy (e.g. toaster, crockpot, or skillet); or electricity may be converted to motion or mechanical energy such as in a blender, food processor, or mixer. Electricity can be converted to short wave energy in the home; appliances utilizing this kind of energy conversion would be televisions, radios and microwave ovens. The energy conversion in kitchen appliances can be categorized according to the needed usage:
In order to determine if a glass item is safe for microwaving, read the label on the container; it should specify “microwave safe” or “heat resistant.” A simple test will determine if a given or purchased glassware or plastic is suitable for microwave use. Fill a glass or ceramic measuring cup with water, and place it in the center of the microwave oven. Place the container to be tested next to the cup. Microwave on high power for 2 1/2 minutes. The container is microwave safe if it is cool to touch and easily handled. If the container is warm or hot, it means that the container has absorbed the microwave energy. In this case, it should not be used because the utensil may melt, crack or break.4 Ceramics should be avoided because some may contain small traces of metal which can cause damage to the magnetic tube over an extended period of time. Ceramics are those utensils which are made of clay or pottery. Brand names may include Earthenware or Farberware.
In a microwave oven, there is no preheating necessary because the oven cavity does not heat up to cook the food. Electricity is converted to shortwaves as in a radio.
These waves penetrate and bombard the molecules of food causing them to move around rapidly. This movement causes heat which cooks the inside of the food to the outside through conduction. Since these short waves cannot penetrate metal, utensils needed to use in a microwave must be made of heat proof plastic or glassware and glazed ceramics. These utensils can be used in the microwave oven because the short waves can pass through these items to the food. Other materials (which are not necessarily utensils) can be used in the microwave such as paper towel, plastic wrap, roasting bags, and napkins because the short waves can pass through these also. When operating the microwave, food to be cooked is placed in the oven cavity, the door is shut tightly, and the oven can be turned on. Microwave ovens in proper working order cannot used if the door is open or if the seal is damaged. Depending on the type of stove, basic operations include the timing device and power levels.6 The use of each depends on several factors. The length of time food cooks is influenced by the volume of the food, the density, fat, sugar, moisture content of the fond, and the shape of the food and starting temperatures.7
A teacher demonstrated experiment can be conducted using two potatoes. This will illustrate the difference in the way toaster ovens will heat food and the way microwaves will heat food. Before preparing the potatoes, pre-heat toaster oven on bake at 400. Prepare the similar size and shape potatoes by scrubbing them with water, drying them, and lightly oiling them to keep surface tender.
Place one potato in the center of oven rack in toaster oven. Place the other on a paper towel in microwave. Shut the door and program 2 1/2 minutes on high power.8 Remove both potatoes from ovens. Cut potatoes in quarters. Visually, students will be able to tell that the microwave potato is much hotter, although it is not completely cooked. This is an example of how microwaves penetrate food to a depth of 1/2-2 in.
Insert microwave thermometer in cup and let it rest in the spout of the cup. Program on high for 3 minutes. Open door of microwave when the temperature reaches 100°C. Record the amount of time this took. Add 1/4c. sugar to the other cup of water. Stir until it is dissolved completely. Insert thermometer in that cup and let the top rest in the spout. Reprogram microwave for 3 minutes on high. Open the oven door when the temperature reaches 100°C. Record the amount of time this took. Repeat this procedure with the last cup of water. Add 1 Tbsp. oil this time. Insert thermometer to rest in the spout. Re-program for 3 minutes; open the oven door when the temperature reaches 100 C. Be careful because the water will be very hot. Have pot holders ready.
Since foods containing fat and sugar heat quicker than other molecules, it will take less time for the water containing these ingredients to reach 100 degrees.
With some microwaves, closed glass jars, whole eggs (even pierced), and bottles with narrow necks should not be used because they may explode during cooking.9 There are also air vents located on the top or sides of microwave ovens. Make sure these vents are kept open and free of food particles and debris. These vents are necessary to keep the oven’s mechanical parts from overheating.10
To reduce the risk of fire in the oven cavity, don’t overcook food. If cooking food does ignite, keep oven door closed, turn off oven (or cancel timing device), and disconnect power cord or shut off the power from fuse box. In the unlikely event these precautions must be exercised, have the oven serviced to evaluate the possibility of further usage.11
Utilizing appliance instructions will keep the warranty valid, as well as maximize the life of the product, and keep users from developing practices which may cause the product to become inoperable. Warranties generally cover products with defects in workmanship or materials which render the product unusable with proper operation and maintenance. Most products are not covered when misuse, misapplication, neglect, or abuse are involved in its handling.12
Manufacturer’s instructions also give information on where to write for servicing, questions or problems with the particular product. This manual usually includes the product specifications which can also be found on a sticker placed somewhere on the product
In addition to learning the operating procedures, care, and the maintenance of each product, students will learn some of the cooking techniques which will increase their household’s usage and build upon the students’ understanding of how the appliances work. A list of recipes are given toward the end of the unit, but it is strongly urged to select other recipes if they are more suitable for your specific group’s taste.
The lessons for this unit have daily objectives which serve as building blocks to achieving unit objectives. These are not performance objectives, therefore they are not paired with conditions or degrees of accuracy. Teachers who are not comfortable grading with this system are welcome to restate them for the children in this manner. For the convenience of the teacher, daily objectives have been listed along with equipment needed for that particular day, and the preparation which will be needed for the following class period.
LESSON OBJECTIVES—At the end of the class period, students should be able to name the various elements of an atom, and their relationship in forming electricity; they should be able to explain how electricity is made, classify various kitchen appliances into conversion categories, and classify the conversion categories into food preparation performance and uses.
MATERIALS NEEDED—The teacher should be prepared before class by having a penny for each student, examples of an appliance for each conversion category, a picture of an atom with the component parts, Worksheets HA-1, paper for compilation lists, and chalk. Preparation for the following day includes numbered scraps of paper, objectives visible, a blender and mixer visible, copies of manufacturer’s instructions for the appliance being demonstrated, and ingredient supplies ready and measured.
Day-2 As students arrive, ask two of them to lead the review for the day according to the lesson objectives written on the board or somewhere where all students can see them (3-5 min.). Discuss the various tasks the blender and mixer are capable of performing (5 min.). Ask children “If they both mix things, how can you tell when you should use one instead of the other?” Describe and demonstrate the operation instructions, safety precautions, and cleaning procedures of each unit to the class.
Be sure to specify what the blender is used for, and what the mixer is used for (7-10 min.). Read over instructions for Experiment I—worksheet HA-2. (5 min.). Have the ingredients for both recipes measured separately before class. Have the students read the instructions to teacher while he or she demonstrates the the use of the blender or mixer. Demonstrate the same ingredients using the other appliance. Pour contents of blender into a large bowl. Have students examine bottom of blender, then compare the two batters. Do NOT stir batters until comparisons have been made. Students should answer questions on the experiment worksheet. Teacher should re-mix batter and bake according to package instructions (20 min.). Ask students to assist in the clean up (5 min.).
LESSON OBJECTIVES—By the end of the class period, the students will be able to discriminate when the mixer should be be used, and when to use the blender. Students should be able to follow written procedures for operating the blender and mixer, as well as execute appropriate safety precautions and proper dismantling for cleaning.
MATERIALS NEEDED—Before class, be sure learning outcomes are visible on the board, the blender and mixer also need to be visible by the group also. Copies of the instructions from the manual should be distributed for each appliance being used. Have supplies ready, and ingredients measured before class. Advance preparation required for day 3: Ingredient supplies for chosen recipe, copies of the recipe list, necessary utensils, additional copies of the manufacturer’s instructions, & lesson objectives visible.
DAY-3 Students will prepare recipes (HA-3) according to recipe instructions using the appropriate appliance. Distribute recipe with the list of necessary utensils on it. Allow 5 minutes for students to assign who will do what preparation tasks in their groups. Allow 5 minutes for students to prepare themselves (e.g. aprons, wash hands, take out utensils, get supplies, etc.). Make sure students know to get a teacher to okay their measurements before combining any ingredients. Students will need about 10-15 min. for preparation time, and 8-10 minutes for cleaning up and putting dishes away. Conduct a 5 min. review of lesson objective. Discuss the utensils which can be used with each product and why (5 min.). Assign manufacturer’s instruction manual questionnaire for homework (HA-4) so students can prepare for the quiz on day 4.
LESSON OBJECTIVES—At the end of the class period on day 3, students will be able to operate the blender safely and appropriately, utilizing them to complete the preparation tasks they are designed for.
MATERIALS NEEDED—Teacher preparation for day 3 requires having copies of the recipes, having food supplies, additional copies of operating instructions, lesson objectives visible, manufacturer’s questionnaire ready to distribute for homework. A VCR and monitor are needed for day 4. Make sure the videocassette, Microwave: Tips, Tricks, and Techniques has been secured for this day also. Copies of the quiz are needed as well as copies of the movie study guide (HA-6).
DAY -4 Before distributing the quiz, ask if there are any questions. Make sure there are answers exposed around the room, then distribute the quiz. Allow about 10 minutes. At the teacher’s option, once everyone has submitted their paper, he or she can go over and answer the questions while students still have the ones they are unsure about in their minds. Distribute and go over the questions for the video study guide. Students grasp a broader understanding when they’re told which information is important to know before the film. Students are to complete the study guide during the tape. Allow 10 minutes for study guide review, and about 15 minutes from the video. Go over answers after the video; explain concepts discussed on the worksheet; review performance similarities with the toaster oven.
LESSON OBJECTIVES—Students should be able to name the energy conversion taking place in the microwave oven, and describe how short waves heat food by the end of class period four. They should also be able to name at least on example of when metals are appropriate to use inside the microwave, and verbalize at least two factors which influence microwave cooking time.
MATERIALS NEEDED—Equipment needed for day 4 are listed above. The preparation which will be necessary for day 5 is the equipment needed for Experiment II (HA-8). Materials needed are two potatoes which are the same size and shape, copies of the experiment, and copies of the manufacturer’s operating instructions. Make sure the toaster oven and microwave are visible to the group, and have lesson objectives visible. Have copies of homework (HA-7).
DAY 5 Have a student conduct a review of objectives learned on the previous day. Take about 20 minutes to demonstrate the operating procedures, how it works, and the care and maintenance for the toaster oven. Explain the similarities and differences between the two appliances, and conduct Experiment II (HA-8) while students observe and complete the questions. Allow 5-7 minutes to clean up. Pass out homework.
LESSON OBJECTIVES—At the end of the class period, students will be able to verbally explain the operating procedures for each appliance, compile separate lists of utensils which are used with the product, name several safety precautions necessary for safe use, and explain the difference between the way a microwave cooks food, and a conventional toaster oven cooks food.
MATERIALS NEEDED—For the experiment on this day, be sure to have all utensils and equipment positioned for easy access. When evaluating each potato, point out to students where the potato from the microwave is cooked. It will further illustrate how microwaves penetrate from a depth of 1/2—2 inches inside of the food, and that which is thicker cooks by conduction. In preparation for the following day, there should be enough microwave thermometers for each group. The lesson is designed for 3 ovens in one room. If there are not enough microwaves, it can be changed to a teacher-lead experiment. Copies of the worksheet are still needed so students can follow along. Each group will need 3 1-pt. liquid measuring cups, a set of measuring spoons, food supplies, and microwave thermometer. For recording times and temperatures, see HA-11.
DAY-6 Review previous day’s objectives, allow students to prepare for the lab. It will take about 20 min. to complete all three experiments. Allow students to take about 10 minutes to draw conclusions. Then clean up.
LESSON OBJECTIVES—At the end of this class period, students will be able to explain what parts of a food cook faster than others and why. They will also be able to determine what factors influence microwave cooking time, and how to distinguish the difference between the microwave thermometer and a candy or meat thermometer.
MATERIALS NEEDED—Materials for day 6 are listed above. Students will have a comparison lab on day 7. They will make yellow cake. At least one group will bake theirs in the microwave, and one in the toaster oven. Utensils needed are on worksheet HA-9. These supplies should be ready to us upon students’ arrival to class. Ingredients should be ready to use also.
|DAY 7||5 min. Review|
|5 min. Lab preparation—get supplies, wash hands|
|30 min. Make cake—suggested recipe on HA-7|
|10 min. Clean up|
LESSON OBJECTIVES—Students will recognize that baked goods can be prepared the same for the microwave oven as they are for the conventional toaster oven.
MATERIALS NEEDED—For the following day, supplies needed include the stored cakes from previous day, copies of the food evaluation form (HA-9), instruction manual, one glass, liquid measuring cup, and a variety of different kinds of dishes. Students will do the dish test.
|DAY 8||10 min.—Compare food products, write conclusions for the appropriateness of toaster oven baking and microwave oven baking.|
|10 min.—Discuss utensil usage & care of toaster|
|15 min.—Microwave utensil usage & experiment|
|10 min.—Review safety and manual instructions before unit test on day 10.|
LESSON OBJECTIVES—At the end of the class, students will list specific procedures for maintaining and caring for toaster and microwave ovens, they will be able to evaluate the importance of using the appropriate utensils with the given appliance, and explain why the microwave dish test is effective for finding out if a utensil is microwave safe.
MATERIALS NEEDED—For the microwave breakfast on day 9, the supplies needed will be food supplies and microwave-safe glass bowls and pie plate or broiling dish to allow fat to drain.
|DAY 9||10 min.—Review for unit exam|
|5 min.—Prepare for lab|
|5 min.—Prepare food supplies for microwaving (HA-10)|
|10 min.—Cooking time|
|10 min.—Test food|
|10 min.—Clean up|
LESSON OBJECTIVES—At the end of the day, students will be able to explain what is meant by “standing time,” they will be able to identify when eggs are ready for standing time, and will be able to identify when sausage is fully cooked in the microwave oven.
MATERIALS NEEDED—The unit quiz will be given on the following day. Make sure there are enough copies for all students.
DAY-10—Unit exam. Ask students if there are any questions before the exam begins. Going over questions helps clarify for some students, but this is the teacher’s choice.
2Ibid., pp. 12-13.
3Hunter, “Microwave Utensils,” Consumers’ Research Magazine, Vol. 68 (October, 1985), p. 8.
4———, Panasonic Microwave Cookbook, p. 4.
5Mary Pickett, Mildred Arnold, and Linda Ketterer, Household Equipment In Residential Design, p. 305.
6Ibid., p. 140.
7———,Panasonic Microwave Cookbook, p. 8
8———,General Electric Microwave Guide, p. 5.
9Ibid., p. 20.
10———, Operating Instructions, p. 4.
11Ibid., p. 4.
12Pickett, Arnold, and Ketterer, pp. 22-23.
13Hunter, p. 8.
Contains exhaustive information on microwave oven operations. Includes microwave parts and an explanation of their function. Provides an excellent list of safety and maintenance list.
Pickett, Mary, Mildred Arnold, and Linda Ketterer. Household Equipment In Residential Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986.
Contains extensive information on every household appliance, includes consumer concerns, energy use, electricity, material composition of appliances. The end of each chapter has numerous ideas for related experiments and learning experiences.
———. Panasonic Microwave Cookbook. Secaucus, NJ: Matsushita Appliance Co., 1984.
Provides information on microwave techniques and operations. Includes recipes.
———. The General Electric Microwave Guide. Peoria, IL: Bennett Publishing, 1984.
This is an informational book about all aspects of operating and owning a microwave oven. Discusses safety, utensils, cleaning & care & provides large color photos of examples. Includes recipes.
This book explains electricity at a level where children can comprehend these concepts. Begins with atoms, and ends electricity experiments and projects.
———. How to Buy A Microwave. Louisville: General Electric Co., 1984. This free booklet has valuable information at children’s reading level describing the microwave and its functions. Includes descriptions of optional features and what they do.
Hunter, Beatrice. “Safe Microwave Oven Use.” Consumers’ Research Magazine, Vol. 71 (December, 1988), pp. 8-9. This article explains techniques to avoid burns from microwave heating, as well as cautions regarding uneven cooking in the microwave.
____food processor or carving knife
- A) Write the final list of kitchen appliances here.
- B) Put each appliance written above into one of the electricity conversion below.
- ____MECHANICAL ENERGY
- ____HEAT ENERGY
- ____SHORTWAVE ENERGY
- C) What kinds of tasks do the appliances in the mechanical category perform?
- ____What tasks do the appliances under heat energy do? What tasks do those listed under shortwave energy perform?
- D) What do electrons have to do with electricity?
- E) _____ is the amount of force by which electricity enters a household _____ is the strength it takes to power an appliance.
- F) Place a line under the item you think would require the most wattage (greatest strength) to power it.
____dishwasher or blender
____mixer or dough kneader
____mug warmer or electric skillet
|rubber scraper||rubber scraper|
|custard dish||custard dish|
|liquid measuring cup||liquid measuring cup|
|a mixing bowl will be used for||wooden spoon|
|evaluation purposes||mixing bowl|
|1 box Jiffy muffin mix||same flavor||1 box Jiffy muffin mix|
|1 egg||1 egg|
|1/4 c. milk||1/4 c. milk|
2) Add other ingredients to containers in the order listed.
|3) Put cap on blender securely.||3) Put beaters on mixer.|
|4) Program timer for 1 min.,||4) Start mixer on low, then|
|press “beat” button.|
|move to medium speed. Use|
|5) Pour contents into bowl||a scraper to scrape sides|
|6) Examine product and an-||of bowl.|
____5) Stop mixer when blender stops
____6) Evaluate batter.
A) Do the batters look the same? Describe the difference.
B) Are there any unmixed ingredients at the bottom of either containers? If so, which one? What didn’t get mixed.
C) When should blenders & mixers be used?
|HA-3||BLENDER/MIXER LAB RECIPES|
|Strawberry-banana shake||Yogurt-pudding pie|
|10 oz. partially thawed||1 sm. box flavored pudding|
|sweetened strawberries||1 c. milk|
|1 1/2 c. milk||1 c. plain or vanilla yogurt|
|1 banana cut up||graham cracker tart shells|
|liquid measuring cup||liquid measuring cup|
|butter knife||rubber scraper|
|can opener||wooden spoon|
|1) Empty all ingredients||1) Combine pudding and milk|
|into blender and beat with mixer until thick.|
|2) Secure lid tightly.||2) Add yogurt. Stir with spoon,|
|3) Blend on “puree” for 2||and mix well.|
|minutes. It’s ready to||3) Fill shells and freeze until|
- 1. What is the name of the product you have the manual of?
- 2. What is the name of the manufacturer?
- 3. List 3 things the manufacturer says this product can do.
- 4. Lis 3 things the manufacturer say do NOT do.
- 5. Where can you send this appliance if it needs repairs?
- 6. Write ou the first 4 operating steps for this equipment.
- 7. Study worksheets on electricity conversion and blenders and mixers to prepare for quiz.
- 1. How is electricity formed?
- 2. List 6 kitchen appliances and put them in one of the categories below: mechanical heat shortwave
- 3. What tasks should a blender or mixer be used for?
- 4. Complete the chart.
When electricity is converted to the appliance does what tasks
- HEAT ENERGY
- SHORTWAVE ENERGY
- MECHANICAL ENERGY
- 5. Explain the operation steps and cleaning procedures for the blender or mixer.
1. The microwave saves _____. It’s not complicated, but it’s _____.
- 2. Microwaves are a form of _____; similar to radio waves. A) Nuclear power B) Heat C) Energy D) life
- 3. Short waves come from a _____ in the oven.
- ____A) Machbox B) Pipeline C) Lightning device D) Magnetro tube
- 4. Each microwave penetrates food up to _____ inches in depth. The heat from this depth cooks the food inside.
- 5. Is standing time only for microwaving? Yes No
- 6. Put a check next to the true answers.How do you use foil in a microwave?
- _________ Have more food showing than foil
- _________ Foil should be close to oven wall
- _________ Foil should be snug against the edge
- _________ of the food or utensil
- 7. What uses does foil have in the microwave?
- ____Defrosting part of a block of meat? Yes No
- ____Shielding thinner edges, fast cooking spots, and fat? Yes No
- 8. Why is browning sauce necessary with microwave ovens?
- 1. Foods with high _____ content get hot faster than drier foods.
- 2. Explain how a jelly doughnut is an example of the above statement.
- 3. What products are potential hazard because of pressure build-up during cooking? W_____ & S _____
- 4. Why is it necessary to use pot holders when microwaves heat the food only?
- 5. What is the most common burn inflicted by microwave ovens? How can this be avoided?
- 6. Baby bottles should not be _____ in microwave ovens.
- 7. The a_____ of food in the microwave oven influences even cooking.
- 8. Uneven cooking in microwave ovens can allow food poisons to stay alive in _____ roasts, and cooked, whole _____,
2 potatoes (same size & shape)
1 vegetable brush
|paper towels||2 paper plates labeled|
- 1) Preheat toaster oven to 400°F.
- 2) Wash and scrub both potatoes thoroughly, then dry them with the paper towels.
- 3) Pierce both potatoes generously with knife. This is done to reduce the risk of scalding from explosion.
- 4) Place one potato in the center of the microwave oven on top of a paper towel.
- 5) Place the other potato in toaster oven. Program microwave for 2 1/2 minutes on high power.
- 6) After cooking, remove both potatoes from ovens and place on their respective plates. Cut into quarters so students can answer questions.
- A. Which potato has steam escaping when cut into quarters?
- B. Hold the potato from toaster oven.Touch the potato from the microwave. Describe the temperature difference?
- C. Use a fork or toothpick to poke potato. Which is harder to poke?
- D. Evaluate the microwave potato. What part of the potato is fully cooked? Which part is not? Suggest a reason why this might have happened.
- E. Based upon the information in your answers above, write 2-3 statements about the way microwave ovens heat food.
UTENSILS INGREDIENTS mixing bowl 1 box Jiffy yellow cake mix wooden spoon eggs rubber scraper milk liquid measuring cup prepared Icing (any flavor)
- custard dish
- electric mixer
- 1. Prepare cake mix as directed on box.
- 2. Pour batter into baking dishes(microwave group must use appropriate utensil).
- 3. The toaster oven group should bake as pkg. instructs. Microwave group should program on high power for 2 1/2 minutes. Rotate dish. Program on high for 3 more minutes, or until shiny surface dissipates.
- 4. Icing can be put on the cakes AFTER they have been compared with the other cake and evaluated.
- A. Which cake has a golden brown top?
- B. Cut a small piece from both cakes. What do they look like?
- ____Are their textures the same ? What is the difference?
- ____Describe the microwave cake
- ____Describe the Toaster cake
- Note: It is a general rule that only darker color cakes look equally as appetizing as cakes baked in conventional toaster ovens.
UTENSILS FOOD SUPPLIES whisk 4 sausage patties or links knife 4 eggs liquid measuring cup 1 Tbsp. margarine 1/4 dry measuring cup 1/4 c. milk mixing bowl 1/4 c. grated cheese
- pie plate or broiling dish
- 1. In a glass, microwave-safe bowl, beat eggs with butter and milk.
- 2. Place sausage on the outer perimeters of the pie plate or broiling dish Cook 2 1/2 min. on high power. Rotate dish and turn patties over. Cook for 1 1/2 min. on high. Drain fat.
- 3. Microwave eggs on medium for 2 min. Stir well, scraping sides of dish. Sprinkle on cheese .
- 4. Heat on medium for 1 1/2 minutes longer. Let stand undisturbed for 1 min. Serve.
- ____Note: Sausage should be cooked covered with wax paper or paper towel.
- 1. Which ones took the least time to reach 100 C?
- 2. Which one took the most amount of time?
- 3. Based on the information you found, _____ seemed to attract microwaves because they heated the _____ faster.
Distributed by Karol Media Co.
35 North Pennsylvania Avenue
P.0. Box 7800
Wilkes-Barre, PA 18773-7600
Contains loads of information about microwave cooking.
Write to the address above to schedule a free loan.
How To Buy A Microwave.
Distributed by General Electric Co.
The GE Answer Center
9500 Williamsburg Plaza
Louisville, KY 40222
Describes how microwaves work, what features are available, and energy and safety facts. Write for multiple copies, call for single copies.
|Jiffy muffin mix||eggs|
|Jiffy yellow cake mix||milk|
|frozen sweetened strawberries||bananas|
|graham cracker tart shells||potatoes (same size)|
|vegetable oil||plain or vanilla yogurt|
Contents of 1989 Volume VII | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute