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Developing Good Written Communication Skills and the Word Processing Student

by
Rose B. Coggins


Contents of Curriculum Unit 86.04.03:

To Guide Entry


UNIT GOAL

Improving the written communication ability of all students enrolled in a word processing class is what this unit is all about. Of course, written business communications covers many activities—so many that this unit cannot reasonably cover them all. Thus, I will limit coverage to those areas in which most high school students need instruction: primarily in the area of written communications, and particularly in writing letters.

Why put things in writing? One obvious reason is that it is more convenient and less costly than face-to-face communications, particularly where distance is involved. But often there is simply no substitute for a written communication—for example, describing a firm’s unique product or service to a customer, reporting the results of an organization’s study of employee turnover, or announcing an important change in company policy. And written communications provide valuable records for an organization without which it simply could not function.

Some of the most important uses of written communications are to:

1. Confirm agreements and actions.
2. Motivate sales.
3. Build goodwill and effective public relations (PR).
4. Enhance internal human relationships.
5. Keep people informed.
Those who write correspondence effectively have a definite advantage in their given professions over those who lack: this valuable skill. Most business people spend much of their work talking, reading, writing and listening.

The higher one’s position in business, the more communication one does. Because communication is so significant, business wants and needs people with good written communication abilities. To succeed in business and climb the ladder of success at a faster speed, students would be wise to work at improving their communication ability.

Laura Brill makes this point in her book Business Writing Quick and Easy : “Letters are the most personal of business communications. They can help build relationships particularly by using a friendly and sincere tone. Formal and stereotyped expressions, on the other hand, keep the relationship between writer and reader stagnant. Who enjoys reading letters that sound like computer printouts?”1

The ability to write effective business communications reflects very favorably on an employer and gives an employee an added advantage for job promotion as well as job security.

This unit was developed especially for use in a word processing class, but could be easily adapted for a business English, Business Communication, or Office Technology class. Using the word processor will hopefully eliminate sheer labor, the biggest obstacle that seems to frustrate most students in learning how to write. Word processing will not replace the act of writing. It will only process the words quickly and more accurately that one still has to generate. Students will constantly be reminded that writing comes first; then computers process what is written.

It is my intention to show students that writing business communications using the Word processor will (1) allow them to experiment with their writing without worrying about making a final draft right away; (2) display words for them to consider and give them a chance to reconsider them; (3) free them to concentrate on content, format, revision and proofreading; (4) make corrections easier and neater; (5) eliminate, tedious rewriting.

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PREREQUISITES

It is very important that the students complete the appropriate training materials of a word processing package. The student should be able to do the following-.

(1) Power on and off the system
(2) Load and unload diskettes
(3) Display the diskette index
(4) Name a document
(5) Create a document
(6) Edit a document
(8) Delete a document
(9) Set single and double spacing
(10) Set normal and flush right tabs
(11) Underscore text word by word or continuously
(12) Center text
(13) Use required tabs, carrier returns, and hyphens
(14) Create and store form sentences, paragraphs, and letters
(15) Store formats
(16) Merge text with variable information
(17) Retrieve a document.
Along with knowing a word processing package students must know the correct placement of the following seven basic letter parts: (1) heading; (2) inside address; (3) salutation; (4) body; (5) complimentary closing; (6) signature; and (7) reference initials. Student must also know the auxiliary letter parts, various styles of letters, and the different types of business writings.

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EVALUATION

Evaluation of this unit and the growth of the students in the course will be based on pre- and post-tests of grammar, punctuation, spelling, and proofreading. Each individual assignment wi11 be evaluated for spelling, grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, word usage, courtesy, clearness, completeness, conciseness, and correctness.

The above activities all require that the students already have basic writing skills and can write clearly and effectively. However, not all students that come into a word processing class have these skills. Therefore, I will use the business letter both to teach writing skills and word processing skills simultaneously.

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PROPOSED WRITING METHODS

In analyzing methods of teaching writing, one writer, Gabriele Lusser Rico in Writing the Natural Way, discusses two methods I will use in my teaching of letter composition.2

The Model approach is based on the use of a professional’s work for one’s own expressive purpose.

It’s purpose is to give one a structure, an aesthetic pattern to follow, within which to treat one’s own discovered content. Its emphasis is on relieving the anxiety of having to think of everything at once, allowing the writing to flow more naturally.

I plan to show students numerous models of all types of written business correspondence and encourage them to write using them as examples. Many letter models can be found in The Grosset-Secretarial Handbook in my students’ bibliography.

The Clustering approach is created by placing a nucleus word, circled, on a clean sheet of paper. Then simply let go and begin to flow with any current of connection that come into your head. Write these down rapidly, each in its own circle, radiating outward from the center in any direction they want to go. Connect each new word or phrase with a line to the preceding circle. When something new and different strikes you, begin again at the central nucleus and radiate outward until those associations are exhausted.

To help students become aware of what their attitudes about writing are, I will use the clustering method. After clustering two words, there will be a class discussion of the results. Using this approach will make students aware of why they may not be able to write well and make an earnest effort to change those attitudes.

Another plan is to have students cluster all items, phrases, etc. that should be included in the letter in which they are composing. In this way, students will be unlikely to forget to state what is required to make the letter complete.

I will also use two of Laque’s and Sherwood’s methods from their book entitled A Laboratory Approach to Writing.3

The first method is the Interview Method. Laque’s and Sherwood’s method is totally individualized and can be used with small groups or peer pairs. They suggest giving the student a diagnostic assignment in order to determine each student’s strengths and weaknesses. The assignments should be brief and simple, requiring specific, factual information. Once students have completed one or two diagnostic assignments and the teacher has evaluated them, their apparent strengths and/or weaknesses can be discussed, and they can be directed toward assignments which will build on what they do well or help them overcome their writing problems.

I will administer two diagnostic tests. One will be on punctuation and grammar; the other test will be on writing a letter requesting information. I will interview each student after I have evaluated the diagnostic tests and make appropriate references and recommendations.

The steps approach to teaching composition requires a laboratory format and focuses on the process of writing, including pre-writing techniques such as composing a series of drafts, and editing, criticizing, and rewriting. This seems to me the most useful approach because it emphasizes the process more than the product and because it puts much of the responsibility on the students themselves. It exposes them to a process which can be used for any kind of writing and which can be adapted to other task as well.

This method is most appropriate for writings such as business letters. For effective desired results, certain steps must be followed. These steps include planning (pre-writing) composing the first draft, editing, preparing the final draft and proofreading.

The Small Group Approach in the classroom allows student to become more active participants than they would be in a lecture situation or even in a total class discussion. In small groups students who are shy about talking in large groups have a chance to share their ideas. In small groups students are also apt to become more critical and self-directed thinkers. They get immediate feedback about ideas, audience, and the like, depending upon what stage of the writing process they are in.

Using this method, students will play a dual role of writer and respondent. Students will work in small groups evaluating each others letters before final drafts and evaluate all incoming letters before writing a response. Students will be encourage to use each other as sources of ideas, suggestions and criticisms.

In an English class where writing is the main focus, revision is given more emphasis and the more revisions the better the final draft. However, in a business setting, this may not always apply. Therefore, I will encourage students to perfect each letter in approximately three stages of revision: (1) revise for completeness; (2) for order of information and; (3) polish mechanics. Style, format and spelling inaccuracies should be included in each revision stage.

Individual written assignments will be graded using production methods. (quantity of letters submitted) Students may recall any final drafts that contain errors and make any corrections to have a perfect copy. Provisions will be made for grade betterment on perfect work which student resubmit.

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WRITING SKILLS

Studies have proven that there are three major techniques of clear writing: (1) Selection of words; (2) Construction of clear sentences; (3) Writing for Effect. My plan is to implement each of the techniques discussed below and give written assignments to practice using each of the techniques. (Activities to build the following skills are located in Appendix A.)

SELECTION OF WORDS. By selection of words I mean fitting the message to the specific reader. Obviously, not ill readers have the same ability to understand a message.

Not all have the same vocabulary, the same knowledge of the subject, or the same mentality. Thus, the reader should be considered in selecting appropriate words and the message should be written for the best understanding in the reader’s mind.

In structuring the message for the best possible understanding, begin by visualizing the reader. That is, form a mental picture of what the reader is like. Get in mind the answers to such questions as what the reader knows about the subject, what his/her educational level is, and how he/she thinks. With this information in mind, the message can be formed.

Selecting the right words depends on the writer’s ability to use language, the writer’s knowledge of the readers, and the writer’s good judgment.

Foremost among the suggestions for word selection is to use the familiar words. These are the everyday words—the words with sharp and clear meanings. Words that are familiar to some people may be unfamiliar to others; consequently, it is important to use good judgment in determining what is likely to be familiar to the reader.

For example, instead of using the more unfamiliar word “endeavor” use “try” or use “end” instead of “terminate”.

Short words in writing generally tend to communicate better than long words. Short words tend to be the familiar word. A heavy proportion of long words leaves an impression of difficulty, thereby hindering communication. This does not mean that all short words are easy and all long words are hard. There are many exceptions. It will be wise to concentrate on the short words and use the long words with caution. An example of long words versus short words is given below:

LONG WORDS—Definitive action was effected subsequent to the last reporting date. SHORT WORDS—Last year the company lost money.

Use technical words with caution. These words are useful only when communicating with people in the same field. The writer must learn these words and make them a part of his/her everyday working vocabulary. A problem comes about when these words are used to write people outside the technical field. The result could be miscommunication. Avoid such miscommunication by using technical words with extreme caution. For example, when a physician uses “cardiac arrest” to other physicians, they understand. Most laymen would get little meaning from the words, but they would understand “heart attack”.

Choose words with the right strength and vigor. This means using words that do the best job of carrying the intended meanings. It’s important to know the differences in words and consider them carefully when writing communications. For example, the word “tycoon” is stronger than “eminently successful businessperson”.

Good business communication is marked by words which form sharp and clear meanings in the mind. These are the concrete words and should be used in writing. Concrete words stand for things the reader can see, feel, taste, or smell. In contrast, abstract words cover broad meanings such as concepts or ideas and sometimes may appear fuzzy and vague to the reader.

Students may enjoy the technique of clustering in practicing the use of concrete words effectively. For example, given the words “paper towel”, students will list concrete words to describe the paper towel. Words like colorful, rough, nice design, etc. This can be especially useful in writing sales letters.

CONSTRUCTING CLEAR SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS. If words are the individual components of a communication, then the sentence is the motor. A business message has power only when its sentences are clear, correct, of appropriate length, and properly structured for maximum impact. (Activities to build the following skills are located in Appendix B).

The opening sentence or paragraph of a letter should go straight to the point; the object is to gain the reader’s attention at once.

The closing paragraph or sentence should add something to the letter; it should not be a meaningless formality. A more forceful and sincere way of closing the business letter is by the use of a complete statement or a declarative sentence. It is important, however, to suggest only one action in this closing sentence. Concentrate on one specific action that you wish the reader to take and make no mention of others. If the reader is given a choice of several things to do, he/she most likely will do nothing.

Long, rambling sentences very often hinder readability of most writings. There are rules about sentence length, although I suggest that most sentences should be under 20 words—17 is the average. However, this does not mean that every sentence should be 17 words long. Look for ways such as using punctuation or a list to breakup long sentences.

Very short sentences can be highly effective; however, when too many are used, the message becomes choppy and disconnected. Again, use good judgment.

Paragraphing is important to clear communication. Paragraphs show the reader where topics begin and end, thus helping to organize the information in the mind. Also paragraphing can help ideas stand out.

To design paragraphs involves the ability to organize and relate information. It involves logic and imagination. The general points I feel are necessary for constructing paragraphs are discussed below.

Paragraphs must have unity. In terms of paragraphs, unity means building a paragraph around a single topic or idea. Thus, a finished paragraph will have one purpose and each sentence in the paragraph should contribute to accomplish that purpose.

In writing paragraphs include only information needed and leave out unnecessary information. The chances are you have more information than the reader needs. It is a matter of using good judgment. One way is to ask yourself questions such as these: How will the information be used? What will be used? What will not be used? Then make the decision as to what is necessary.

WRITING FOR EFFECT. When writing business letters, be concerned about communicating more than information. The information in the letter will be important; in fact, it will be the most important part of the communication. But certain effects will also be communicated. (Activities to build the following skills are located in Appendix C.)
One effect that needs to be communicated is goodwill. Building goodwill through letters is good business practice and the success of most businesses is affected by what people think about the business.

Getting such effects in letters is largely a matter of understanding how people respond to words. It involves keeping certain attitudes in mind when writing letters. The following attitudes and techniques can be applied to help get the effect needed.

One technique I find useful in building the goodwill effect in letters is to write in conversational language. By conversational language I mean language that is warm and natural. Such language leaves an impression that people like and understand best. For example, the sentence “Enclosed herewith is the brochure about which you make inquiry.” is stiff and dull; whereas, the sentence “Enclosed is the brochure you asked about.” is written in a conversational style.

Writing from the you-viewpoint is another technique for building goodwill in letters. It emphasizes the reader’s interest and concerns; therefore, it views the situation from the reader’s point of view rather than the writer. It places the reader in the center of things. It sometimes involves skillfully handling people with carefully chosen words in order to make a desired impression on them. The example below illustrates the difference between the we-viewpoint and the you-viewpoint: WE-VIEWPOINT—“We have received your report of May 1.” vs the YOU-VIEWPOINT—“Thank you for your report of May 1.”

Whether a letter achieves its goal often will depend on the words used to carry the message. One can say anything many ways, and each way could possibly convey a meaning different from all others. Much of the difference lies in the meanings of words.

Words which stir up positive meaning in the reader’s mind usually are best for achieving letter goals. This is not to say that negative words have no place in business writing. If you are seeking some action, for example, positive words are the words most likely to persuade. They tend to put the reader in the right frame of mind and they place emphasis on the more pleasant aspects of the goals. Positive words create the goodwill atmosphere we seek in most letters.

A major contribution to goodwill in business letters is courtesy. By courtesy I mean treating the reader with respect and friendly human concern. When used in letters, it leads to friendly relations between people. This results in a better human climate for solving problems and for doing business.

Developing courtesy in a letter involves the three previously discussed techniques: Writing in conversational language, using the you-viewpoint and choosing words for positive effect.

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PROPOSED SEQUENCE OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT

The sequence of exercises given below can be tailored to fit the needs of specific classes and/or individuals.

One Day-Detail discussion of the unit outline, objectives, purpose, expectation, means of evaluation, group setup.

One Day-Administer Diagnostic Test on Grammar and Punctuation.

One Day—Group and individual discussions of diagnostic test results. (Use of the overhead projector)

One Day—Diagnostic test on letter writing.

One Day—Clustering techniques on attitudes.

Two Days—Modeling of numerous business letters.

Two Days—Letter analysis.

Fundamental needs for writing letters

One week—Selection of Words.

One week—Construct Sentences and Paragraphs.

One week—Writing for Effect.

Three Weeks—Letter writing assignments

One Day—Summation of Unit

Initially, I will administer to all students a diagnostic test to access their mechanics ability.

The next class day I will discuss orally with students their results. If a large number of students have serious problems in any particular area of mechanics, I will instruct on that one; otherwise I will give individual students exercises to be done at home that will help eliminate the problem.

The second diagnostic test will be writing two short letters. One letter of invitation to attend the graduation exercises. First, the letter should be written from the student’s point of view. Next write the letter of invitation as if it was from the Principal to the parents of all graduating seniors. Again, I will be looking for organization.

It is important to me that students express their attitudes toward writing. I will write the words “writing” and “letters”, on the board, each at different times and ask each student to give me one word that comes to mind when they see each of the words. My hope is that this method will enable students to clarify their attitudes about writing; to verbalize those attitudes and to realize that they are not alone in their attitude toward writing.

I am a firm believer that students can write better letters by analyzing those written by other persons. Such analysis will help make them aware of their own weakness; and by studying letter written by other, they should be able to improve their own letters.

Written communications tell a lot about a writer and the organization he or she represents just from the way the messages are set up. Just as a good picture can lose much of its impact on the view if it is improperly framed, an expertly written letter can lose a great deal of its effects if it is set up badly. One the other hand, good form and arrangement can make a business message seem much better than it really is.

I will give students several types and styles of letters. The students will then analyze each letter to see if it is courteous, clear, complete, concise, and contain accurate information, correct placement, correct style, and perfect English. Also students will indicate, if necessary, how they would make changes to bring the letter up to the proper standard and determine whether the letter has a good chance of obtaining prompt, satisfactory action. Many types and styles of letters can be found in Gi1son and Platt’s book, Letter-Perfect: The Accurate Secretary, listed in my student’s bibliography.

To be meaningful to the students, all letters must have a definite purpose and that should be fully explained to the students. For example, asking students to write a thank you letter would have meaning because it is something they should do after receiving graduation gifts.

My plan is to have students become familiar with three important fundamental stages for writing effective communications.4

At the beginning of each class, I will fully explain each prewriting preparation stage. I have listed objectives and assignment(s) for each fundamental in sequential order. An entire class period will be devoted to each of the writing preparations given below.

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APPENDIX A

PART 1 Selection of words

Objective—Identify the reader and adapt the language to his/her level.

Assignment(s)

1. Students will be given 20 sentences that need to be revised for easy communication to a 7th grader.
2. From a word processing textbook, select a paragraph (at least 150 words long) that would be difficult for a student less advanced in the course. Then rewrite the paragraph so that it can be easily understood”
Objective—Simplify writing for easy communication by selecting words that are familiar and generally short.

Assignment I

Next to a list of unfamiliar and difficult words, the students will supply a familiar or easy word.

Assignment II

Students will be given five sentences containing unfamiliar words to revise using familiar words.

Objective—Use technical words appropriately when communicating with those to whom they are familiar.

Assignment  Select ten sentences from various technical textbooks that would be only understood by person in the same profession; then rewrite them so that they can be easily understood by lay persons

Objective—Know the different in strengths of words and select the words that communicate the message best.

Assignment  Make a list of at least 20 comparison words that are strong vs” weaker words” Ex. debt(strong) vs” obligation (weak); die(strong) vs. deceased(weak).

Objective—Use precision in writing by avoiding camouflaged verbs, by selecting right words with precise meanings, and by using idioms correct1y.

Assignment  Rewrite sentences given to avoid camouflaged verbs.

Objective—Distinguish between concrete and abstract active and passive and when to use both effectively.

Assignment  Give students a list of sentences to rewrite using concrete words.

Assignment II

Students will rewrite the following sentences from passive to active voice.

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APPENDIX B

PART 2—Construct Clear Sentences and Paragraphs

Objective—Limit sentence content and economize on words.

Assignment  Students will be given several long sentences to rewrite for clarity”
Objective—Determine where emphasis should be in sentence design”

Assignment  Underscore the main emphasis in a list of sentences; then revise for better emphasis.
Objective—Give sentences unity, clarity, and proper design.

Assignment  Students will indicate how a group of sentences can be revised for unity and clarity by using the correct punctuation.
Objective—Choose appropriate topic sentence.

Assignment  Students will select the topic sentence from given paragraphs.

PART 3—Writing for Effect

Objective—Write in conversational language.

Choose five sentences and rewrite them in a conversational tone.

Objective—Write from the you-viewpoint.

Write five sentences from the we-viewpoint; then revise and write them from the you-viewpoint.

Objective—Write p1acing accent on positive language.

Underscore al1 words you consider negative language and rewrite using positive language.

Before writing each of the assigned letters the student will outline the five most important planning stages in writing a letter:

l. Purpose—Why Am I writing this letter.
2. Points to include—What shall I say or what points should I cover.
3. Particulars in the letter—Where can I get the information”
4. Person addressed in a letter—Who will read this letter.
5. Plan the letter questions—How shall I present the information.
Students will write letters using a checklist before writing.5

The checklist will vary according to the type of letter written. I will only list the writer’s checklist for the letters I intend to give as assignment. Writer’s checklist for all other types of letters can be found in The Administrative Secretary located in my teacher’s bibliography” Students will be permitted to work at his/her own pace with constant interviews with me.

Students will be divided in groups of five. Each student in the group will write one letter to another student in a different group. Students are to write a response to all letters received along with an evaluation of each letter received. Each letter must be carefully proofread several times checking for: formatting, styling, word repetition, omissions, spacing, transpositions, hyphenations, name and address, numbers, spelling, and general sense of the letter. The recipient and the respondent will meet with me occasionally if they cannot resolve any conflict in the letters.

Students will be encouraged to work at his/her own pace with constant touch with peers and with me. I will be used as a sounding board as well as a resource.

Follow-up Assignment

Revise the two diagnostic letters you wrote. Be sure to apply what you have learned thus far through the study of this unit.

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LETTER WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

Assignment I

Write a letter asking a teacher for permission to use his/her name as a prospective job reference.

Writer’s Checklist

State why the reference is being requested.
Specify the types of position being applied for. Give the names of companies, if any are known at the time that may be asking for references.
Mention pertinent details to help the recepient remember you and important facts about you.
Express appreciation for the assistance.

Assignment II

Locate a realistic job in current want ads. Then write a letter replying to the advertisement.

Writer’s Checklist

Specify the exact job or type of position being sought.
If you are not applying for a known opening, give your reasons for inquiring.
Emphasize any experience that relates directly to the job.
Mention other experience, education, and qualifications that would contribute to your potential in the job.
Enclose a resume.
State when you are available for an interview. Give a telephone number where you can be reached or where messages can be left for you.

Assignment III

Locate an advertisement in which you would like to receive further information.

Checklist

Be as specific as possible.
Mention the reason for the inquiry.
If the request results from an advertisement, identify the source.
If there are many questions, number them.
If the reply will be short, suggest that the recipient simply return the letter with the reply noted on it, or enclose a carbon of the letter for his/her notation and return.
If suitable, enclose a reply postcard set up for the recipient’s insertion of a word, name or figure.
Enclose an addressed rep1y envelope, preferable postpaid.

Assignment IV

Write a letter to invite someone you know who has a great deal of experience in the field of word processing to speak to the class.

Checklist

State the reason why the speaker is being invited. Indicate whom he will be addressing and approximately how many people will be present. If he is one of several speakers, outline the balance of the program briefly.
Mention the audience’s interest, even if the speaker is choosing the subject or title for his/her presentation.
Indicate how his/her talk should be.
Specify the day, date, and hours.
Give the exact location of the meeting. Ask for biographical data and glossy photo, if necessary.
If someone will meet the speaker, give his name. Mention the fee or other expenses that the organization is prepared to pay; if no fee is possible, say so.

Assignment V

Write an informal invitation to invite a teacher to your induction to the National Business Letter Writing Society.

Checklist

Address business-dinner invitations for a couple to the business associate; address social-dinner invitations to the wife.
Explain the occasion for the invitation.
Say why the recipient is being invited.
Specify the day, date, hour, and location. Mention any special type of dress required.
If someone other than the recipient is invited, make this clear.
Specify the desired reply date, if necessary.

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Notes

1Brill, Laura, Business Writing quick and Easy (New York: American Management Associations, 1981).
2Rico, Gabriele, Writing the Natural Way, (Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, Inc., 1983).
3 Laque, Carol and Sherwood, Phyllis, A Laboratory Approach to Writing, (Urbana, Illinois: NCTE, 1977).
4 Lesiker, Raymond, Basic Business Communication, Chapters 1-3.
5 Administrative Secretary Resource, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book company, 1970).

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TEACHER’S BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, Lee, Russon, Wentzell, Horach, The Administrative Secretary: Resource, Gregg Division McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970.

An outstanding reference for the student and teacher. It contains a tremendous number of secretarial techniques and general office reference facts.

Brill, Laura, Business Writing Quick and Easy, American Management Association, New York, 1981.

This book gives a simple process of writing and how to make the process work for each individual.

Eisenberg, Ann, Effective Technical Communications, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, l984.

This book includes numerous models of writings in technical language.

Geffner, Andrea, Business English, Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., New York, 1982.

This book focuses on broad areas of grammar, sentence structure and mechanics, with an eye toward minimizing errors. It also presents various categories of business correspondence providing the reader with an overview of the styles and formats appropriate for each.

Lesiker, Raymond, Basic Business Communication, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Illinois, 1979.

This book focuses on the shortcommings of student’s writings and seek to help students overcome them.

Luke, Cheryl and Swafford, Ann, Communication skills for Word Processing, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, New York, 1986.

This is a practical text-workbook and a reference book which will help students prepare to communicate in a modern office environment. It provides rules and concepts of mechanics as well as vocabulary enrichment. However, its main focus is the word processor.

Laque, Carol and Sherwood, Phyllis, A Laboratory Approach to Writing, Urbana, Illinois, NCTE, 1977.

The theme of this book is to offer teachers methods and theoretical base for experimenting with the teaching of writing in a laboratory classroom situation. The author offers strategies, models, and exercises for teachers and students that are a means of discovering by doing.

Murray, Donald A., A Writer Teaches Writing, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1968.

This book gives teachers an effective method of teaching composition based on the experience of professional writers.

Poe, Roy W., Effective Business Reports, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970.

This book shows many examples of letters and reports. It introduces principles and practical exercises to see whether they are actually understood by the reader.

Rico, Gabriele, Writing the Natural Way, J. P. Tarcher, Inc., Los Angles, 1983.

This book helps to develop the ability to write creatively and confidently without using any particular form or fashion. It emphasizes the use of stages and Right-Brain techniques to release expressive powers.

Roddick, Ellen, Writing That Means Business, MacMillan Publishing Company, New York, 1984.

This book is designed to help improve the writing of managers and managers-to-be. It also tells mangers how to target communication objectives.

Sherman, Theodore and Johnson, Simon, Modern Technical Writing, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, l983.

Section III of this book gives attention to letter form, letter substance, specific types of letters and how the general principles of letter writing can work in a variety of characteristic situations.

Stewart, Clark, Zimmer, Business English and Communications, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984.

This is a textbook that educates and trains students in all phrases of communications. It also show the teacher how to help the students develop the ability to write effectively.

Zinsser, William, Writing With a Word Processor, Harper and Row Publishers, 1983.

This book gives a personal account of the author using the word processor to write this book.

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STUDENT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Clement, John, The Grosset-Secretarial Handbook, Grosset and Dunlap, Inc., New York, 1980.

This book focuses on all proper techniques of oral and written communication skills for secretarial office workers.

Fielder, John, Fielder, Jean, Dulek, Ronald, The Business Writing Sytle Book, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1984.

This book shows how one can gain mastery over a job through the use of writing styles.

Geffner, Andrea, Business Letters The Easy Way, Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1983.

The main focuses of this book is business styles, letter format, and models of all types of letters.

Gilson, Goodwin and Platt, Naomi, Letter-Perfect: The Accurate Secretary, Arco Publishing, Inc., New York, 1985.

This book presents all letter styles and rules for spelling, proofreading, and punctuations.

Janis, J. Harold, New Standard Reference for Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, The MacMillian Company, New York, 1972.

This is a reference guide for use in all written and oral communications in an office setting.

Lindsell, Sheryl L., Proofreading and Editing for Word Processors, Arco Publishing company, New York, 1985.

This book familiarizes students with the proper proofreading and editing techniques. Many exercises are given to help to establish the ability to detect errors; and exercises to teach the proper formatting for letters, memoranda, and reports. It also reinforces the mechanics of English with related exercises.

Luke, Cheryl and Swafford, Ann, Proofreading Skills for Word Processing, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, New York, 1986.

This book helps students to become office workers who can find errors consistently and in varied situation.

Price, Jonathan, Put That In Writing, Penguin Books, New York, 1984.

This book helps students to develop a plain style of writing—writing that means business and help with particular writing task such as letters, reports, and memos.

Sabin, William A., The Gregg Reference Manual, Gregg Division/McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1977.

This book presents the basic rules that apply to all business writings. It offers an abundance of examples and illustrations with mode1s.

Watkins and Dillingham, Practical English Handbook, Houghton Mifflin, Co., Boston, MA, 1982.

This book is practical for use in class discussions and offers exercises for student self-help. This book is helpful for use in correcting and revising papers.

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Contents of 1986 Volume IV | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

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