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Improving Reading and Language Art Skills in Learning Disabled Spanish Students Through the Study of LatinAmerican Poetry

Bethania Urena Hernandez

Contents of Curriculum Unit 86.02.05:

To Guide Entry

It was frustrating when I first started working as a resource teacher of reading and language arts with middle school learning disabled students from the sixth, seventh and eighth grades. Their ages range between 13 and 15 years old and sometimes 16 years old; yet they had poor or no reading skills, and an appropriate curriculum and materials for these students were not available.

These students were diagnosed as being Learning Disabled (L.D.), Educable Mentally Retarded (E.M.R.) and/or Emotionally Disturbed (E.D.).

All of them presented the following characteristics:

-poor reading skills
-poor reading comprehension
-incorrect pronunciation
-repeating grades frustration
-low selfimage
-lack of motivation
-poor attendance, etc.
In addition, these students typically experience a high degree of migration and immigration, which delays the learning process; but at the same time it gives them certain experience in traveling and meeting new people. For this reason I believe many of them are very sociable and cooperative.

Many of these students also are very skillful using money, time, etc., because they already have parttime jobs and participate in gambling. In love affairs, in life experiences, they have learned a lot, but all of them are reading at a preprimer, first or second instructional level at the most, and present difficulty in writing correctly. Moreover, while they have experienced a great deal, they are frequently very immature emotionally.

Unfortunately, the reading materials designed for beginning readers are composed of simple passages related to animals, familiar stories, childhood stories and other topics which are not of interest to this group of students.

In addition to that, the books available for use are usually the same books that were used to teach these students when they were in the elementary levels. Students call this material “Baby Stuff” and refuse to work with it even when they are not able to read at that level. It is my purpose here to present a curriculum unit which will take into consideration these problems and will try to develop a technique that could help teachers not only to motivate our students to read but also to achieve some improvement in Language Arts in general. Included also is some information in science and/or social studies, since their poor reading ability impedes these students from working on these subjects in their regular classrooms.

The unit will recall Nicholas Hobbs’ reeducation program in which he emphasizes the importance of celebrating holidays, birthdays, anniversaries, etc. with the students and has them to recite poems, to participate in drama, etc. . Commenting on the value of ritual, Hobbs says: “We have stumbled on and been impressed by the beneficence of ceremony, ritual, and metaphor for young people and have come to plan for their inclusion in the program . . . And a Christmas pageant can effect angelic transformation of boys whose ordinary conduct is far from seraphic.”1 Hobbs also comments on the special value of drama and poetry in the educational process: “Another program may include a show of the older boys’ mystery of tumbling or a once shy and clumsy child reading a simple verse.”2

In designing this unit I have also thought back on my own learning experience which was interesting, enjoyable, formative and unforgettable. Now, I continue the tradition and many of the poems that I learned when I was in elementary and middle school I will teach to my students.

I agree very much with the statement of my two colleagues Barbara Banquer and Amy Aledort in their curriculum unit entitled Literature and the Special Education Students: “The teacher’s love and interest in the material being taught has a tremendous effect on the degree of motivation shown by the students.”3

Therefore, I have decided to write my curriculum unit using the same ideas that I have been using for years with a great degree of success: teaching poems to improve reading, writing and verbal expression skills, and trying always to present the lessons in a simple and enjoyable manner in order to reach the interest and understanding of the students.

I have chosen to introduce poems of Latin American writers with themes taken from the era of the conquests to the present. Using these poems I attempt to accomplish objectives in academic areas and in emotional ones as well; when a student is able to analyze, understand and represent the poem with gestures, in drawing or in reciting the poem in public, he/she has improved academically and emotionally.

To accomplish the goal, general and more specific objectives are needed.

General Objectives

1.Improving reading and oral expression skills by reading, describing and reciting poems.
2.To improve reading comprehension by analyzing the poems, look for: topic, rhyme schemes, sentence structure, etc.
3.To make students aware of their past and tradition by learning about the conquests and their influence on our language, religion and festivities.

Special Objectives  (students will improve)

1.Vocabulary development.
2.Dictionary skills.
3.Verb tenses.
5.Sentence structure.
6.In demonstrating appreciation for the beauty meaning of the poems.
The unit will cover six months, from October to May inclusive, and will be divided into subunits with the purpose of covering the following holidays:

1.The Discovery of America—October 12
2.Christmas—December 25
3.Saint Valentine’s Day—February 14
4.Pan American Day—April 14
5.Arbor Day—April 22
6.Mother’s Day—Second Sunday in May.
The first month of the school year will be used to collect information about the students’ level of performance in reading, reading comprehension, verbal expression, writing skills and attitude, not only towards the subject, but towards school activities in general.

Then, the specific holidays will be studied. If the teacher prefers, he/she may adapt only part of this unit. Example: choose only the Discovery of America or Pan American Day to study.

The Latin America poets that I will use to develop this curriculum are: Gabriela Mistral, Jose Marti and Ruben Dario.

In addition, other Latin American or Spanish poets may be used. The teacher should feel free to make this unit his or her own by finding selections from various authors to include.

Gabriela Mistral (Lucila Godoy), one of the most famous poets in the Spanish language, was born in Vicuna, Chile on April 7, 1889. She entered a teaching career at the young age of fifteen, a career which she loved and to which she dedicated her life.

Her collection of poems Ternura, in which she manifests a great love for children, gave her a universal recognition.

In 1945 Gabriela Mistral received the Nobel Prize in Literature, gaining special mention on this occasion for her poem “El poema del Hijo” as a universal masterpiece.

All her poems are subsumed under four different titles: Desolacion, Tala, Lagar and Ternura.

She is also well known for her cradle songs “Canciones de Cuna” in which she emphasizes the intimate relationship between the mother and the newborn child, as a part of her own body.

Gabriela Mistral was very concerned about infants, especially for the poor as she expresses in her poem “Piececitos”:

Piecec’tos de nino,
azulosos de frio,
Cómo os ven y no os cubren!,
Dios m’o!
She made her concern specific in her speech for the first conference in the International Year of Children: “We are guilty of much delinquency; but the worst of all is the abandonment of the infants. Careless of the fountain.”

Listed below are some of Mistral’s poems which might be used in the classroom in conjunction with a unit on the holidays.


Donde fue Tihuantisuyo,
nac’an los indios.
Llegábamos a la puna\
con danzas, con himnos.
Silbaban quenas, ardián
dos mil fuegos vivos.
Cantaban Coyas de oro
y Amautas benditos.
Bajaste ciego de soles,
volando dormido,
para hallar viudos los aires
de llama y de indio.
Y donde eran maizales
ver subir el trigo
y en luger de las vicuñas
topar los novillos.
¡Regresa a tu Pachacamac,
Indio loco, Indio que nace,
pájaro perdido!


Albahaca del cielo
malva de olor,
salvia dedos azules,
an’s desvariador.
Bailan atarantados
a la luna o al sol,
volando cabezuelas,
talles y color.
Las zamarrea el viento,
las abre el calor,
las palmotea el r’o
las aviva el tambor.
Cuando es que las mandaron
a ser matas de olor,
todas dir’an “¡Si!”
y gritar’an “¡Yo!”
La menta va al casorio
del brazo del cedrón
y atrapa la vainilla
al clavito de olor.
Bailemos a los locos
y locas del olor.
Cinco semanas, cinco,
les dura el splendor.
¡Y no mueren de muerte,
que se mueren de amor!


Caminando de Este a Oesto
con su arrastre de metales,
hacen la ronda de espadas
doce mil palmeras reales.
Se desparraman en grupos
como estrellas o animales;
y de nuevo se rehace la
ronda de palmas reales . . .


A la Tierra despertamos
de su sueño de castor
y en los brazos le dejamos
el alerce danzador.
Cantemos mientras el tall
toca el seno maternal.
Bautismo de luz da un ray
y es el aire su pañal.
Nombre no pide y no quiere;
se lo dan con el nacer.
Con su nombre vive y muere,
y a otro lo pasa al caer.
Lo entregaremos ahora
a la buena Agua y a vos,
Sol que cr’a y Sol que dora
y a la Tierra hija de Dios.
El Señor le hará tan bueno
como un buen hombre o mejor:
en la tempestad sereno,
y en la siesta amparador.
Yo lo dejo en pie. Ya es m’o
y le juro proteoción
cuando el viento, cuando el fr’o,
cuando el hombre matador.1


Que el niño m’o
as’ se me queda.
No mamó mi leche
para que creciera.
Un niño no es el roble,
y no es la ceiba.
Los álamos, los pastos,
los otros, crezcan:
en malvavisco
mi miño se queda.
Ya no le falta nada:
rise, maña, cejas,
aire y donaire.
Sobra que crezca.
Jose Marti, a distinguished poet, writer and speaker, was born in La Habana, Cuba January 28, 1853 and died in 1895 while fighting against the Spanish rulers and gaining recognition as a “Cuban Hero.”

He was very concerned with the political and economical situation of his country and other countries in Latin America. He expressed his feelings in poems, letters, and articles published while acting as a journalist in different countries including North America. His great love for children motivated him to write a magazine for children entitled, The Age of Gold.

In 1882 he finished his first book Ismaelillo. Some years later he completed his second book, Versos Sencillos. With this he received the title of sencillist poet.

Below are poems by Marti which might be taught in this curriculum unit:

Taken from Versos Sencillos (XXV)

Yo pienso, cuando me alegro
Como un escolar sencillo,
en el canario amarillo,
Que tiene el ojo tan negro!
Yo quiero, cuando me muera
Sin patria, pero sin amo,
Tener en mi lose un ramo
De flores,—y una bandera!

Taken from Versos Sencillos (XXXIV)

Yo sé de un profundo
Entre las penes sin nombres:
La esclavitud de los hombres
Es la gran pena del mundo!
Hay montes, y hay que subir
Los montes altos; después
Veremos, alma, quien es
quien te me ha puesto al morir!


¿ Del tirano? Del tirano
D’ todo,¡d’ más!; y clava
Con furia de mano esclava
Sobre su oprobio al tirano.
¿ Del error? Pues del error
D’ el antro, d’ las veredas
Oscuras: d’ cuanto puedas
Del tirano y del error.
¿De mujer? Pues puedo ser
Que mueras de su mordida;
¡Pero no empañes tu vida
Diciendo mal de mujer!


Cultivo una rosa blanca,
En julio como en enero,
Para el amigo sincero
Que me da su mano franca.
Y pare el cruel que me arranca
El corazón con que vivo,
Carto ni ortiga cultivo;
Cultivo la rosa blanca.
Si brusco soy, si de soberbia herido,
te hiero a ti, ni mi perdón te imploro.
Venc’ otra vez; yo quiero ser vencido,
y en busca aqu’ de quien me venza, lloro.
¡Perdón, perdón! Yo puse en mis miradas
el fuego extraño de la patria m’a,
allá donde la vida en alboradas
perpetuas se abre al palpitar del d’a.


Como un ave que cruza el aire claro,
Siento hacia m’ venir tu pensamiento
Y acá en mi corazón hacer su nido.
Abrese el alma en flor; tiemblan sus ramas
Como los labios frescos de un mancebo
En su primer abrazo a una hermosura;
Cuchichean las hojas, tal parecen
Lenguaraces obreras y envidiosas,
A la doncella dp la casa rica
En preparar el tálamo ocupadas.
Ancho es mi corazón, y es todo tuyo.
¡Todo lo triste cabe en él, y todo
Cuanto en el mundo llora, y sufre, y muere!
De hojas secas, y polvo, y derru’das
Ramas lo limpio; bruño con cuidado
Cada hoja, y los tallos; de las flores
Los gusanos y el pétalo comido
Separo; oreo d césped en contorno
¡Y a recibirte, oh pájaro sin mancha,
Apresto el corazón enajenado!
Ruben Dario was one of the most romantic poets of Latin America, being recognized as the greatest poet of the Spanish Language in the modern times. He was born in Nicaragua on January 18, 1867 and died in 1916. Dario gave to poetry a new style: different, simple, liberal using different metrics. This new style was very admired by all his contemporaries who gave it the name of “Modernism.”

He was not only a brilliant poet, but a good college teacher and diplomat who represented his country in many other countries of Latin America and Europe.

Some of his most famous poems are “Cancion de Amor en Primavera,” and “Cancion de Otono.”

Del libro Antolog’a Poética Rima número XIIIpágina 55

—Allá está la cumbre. .
¿Qué miras?—Un astro.
—¿Me amas?—¡Te adoro!
—¿Qué ves?—Una aurora
fugitiva y pálida.
—¿Qué sientes?—Anhelo.
—Esa es la esperanza.
—¡Qué alientos de vida!
¡Qué fuego de sol!
¡Qué luz tan radiante!
—¡Ese es el amor!
—¿Qué ves a tus plantas?
—Un profundo abismo.
¿Tiemblas?—Tengo miedo . . . .
—¡Ese es el olvido!
Pero no tiembles ni temas:
bajo el sacro cielo azul,
para el que ama no hay abismos
porque tiene alas de luz.

Amo, Amas

Amar, amar, amar, amar siempre, con todo
el ser y con la tierra y con el cielo,
con lo claro del sol y lo oscuro del lodo:
Amar por toda ciencia y amar por todo anhelo.
Y cuando la montaña de la vida
nos sea dura y larga y alta y llena de abismos,
amar la inmensidad que es de amor encendida
¡y arder en la fusión de nuestros pechos mismos!

Hemos de ser justos

Hemos de ser justos, hemos de ser buenos;
hemos de embriagarnos de paz y de amor,
y llevar el alma siempre a flor de labios
y desnudo y limpio nuestro corazón.
Hemos de olvidarnos de todos los odios,
de toda mentira, de toda ruindad;
hemos de abrasarnos en el santo fuego
de un amor inmenso, dulce y fraternal.
Hemos de estar siempre gozosos—tal dijo
Pablo, el elegido, con divina voz—,
y a través de todos los claros caminos,
caminar llevando puesta el alma en Dios.

Soneto Pascual (19141916) Rubén Dar’o

Mar’a estaba pálida y José el carpintero:
miraban en los ojos de la faz pure y bella
el celeste milagro que anunciaba la estrella
do ya estaba el martirio que aguardaba el Cordero.
Los pastores cantaban muy despacio, y postrero
iba un carro de arcángeles que dejaba su huella;
apenas se miraba lo que Aldebarán sella,
y el lucero del alba no era aún tempranero.
Esa visión en m’ se alza y se multiplica
en detalles preciosos y en mil prodigios rica,
por la cierta esperanza del más divino bien,
de la Virgon, el Niño y el San José proscripto;
y yo, en mi pobre burro, caminando hacia Egipto,
y sin la estrella ahora, muy lejos de Belén.

Los Tres Magos

—Yo soy Gaspar, Aqu’ traigo el incienso.
Vengo a decir: ¡La vida es pura y bella!
Existe Dios. E1 amor es inmenso.
¡Todo lo sé por la divine Estrella!
—Yo soy Melchor. Mi mirra aroma todo.
Existe Dios. El es la luz del d’a.
La blanca flor tiena sus pies en lodo.
Y en el placer hay la melancol’a.
—Yo soy Baltasar. Traigo el oro. Aseguro
que existe Dios. El es grande y fuerte.
Todo lo sé por el lucero puro
que brilla en la diadema de la Muerte.
—Gaspar, Melchor y Baltasar, callaos.
Triunfa el amor, y a su fiesta os convida.
Cristo resurge, hace la luz del caos
y tiene la corona de la Vida.

El D’a de los Reyes Magos (Enero 6)

E1 d’a deReyes, por fin ha llegado,
no hay d’a en el año, que sea mejor
Juguetes, muñecas, y dulces también,
han tra’do al niño gue ha portado bien.
El d’a de Reyes, por fin ha llegado,
no hay d’a en el año, gue sea mejor.

Above poems by Ruben Dario.

First SubUnit—The Discovery of America—October

Objectives  To improve:

1.reading skills
2.oral and reading comprehension
3.oral and written expression skills
4.enjoyment of poems and literature in general.
In this unit I intend to teach the students about the Indians, their style of life in terms of housing, nutrition, entertainment, etc., including some explanations about their economical and political situation.

Students will describe pictures, read passages, make comments and draw villages in the Indians’ style, in order to compare with the Spaniards’ building constructions and other changes later.

After this, students will be introduced to the discovery of America; the teacher will give them a brief description of each of the four trips of Christopher Columbus, the places discovered in each of the trips and the most important events that happened at that time. The class will then discuss the end of the dominance of the Indian culture and the birth of a new culture with a new language, religion, government, festivities, etc.—a culture which received the name of A New World. Throughout, the teacher should always describe things clearly and simply.

During the development of this unit, studente will:

-read passages
-make comments
-describe pictures
-read maps
-make inferences
-draw conclusions
-look for similarity and differences between the Old and New World
-copy, read, analyze and recite poems related to the topic.
Students will also decorate the bulletin board as an artistic expression of their feeling and understanding of the lesson.

Poem about Christopher Columbus

Del inmortal genovés
llevo el nombre con orgullo
soy Colombia cierto es,
y junto al Ecuador figuro.
In discussing this short poem you will need a map of South America. The teacher will ask the students to find Colombia on the map, then to find Ecuador. The teacher can talk also about which one is in the north, in the south, etc.

Initiate discussions about “genoves.” Why do we call Christopher Columbus genoves?

The teacher will explain that people receive the name of the country that they come from (nationality). Example: American for America, Mexican for Mexico, Cuban for Cuba, etc. Explain also that even though the name of the country is written with capital letters, the name given to the people is written in lower case in Spanish, but in upper case in English.

Colón, Guillermo Matta

A la marcha veloz del pensamiento
obstáculo en el mundo pone en vano
sólo el débil se abate al sufrimiento
el genio es invensible y soberano.
Colón, Colón renueva tu ardimiento
ven, ya te espera el hemisferio indiano,
y en frágil nave desafiando el viento,
yendo en pos de tu gloria el océano.
Tu genio, el globo mistorioso abarca
de pie sobre el timón, audaz piloto
siempre al oeste, siempre va tu barca
¡oh, gozo!, ¡oh, triunfo en el conf’n remoto!
haciendo el alba entre arreboles marca
extensa playa de este mundo ignoto.

El Junco Verde, Jose Juaquin Perez

Fugaz sobre el cerúleo Mar Caribe,
al soplo inquieto de la brisa, vuela,
y el dulce rayo matinal recibe
del immortal colón la carabela.
El, de pie y en 1a prora, absorto mira
en lontananza vago punto verde,
que, cual juguete de las ondas, gira,
y en la vasta extensión del mar se pierde.
—“¡A virar!”, grita trémulo, agitado,
con la emoción del que, temiendo, espera,
y ve en el porvenir ya realizado
lo que un sueño falaz tan solo era.
Dócil cede la nave; en pos se lanza
de eso que informe en el abismo vuela:
¡dulce y vago vislumbre de esperanza
con que el alma del nauta se consuela!

Second SubUnit—Christmas Festivities—December


1.To improve oral and written expression skills
2.To make the students aware of tradition and religious festivities
3.To help student enjoy the celebration, activities and beauty of the poems.
In this subunit I intend to enhance the students’ appreciation of the commemorative events and traditions of Christmas celebrations, by talking first about what we celebrate every year and how different countries celebrate their Christmas, as with different music, food, dramatization and other festivities; how people enjoy sending greeting cards, exchanging presents, and keeping the tradition of celebrating the arrival of the three kings on January 6th.

The teacher will narrate in a simple and clear language the story of the birth of Jesus and the visit of the kings.

During the month of December different poems and carols (villancicos) will be taught to the students.

The unit should begin always with the shorter and more simple poems, to facilitate the participation of the whole class without frustration. For example:

Venid al portal
a ver un primor
que entre las estrellas
hay un nuevo sol.
Because of the poem’s short length, simplicity and rhyming, the students can easily learn and repeat it from memory after three or four readings. Here the teacher will explain the figurative meaning of the spoken or written language.

entre las estrella
hay un nuevo sol.
For example, the discussion might go something like this:

Teacher: Who was born in the portal?
Students: Jesus.
Teacher: Entonces, De que sol habla en el poema?
Students: Del nino Jesus.
Teacher: What does the sun do?
Students: Da luz, calor, etc.
Here the new vocabulary word is “prior.” Ask the students to spell the word, look for the word in the dictionary.

The teacher can also ask for the rhyming words. Example: primor—sol. Explain that even though the final letters are not the same, 1-4, the vowel o gives the rhyming sound or—ol. Ask the students to read the poem again.

Below are two selections which work well in the classroom.

Romance de Noche Buena

Vamos a buscar
dónde nació el niño.
Nació en todo el mundo,
ciudades, caminos . . .
Tal vez caminando
lo hallemos dormido
en la ore más alta
debajo del trigo . . .
O está a estas horas
llorando caidito
en la mancha espesa
de un montón de lirios.
A Belén nos vamos
Jesús no ha querido
estar derramando
por campo y caminos.
Su madre es Mar’a,
pero ha consentido
que esta noche todos
le mezan al niño.
Yo sé que ha nacido Jesús Nazareno,
Que el mundo está lleno do gozo por él;
Y gue es tan rosado, tan lindo y tan bueno,
Que hace al sol más sol y a la miel más miel.

Third SubUnit—Saint Valentine’s Day—February 14th

The main goal in this unit is to promote in the students’ free oral expression.

Additional objectives are to improve:

1.oral and reading comprehension skills.
2.written expression skills. Because the students at this age are very sociable and many of them are involved in love affairs, they really enjoy working on the subject of Valentine’s Day.

Activities  The teacher will initiate a discussion about feelings and allow students to talk about feelings—good and bad ones. Example: love and hate. Ask for the different between these two feelings. The teacher will talk about different kinds of love such as:

fraternal love
maternal love
love between teacher and students
love between peers, etc.
Teacher and students will talk about interpersonal relationships; the importance of these at home, between parents and children, between siblings, in school, around the neighborhood, etc.

Poem—by Jose Marti

Cultivo una rosa blanca,
en junio como en enero,
pare el amigo sincero,
que me da su mano franca.
Y pare el cruel que me arranc
el corazon con que vivo,
cardos ni hortigas cultivo,
cultivo una rosa blanca.
The teacher should read the poem slowly giving the correct intonation; then open a discussion about the meaning of the poem.

Teacher: What do you think about the author’s poem?
Students: He plants flowers to give to his friends.
Teacher: Only to his friends?
Students: Yes.
Teacher: Let us see what “cruel” means. Let’s look in the dictionary and examine the words “cardos” and “hortigas.” (The teacher underlines the two words.) Cardos, hortigas—plants that grow in arid soils, in sterile land.
The teacher will again emphasize friendship, not to take advantage of another or to take revenge against another. The teacher will read the second verse.

La Caridad, Rubén Dar’o

¡Dad al pobre, dad al pobre
paz, consuelo, alivio, pan!
¡Que recobre la esperanza
y la alegr’a
con la ayuda que le dan!
A las manos bondadosas
desde el cielo Dios env’a
el perfume de las rosas
de la eterna Alejandr’a.
Dad limosna al gue se agita
por cruel miseria opreso;
¡a la triste cieguecita,
dadle un beso!
The objectives of studying this poem are to:

1.improve reading skills.
2.improve oral expression skills.
3.improve writing skills by writing the poem, emphasizing punctuation. Example: Explain to the student the use of the comma when separating items of the same category, such as—dar al pobre paz, consuelo, alivio, pan.
4.initiate discussion about charity; how we can help other people, especially children, old people, sick people, etc.
The students will:

-read the poem aloud.
-copy the poem.
Related Activities: Students will prepare greeting cards, trace and cut out red hearts and cupids, and make red carnations, etc. These activities are an artistic expression of their understanding of the topic.

Amor, Rubén Dar’o

El amor está en las rosas,
las rosas son el amor,
Cupido anda entre las cosas
y hace de ellas una flor.
A veces despierta un nido,
y a veces se va a vagar,
y anda en el viento, en el ruido,
en el bosque y en el mar.
Hace despertar los truenos
y hace rugir los leones
y forma jardines buenos
dentro de los corazones.

Dedicatorias, José Mart’

No hay pena cual la de amar
a un pueblo solo y cautivo,
que vive, clavado vivo,
a lo lejos de la mar:
¡ni sé de alivio mayor
al corazón que se abrasa,
que el sol y el café en la casa
de la amistad y el amor!

Rhynes XIII

—Allá está la cumbre.
¿Qué miras?—Un astro.
—¿Me amas?—¡Te adoro!
—¿Qué Ves?—Una aurora
fugitiva y pálida.
—¿Qué sientes?—Anhelo.
—Esa es la esperanza.—¿Qué alientos de vida!
¡Qué fuegos de sol! ¡Qué luz tan radiante!
—¡Ese es el amor!
Ruben Dario

Taken from the poem Tú y Yo of Rubén Dar’o

¿Amor? . . . Germen fecundo de la docencia humana.
Origen venturoso de sin igual placer. . . ,
con algo de la tarde y algo de la mañana . . .
¡Con algo de la dicha y algo del padecer!
¿No veis a la luna, que brilla fulgente en el cielo?
¿No o’s del arroyo el suave y callado rumor?
Pues eso gue brinda la luna tranquila, es consuelo
Pues eso que dice el arroyo en el bosque, es amor.

Fourth SubUnit—Pan American Day—April 14

With this unit I intend that besides improving reading and language arts, the students learn about friendship, liaison and confraternity among the countries of the New World. The students will be reminded of the Discovery of America. It is hoped that they will see how one event is connected to the other. The teacher will: (1) Explain to the students that our country and the other American republics observe Pan American Day each year on April 14th. Pan American Day is the anniversary of the creation in 1890 of the Pan American Union, made up of the republics of South, Central and North America; (2) Explain to the students that there is a Pan American building in Washington and flags of all the Pan American nations fly there; (3) Use maps and globes during the development of this unit; (4) Show to the students, using the map, all the nations included in the Pan American celebration day. Name them, give a brief description of each of them, emphasizing the most important things shared among them such as—language, religion, climate, production, and tradition; explaining also some differences. (5) Explain also, in a simple manner, how the economic and political situations are factors that keep the American nations together; and (6) If in your school there are teachers or students from these countries, name them and point to the country on the map and tell that they came from there.

Related Activities: Take students to the library; look for maps of these countries. Look for the flag of each of the countries. Ask the students to identify the flag of the country that their family comes from. Make a drawing of the flag, color it, etc.

Taken from the poem Himno de Cuorra of Rubén Dar’o

Coro do niños:

Enseñadnos a ser valerosos;
enseñadnos a amar nuestro suelo;
nuestras preces levantan el vuelo
de infinitos deseos en pos.
Elevamos al cielo plegarias
por los que hoy camináis a la guerra:
Dios ahora se fija en la tierra
y la patria es hechura de Dios.

Coro de guerreros:

Somos fuertes; la espada desnuda
blandiremos allá en la batalla,
al rugir de espantosa metralla . . .
¡Ciudadanos! El arma empuñad;
que nos miren ganar en la lucha
el brillante laurel de victoria,
o encontrar en la muerte la gloria
y gritar al morir ¡libertad!

Patria by Joaqu’n Casas (colombiano)

Decir no sé lo que al nombrarte siento,
¡Patria! ¿Es orgullo? ¿Militar pujanza?
¿Es la dulce inquietud de la esperanza?
¿Es la tristeza de tu ayer sangriento?
Eso es y más. Activo sentimiento
que otro terreno a remedar no alcanza,
en que el dolor se funde en alabanza;
filial ternura en bélico ardimiento.
Cuando entre selvas el peñasco asoma
do el aire ondula tu estandarte santo
bañado en ondas del nativo aroma,
de amor viril estremecido canto:
“¡Patria!, la vida que me diste toma.
Poco es morir por lo que se ama tanto”.

TODA AMERICA Gaston Figueria

Toda América llena mis ojos de visiones.
Toda América llena mis labios de canciones.
Olvidaré tus sombras negras, Melancol’a.
Buscaré la blancura de tu luz, Alegr’a.
Pues aunque nuestros sueños más queridos, la Vida
clave una herida,
es preciso gritar la bondad de la Vida, de la Vida
que sabe siempre belleza dar
si con valor y fe la queremos mirar.
En la noche mi lámpara alzaré,
si me muerde un dolor, lo callaré.

Taken fron the poem

El Caballo y el Toro by Andrés Bello

Pueblos americanos,
si jamás olvidáis que sois hermanos,
y a la patria común, madre guerida,
ensagrentáis en duelo fratricida,
¡Ah! no invoguéis, por Dios, de gente extraña
el costoso favor, falaz, precario,
más de temer que la enemiga hazaña.
¿Ignoráis cuál ha sido su costumbre?
Demandar por salari
tributo eterno y dura servidumbre.


Dulce nombre que vibra y centellea,
es el nombre de patria bendecido
él mueve el corazón, late en la idea
y arrulla con su mágico sonido.
La patria es el hogar donde nacemos;
la patria es el rincón donde morimos;
la plegaria primera que aprendemos
la caricia postrer que recibimos.
Patria es el suelo venerable y santo
que el hombre siempre embellecer procura;
el habla maternal y el primer canto,
el aire bienhechor, la luz más pura.
La patria es fe, la patria es heroismo,
fe de mártir, emblema bien amado,
lazo del porvenir que une al pasado
como puente de luz sobre un abismo.

Fifth SubUnit—Arbor Day—April 22nd

In this subunit I intend, along with my major goals, to improve reading and language arts, to make the students aware of the forest and the great importance of the trees to humanity.

The teacher will explain how the wood is taken from trees with different purposes. Examples: building houses; building furniture such as beds, tables, chairs, desks, etc.; building altars in the churches; making pencils and papers, etc.

The teacher here inquires of the students in order to improve thinking skills—“What else is done with wood?” Possible answers—doors, frame of the blackboard, windows, etc.

Explain to the students the importance of the forest in the raining process, why it rains more in the mountains where there is a larger extension of forest. He or she compares this with the desert with little or no vegetation. The teacher explains the exception—small pieces of land in the desert with trees and water in it—an “oasis.”

The teacher also talks to the students about the importance of taking good care of the plants, protecting them from bad weather, providing water and fertilizing the soil, etc. We need water, food, vitamins, etc. in order to remain alive and healthy.

Tell the students the story of the Arbor’s Day celebration. Mr. J. Sterling Morton, in 1872, noticed that part of the soil in his state of Nebraska was getting dry and blowing away. He thought that he could help to moisten the ground by planting trees. He really helped to solve the problem, and many other people imitated him by planting trees in different places in the United States.

Poem—El Arbol

Ruben Dario
De mis ramas colgo su nido el ave
fruto maduro al hombre regalel
le di sombra en las horas del estio
cuando apagaba el manantial su sed.
The objectives in teaching this poem are:

1.improving reading skills giving the appropriate intonation.
2.looking for final words that rhyme: regale—sed.
3.underlining the verbs. Example: colgo, regale, di, apagaba.
The teacher will explain the expression “horas del estio.” Students will look up the word “estio” in the dictionary. The students should then be asked to say the same thing, using other words.

Song: El Arbol

Ramon Emilio Jimenez
Es el árbol feliz un amigo
que nos trace venir a jugar,
y nos llama al placer de su abrigo
pare hacernos reir y gozar.
Si sentimos amargas congojas
y el fastidio nos brinda su hiel
nos da el árbol la paz en sus hojas
y en sus frutos de oro la miel.
Fiel amante de todos los niños
nos inspire en sus ramas amor
y nos brinda sus tiernon cariños
en la esencia sutil de la flor.
En su tronco nos tiende una alfombra
del mas rico y lozano verdor
y al amparo feliz de su sombra
respirámos un aire mejor.
No ofendámos su dura corteza
respetemos su vivo esplendor
porque el árbol nos da su riqueza
en la rama, en el fruto, en la flor.
The objectives of the study of this song are to:

1.improve reading skills.
2.improve oral expression by commenting on the song—talking about the tree, its characteristics, and parts of the tree (roots, trunk leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, etc.).
3.enjoy the beauty of the song. Here the teacher will emphasize that some trees change color on its leaves during different times of the year. The students will compare the kinds of trees that grow in North America. Example: Oak, cherry, pines, etc. to the kinds of trees that grow in the tropics—example: coaba, ping, espinllo, cedro, etc.
The class will differentiate between trees for wood only and trees for fruits, flowers, etc. The students will also talk about different kinds of fruits in the North and in the tropics.


Juan Ramon Jimenez

Frutas de mi pais.
A mi me gusta la piña,
la naranja y el caju’l.
Pero si pienso en el mango
la lechoza y el melón,
las quisiera prober todas
y saber cual es mejor.
In this short poem we can look for:

1.Punctuation: comma, when separating things of the same category. Example: pine, naranja y cajuil, mango, lechoza y melon, etc.
2.Improving verbal expression by naming other fruits, and their characteristics.
3.Improving thinking skills by—making comparisons between fruits, naming the parameters: size, color, flavor, texture, etc.


La Higuera by Juana de Ibarboroug

Porque es áspera y fea,
Porque todas sus ramas son grises,
Yo le tengo piedad a la higuera.
En mi quinta hay cien árboles bellos:
Ciruelos redondos,
Limoneros rectos
Y naranjos de brotes lustrosos.
En las primaveras,
Todos ellos se cubren de flores
En torno a la higuera.
Y la pobre parece tan triste
Con sus gajos torcidos que nunca
De apretados capullos se visten. . .
Por eso,
Cada vez que yo paso a su lado
Digo, procurando
Hacer dulce y alegre mi acento:
—Es la higuera el más bello
De los árboles todos del huerto.
Si ella escucha,
Si comprende el idioma en que hablo,
¡Qué dulzura tan honda hará nido
En su alma sensible de árbol!
Y tal vez, a la noche,
Cuando el viento abanique su copa,
Embriagada de gozo le cuente:
—Hoy a m’ me dijeron hermosa.
The objectives of studying this poem are to:

1.improve reading skills.
2.exercise reading, giving the correct intonation to the poem.
3.improve oral expression by—commenting on, describing, and analyzing the poem in terms of: feelings of the author, description of a huerta (garden), small orchard, kinds of trees existing in this garden, characteristics of these trees, etc.
4.look for common nouns, such as, higuera, huerto, ciruelos, limoneros, (nouns belonging to vegetation); primavera (one of the four seasons of the year); description of primavera (spring).
5.look for adjectives. Here the teacher needs to remind the students what adjectives are. The teacher might ask the students to underline the nouns in this poem, or make a circle around the adjectives, or to find both nouns and adjectives at the same time. Of course, the students have to be taught first in this apsect of language. Adjectives: aspera, fea, grises, lustrosos, etc.

Related Activities

1.Ask the students to look for other poems related to the topic—Arbor Day.
2.Bring to school different kinds of leaves from various trees and study the differences. The students might look for the same leaves in a Botanic reference book.
3.Students might prepare the bulletin board with different leaves, pictures, poems, and etc.
4.Students can also plant a tree in the school yard, etc.

Ronda de los Aromas

Gabriela Mistral

Albahaca del cielo
malva de olor,
salvia dedos azules
an’s desvariador.
Bailan atarantados
a la luna o al sol,
volando cabezuela
talles y color.

Poems by Gabriela Mistral

La Cuna

Carpintero, carpintero
haz la cuna de mi infante.
Corta, corta los maderos,
que yo espero palpitante.
Carpintero, carpintero,
baja el pino del repecho,
y lo cortas en las rama
que es tan suave cual mi pecho.
Carpintero ennegrecido
fuiste, fuiste criatura.
Al recuerdo de tu madre,
labras cunas con dulzura.
Carpintero, carpintero,
mientras, yo a mi nino arrullo,
que se duerma en esta noche sonriendo el hijo tuyo . . .


Mi cama fué on roble
Y en sus ramas cantaban los pájaros.
Mi cama fué un roble
Y mordió la tormenta sus gajos.
Deslizo mis manos
Por sus claros maderos pulidos,
Y pienso que acaso, toco el mismo tronco,
Donde estuvo aferrado algún nido.
Mi cama fué un roble,
Yo duermo en un árbol
En un árbol amigo del agua,
Del sol y la brisa, del cielo y del musgo,
De lagartos de ojuelos dorados
Y de orugas de un verde esmeralda
Yo duermo en un árbol.
¡Oh, amado, en un árbol dormimos.
Acaso por eso me parece el lecho
Esta noche, blando y hondo cual un nido
Y en ti me acurroco como un aveci1la
Que busca el reparo de su compañero.
¡Que rezongue el viento, que gruña 1a lluvia¡
Contigo, en el nido, no sé lo que es miedo.


Muchachuelo de brazos cetrinos
Que vas con tu cesta,
Rebosando naranjas pulidas
De un caliente color ambarino;
Muchachuelo que fuiste a las chacras
Y a los árboles amplios trepaste
Como yo me trepaba cuando era
Una libre chicuela salvaje;
Ven acá, muchachuclo: yo ans’o
Que me vuelques tu cesta en la falda.
Pide el precio más alto que quieras.
¡Ah, qué bueno el olor a naranjas!
A mi pueblo distante y tranquilo,
Naranjales tan prietos rodean,
Que en Agosto semeja de oro
Y en Diciembre de azahares blanquea.

Sixth SubUnit—Mother’s Day—Second Sunday in May

With this subunit, the last of this curriculum, I intend to help the students in more complex written activities—to make more use of the dictionary; to insist on more punctuation such as: period, colon, semicolon, (guion), question marks, etc., and to work more on sentence structure by asking them to write short poems and/or to write in prose things related to the topic; also to introduce to the students longer and more complex poems. Here they will use dialogues.

In this unit students also will demonstrate greater verbal ability by describing events, ancedotes, vivid experiences with their mothers recalling when they were young, talking about their mother, and answering questions as to why they think we celebrate Mother’s Day, what mothers do for us when we are babies, when we go to school, or when we feel sick, etc.

Try to get the students to make inferences, conclusions, etc.

Be careful not to emphasize too much how good mothers are, how dedicated, etc. You may have in the group students who do not live with their mothers, for many of these students are abandoned, abused, or their mothers may be in prison or deceased.

During the development of this subunit, students will: copy, read, make comments and analyze poems. They should also recite these poems in front of the class.

Students will make greeting cards by decorating the cover and writing inside—the more advanced students can write their own message or copy a longer poem. Students at the lower level can copy a short poem or just write a simple salutation such as:

Happy Mother’s Day
I love you,
Related Activities: Students will decorate the bulletin board with things related to the topic such as: a beautiful picture of a mother with a child taken from a magazine, flowers also cut from magazines, red hearts made by the students.

Ask the students at the end of the unit to write two or three paragraphs or a few sentences (depending on the students’ writing abilities) related to mother and what they think about this celebration, if mothers deserve it, why?, etc. This composition can also be placed on the bulletin board.

Poem: En tus brazos by German Berdiales (argentino)

Mamita, mamita
si tu fueses árbol,
tu hijito en tus ramas
quisiera ser pájaro.
Si tu fueses rio
que al mar va contando,
tu hijito en tus aguas
quisiera ser barco.
Mamita, mamita,
si fueses un rio
o fueses un árbol,
tu me acunar’as
igual en tus brazos.
The objectives in this poem are to:

1.improve reading skills with appropriate intonation.
2.improve oral expression by commenting on the poem.
3.demonstrate understanding of the poem by drawing a picture that represents the poem.

Dialogo entre la Madre y el Niño by Maria Morrison de Parker

—¡Qué camino largo! ¿Madre, dónde vas?
—A buscar, mi niño, tu felicidad.
—Madre, tendré fr’o cuando baje el sol.
—No, porque mi pecho te dará calor.
—Pero . . . ¡Es que me asusto de la oscuridad!
—No temas, mis ojos dos faros serán.
—¡Ay!, que los guijarros herirán mis pies.
—Nunca. Con mis uñas los arrancaré.
—Cuando sienta hambre, ¿quién la saciará?
—Toda madre encuentra, pare su hijo, pan.
—¿Y si no hallas agua cuando tenga sed?
—Sangre de mis venas te daré a beber.
—Cuando el sueño llegue, ¿donde he de dormir?
—Nido de mis brazos haré para ti.
—Madre, yo quisiera jugar con el sol.
—Córtame las trenzas, que doradas son.
—Y ¿si te pidiera flores de coral?
—Bajaré a buscarlas al fondo del mar.
—Madre, si ando mucho, me cansaré al fin.
—No, porque mis piernas andarán por ti.
—¿Y si al fin no encuentras mi felicidad?
—Será que en el mundo pare ti no está.
—Entonces, mi niño, cargaré tu cruz, pare que a lo menos, no la lleves tú.
With this beautiful dialogue we can try to achieve several objectives:

1.Students will learn more about what a dialogue is. Discuss other examples, e.g., when teacher and students talk in class. There can be two or more people in a dialogue.
2.Students will learn about the punctuation necessary when writing a dialogue (give many examples).
3.Students will identify other punctuation, pointing to question marks and exclamation marks.
4.Students will explain the use of these marks and give examples.
5.Students will look for new vocabulary words (guijarros). They will look up these words in the dictionary, and write the meanings.
6.The class will analyze the poem in terms of: what kind of question is the child asking his mother?
The teacher will try to get the students to make inferences. Why do they think the poet is asking this?, etc.

The teacher will encourage discussion between the students about the dialogue by asking—what do you think this dialogue represents? Possible answers:

—mothers provide everything for their children
—mothers sacrifice many things in order to please their children, etc.

Additional poems which might be used with this unit:


Joven aún, entre las verdes ramas,
de secas pajas fabricó su nido.
La vio la noche calentar sus cr’as,
la vio la aurora acariciar sus hijos.
Batió sus alas y cruzó el espacio,
buscó alimentos en lejanos riscos;
trajo de frutas la garganta llena
y con arrullos despertó a sus hijos.
El cazador la contempló dichoso . . .
Y presuroso disparóle un tiro . . .
Ella, la pobre, en su estertor de muerte,
abrió las alas y cubrió a sus hijos.
Victor Hugo (Francés)

La Madre Triste

Duerme, duerme, dueño m’o,
sin zozobra, sin temor,
aunque no se duerma mi alma,
aunque no descanse yo.
Duerme, duerme y en la noche
seas tú menos rumor
que la hoja de la hierba,
que la seda del vellón.
Duerma en ti la carne m’a,
mi zozobra, mi temblor.
En ti ciérrense mis ojos:
¡duerma en ti mi corazón!
Gabriela Mistral

Lesson Plan I—To introduce the students to the topic:

The Discovery of America

Objectives  General

1.To improve reading skills.
2.To improve oral expression skills.
3.To improve vocabulary development.
4.To assist the students in learning about their origins before the discovery of America; about the Indians, their life style, housing, nutrition, entertainment, communication, etc.

Objectives  Specific
The slower readers will be able to:

-read the poem aloud with the teacher.
-participate in oral discussions, i.e., what they have seen in movies, pictures, what they think, etc.
-copy the poem.
-look for the words in the poem that rhyme and underline such words, e.g., tierra, ella, etc.
The more advanced students will:

-read the poem.
-participate in discussion about clothing, sports, food, communication, self-defense, etc.
-look for rhyming words.

An excerpt from the poem “La Tierra” by Juan de Iborborou
Niño indio si estás cansado,

tu te encuentras sobre la tierra

y lo mismo si estas alegre

hijo mio juenga con ella.

Se oyen cosas maravillosas

al tambor indio de la tierra

se oye el fuego que sube y baja

buscando el cielo y no sosiega.

Rueda y rueda se oyen los rios

en cascade que no se cuentan

se oyen mugir los animales

se oye el hacha comer la selva.

Se oyen sonar telares indios

se oyen trillas, se oyen firestas, . . .

Donde el indio lo esta llamando

el tambor indio le contesta

y tane cerca y tane legos

como el que huye y que regresa.

Students should:

-make a list of the new words or words that represent things used by the Indians: e.g.
tambor          fuego
hacha          telares
trillas          tane
-write the words in alphabetical order


-The teacher should write the poem in advance on the blackboard.
-Introduce the theme by talking about our origin; people living in our land (Puerto Rico, The Dominican Republic, Cuba, etc.) before the arrival of Christopher Columbus; The teacher will explain how the Indians were physically—the color of skin, hair, eyes, etc.; their clothing; life style; kind of food, how successful they were in hunting and fishing in order to provide food for the family, etc. Talk about sports; explain the origins of baseball; talk about ceremonies, dancing around the fire, musical instruments, etc. Explain also about communication by listening to the sounds on the ground, looking at the smoke in the sky and making their fire in order to communicate with other villages, etc. Talk also about the kind of weapons they used (arrows) to defend themselves and how they used the same arrows for fishing.
-Show pictures and filmstrips, if available.
-Remind the students of what they know from movies of cowboys and Indians.
-Talk about the poem written on the blackboard and explain the purpose of the poem; read it, comment on it.
-Teacher and students (slower) will read the poem together.
-Students (more advanced) will read the poem individually.
-The teacher will ask the different groups for the written assignments; copy the poem, look for the rhyming words, copy the words in alphabetical order.

At the end students will draw a village (three or four) houses in the Indians’ style, forming a circle—they may draw a fire, drums, arrows, etc. as an understanding of the lesson.

Pictures or books with pictures of Indians. Film strips and/or movies if available, paper and pencil, crayons.



1.To improve reading skills.
2.To improve oral and reading comprehension.
3.To improve oral expression skills.
3.To improve written expression skills
4.To make the students aware of what a country (pais) means;—the land where our parents and we come from, its language, tradition, in terms of religion, food, music, etc., and to enhance the students’ interest in learning more and to demonstrate love and pride for their country and their fellow-citizens.

Students will be able to:

-read the poem aloud with the teacher.
-participate in oral discussions, talking about the meaning of the poem why we should love our land, be strong, defend our land, etc.
-name the country where they came from and the country where they are now living.
-copy the poem.
-look for new vocabulary words

Coro de Ninos: Ruben Dario

Enseñadnos a ser valerosos;
enseñadnos a amar nuestro suelo;
nuestras preces levantan el vuelo
de infinitos deseos en pos.
Elevamos el cielo plegarias
por los que hoy caminais a la guerra:
Dios ahora se fija en la tierra
y la patria es hechura de Dios.
-look up the words in the dictionary and write the meanings.
-write the words in alphabetical order.
-create sentences using these words.

The teacher will:

-write the poem in advance on the blackboard.
-introduce the theme by talking to the students about citizenship—a person that belongs to or comes from a specific country.
-explain what a country is, what a country represents to our parents and grandparents, how we should love, care and defend our country, etc.
-talk about the poem written on the blackboard.
-read the poem slowly, giving the correct intonation.
-comment and relate the meaning of the poem to what the teacher has said before; about caring and defending our land.
-read the poem aloud with the slow learner.
-ask the more advanced students to read the poem to themselves.
-ask the students for written assignments, e.g., copy the poem, write out the words, etc.

Students will:

-identify on the map the country where they came from.
-draw the map of their country and a map of the United States of America and mark the state where they reside.
-mention countries, where according to the news on TV and in the newspapers, people are fighting to defend their land, etc.


-World map
-Social Studies books from which to copy maps.
-Paper, pencils and crayons.
-Radio or TV to listen to the news.

Lesson Plan III—Continuation of Pan American Day SubUnit

The following plan entails three days or a week’s work.

Objectives  General

1.To improve reading skills.
2.To improve oral and reading comprehension skills.
3.To improve verbal expression skills.
4.To make the students aware of the existence of other countries and the friendship, liaison and confraternity among these countries by the introduction of a song “America Immortal.”

The teacher will:

-write the song in advance on the blackboard.
-introduce the theme by reminding the students of a previous lesson where they discussed what a country is and how we show love and care about our country; then start talking about other countries (here the teacher needs the map of the Americas and a world map displayed on the bulletin board).
-explain the relationship between these countries in terms of language, religion, production, etc. Emphasize here the liaison with other countries even when we do not have the same language or culture, but how we help each other.
-talk about the song written on the blackboard, its meaning (related to what the teacher has been saying).
-read the song slowly, giving the adequate intonation.
-ask the students to read with him/her.
-initiate student’s comments about the song.
-ask the students for a written assignment—to copy the song.
-ask the most advanced students to identify the most difficult spelling words and write them out.
-ask the students to look up the words in the dictionary and write the words in alphabetical order.

Students will:

-draw the maps of North, Central and South America.
-write the name of the countries on each map.
-look for the countries where his friends and teachers came from.
-tape record other songs and poems related to the topic.
-go to the library and look for flags of the different countries and draw and color the flags, writing down the names of the countries that the flags belong to.
-decorate the bulletin board with the maps, flags and songs that they prepared, etc.

J.Obelleiro Carvajal.
Tierras libres que jamás
nadie podrá conquistar,
fronteras que trazó el mar,
fronteras de libertad
Patrias que sabrán luchar,
pueblos que sabrán vencer,
unidos por la verdad,
por el amor y el deber
América Inmortal.
fuente de luz
faro de libertad,
tus fronteras son
lazos de amor, de Gloria sin igual
América Inmortal,
sublime luz
que el mundo alumbrará,
siempre serás
la salvación,
América Inmortal

Students will be able to:

-read and sing the song.
-participate in discussion about the song—the meaning of the song, naming the countries mentioned in this song.
-identify these countries on the map.
-identify the countries of North, Central and South America.
-explain why they are called North, Central and South America.
-look for new vocabulary words, writing out these words.
-look up the meaning of the words in the dictionary.
-write the words in alphabetical order.
-as a class activity the teacher might tape the whole class singing the song. They teacher may ask the music teacher for assistance when rehearsing and recording the song.
1.Write the name of North, Central and South America in the appropriate places.
2.Write the name of the country where you now live.
3.Make a check mark in the country that you came from.
(figure available in print form)
(figure available in print form)
Music of American Immortal
(figure available in print form)
(figure available in print form)

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1. Nicholas Hobbs. The Troubled and Troubling Child. Reeducation in Mental Health, Education and Human Services Programs for Children and Youth. JosseyBass Publishers: San Francisco, 1982, p. 278.
2. Ibid., p. 280.
3. Barbara Banquer and Amy Aledort. “Literature and the Special Education Student: A MultiMedia Approach.” Twentieth Century American Fiction. Biography and AutoBiography. Curriculum Unit by Fellows of the YaleNew Haven Teachers Institute, 1985. Vol. III. p. 20.

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Brady, Agnes M. and Margarita Marquez de Mouts. La Navidad, Christmas in Spain and Latin America. National Textbook Co., Skokie, Illinois. n.d.

Burnett, Bernice. The First Book of Holidays. Franklin Nalts, Inc., New York, 1955.

Consejo Superior de Enseñanza. Niños y Alas. Tomo I Parte I.

Dario, Ruben. Antologia Poetica. Editorial Caymi, Buenos Aries, 1956.

Dario, Ruben. Poesias y Cuentos. Ediciones Zues, Barcelona, 1969.

de Villar, Dra. Delia Diaz. Lengua Española No. 3. Compan’a Cultural Editora y Distribuidora de Textos Americanos, S.A. Ediciones y Distribuidora Códice, S.A. Madrid.

Espinoz, Dr. Luis Pérez. Libro Terero de Lectura. Ediciones Escolares. La Escuela Nueva, Madrid. n.d.

Godoy Alcayagan, Lucila, ed. Antologia General de Gabriela Mistral.

Gonzalez, Octavio Quintano. Apreciaciones y Anecdotas sobre Ruben Dario. Biblioteca Franco Cerutti. León, Nicaragua. n.d.

Hobbs, Nicholas. The Troubled and The Troubling Child. Reeducation in Mental Health, Education, and Human Services Programs for Children and Youth.—Jossey—Bass Publishers. San Francisco and Washington and London, 1982.

Ibarborou, Juana De. Obras Completas. Aguilar S.A. Madrid, 1953.

Ibarborou, Juana De. Antologia Poético. Empreso Editorial Ziz-Zog, S.A. Santiago De Chile, 1940.

Ibarborou, Juana De. Sus mejors poesias, ed., H. Diaz. Editorial Nascimiento. n.s.

Jimenez, R. Emilio. La Patria en la Canción. Editora de Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, 1980.

Mart’, José. Obras Completas ordenadas y prologadas por Alberto Ghiraldo. Editorial Atlantida, Vol. II.

Mart’, José. Poesias. colección de Autores de la L’teratura Universal. Vol. III. Montevideo, 1963.

Mistral, Gabriela. Antologia General de Gabriel Mistral. Nos. 2, 24, 25, 26 and 27. Homenoje de Orfeo. Santiago de Chile, n.d.

Mistral, Gabriela. Desolación, Tenrnura, TalaLaggar. Introducción por Palma Guillen de Nicolau. editorial Porrua, S.A., Ave. Republica Argentina, 15, Mexico, 1973.

Mistral, Homenaje de Orfeo. Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Mistral, Gabriela. Poesias, ed. Godoy Alcayagan. Coleccion Literaturas Latino America. Casa de las Américas. n.d.

Mistral, Gabriela. Poesias Completas. Aguilar, S.A. De Ediciones, Juan Bravo, 38, Madrid, Espana, 1966.

Mistral, Gabriela. Voz De la Americo Hispanico. Editorial San Juan. Calle Norte 52 Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. 1973.

Pérez, José Juaquin. Obra Poétical Selección y Notas de Carlos Federico Perez. Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Ureña, Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana. 1970.

Pérez, Espinóz. Libro Tercero de lecture. El Nuevo Sembrador Ediciones Escolares. la Escuela Nueva. Madrid, Espana. 1972.

Perez, Espinóz. Libro Quinto De Lectura. El Nuevo Sembrador,d Ediciones Escolares. La Escuela Nueva. Madrid, Espana. 1971.

Poesias seleccionatas pare Niños, Editorial Atántida, S.A., Buenos Aires.

Secretaria De Estado de Educación, Bellas Artes y Cultos. Cantemos Segundo Cancionero pare la escuela primaria. Ediciones, Secretaria de Estado de Bellas Artes y Cultos. Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana.

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Consejo Superior de Enseñanza. Niños y Alas. Tomo I Parte I.

de Villar, Dra. Delia Diaz. Lengua Española No. 3. Compan’a Cultural Editora y Distribuidora de Textos Americanos, S.A. Ediciones y Distribuidora Códice, S.A. Madrid.

Jimenez, R. Emilio. La Patria en la Canción. Editora de Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.

Perez, Espinoz. Libro Tercero de lecture. El Nuevo Sembrador Ediciones Escolares. la Escuela Nueva. Madrid, Espana. 1972.

Perez, Espinoz. Libro Quinto De Lectura. El Nuevo Sembrador, d Ediciones Escolares. La Escuela Nueva. Madrid, Espana. 1971.

Secretaria De Estado de Educación, Bellas Artes y Cultos. Cantemos Segundo Cancionero pare la escuela primaria. Ediciones, Secretaria de Estado de Bellas Artes y Cultos. Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana.

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