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The Mexican-American Influence on the United States

by
Harriet J. Bauman


Contents of Curriculum Unit 84.03.01:

To Guide Entry


The United States is a country of many cultures which, through immigrants, had an influence on the unique fiber of American life today. Some of these immigrants who had a profound effect, were the Spanish and the Hispanics from Mexico, Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico. As all of these immigrant groups’ contributions were abundant, it was imperative to limit this unit to one group, the Mexican-Americans.

This unit’s focus is the contributions of the Mexican-Americans to American culture. It is designed for either eight or sixteen weeks. It can be used in a high school Spanish II, III, or IV class, alone, or in conjunction with a United States History class, an American Literature class, a Humanities class, or an art history or music history class.

A unit such as this is a necessary addition to the Foreign Language curriculum of the New Haven Public Schools. An important facet of the curriculum is the study of the foreign culture. Unfortunately, in our curriculum, all aspects of Spanish and Hispanic culture are studied, except their influence on the United States. Therefore, this unit begins to fill the gap.

An historical perspective is maintained throughout the unit. The events and people, which should be familiar to the students from their study of American History, are the basis for explaining the strong Hispanic influence in a major area of the United States: the Southwestern states.

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OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

The rich heritage of our Spanish-speaking ancestors is one that students should explore in depth, with the teacher acting as a resource person.

A general study of Mexico and Mexican History, undertaken before beginning this unit, will make the suggested activities much more meaningful to the students. An excellent source is Muchas Facetas de México by Jane Burnett (see Reading list for Teachers). It gives a good overview of Mexico today. There are many short chapters each containing concise information in Spanish.

For more detailed information on Mexican History, Mexican-Americans: Sons of the Southwest by Ruth S. Lamb is an excellent choice. Mexico’s history from prehistoric times to the present, including the Southwestern states, is presented in such a manner as to explain the Mexican-American today. The information is enormous and it is better for the teacher to use it in a synopsis for the students.(see Reading List for Teachers)

Another important pre-unit activity is to have students, working in groups, write letters to the Mexican Embassy in New York and to the Chambers of Commerce of individual states: Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Colorado, Montana, Nevada, Louisiana, and Florida. They are to ask for information and pictures that will help them learn about the Spanish and Hispanic contributions (see Resource List).

These activities accomplished, the stage is set for the main event: a study of Mexican-Americans and their influence on the United States.

Objective 1  To encourage the learning of Spanish for communication and understanding of the Hispanic heritage.

Strategies  Since the main subject in which this unit is to be taught is Spanish, a major emphasis of the unit is to continue to build the four main skills of language learning: speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

a. Students will learn about the folklore of the Southwest by reading some Mexican legends in Spanish. Both Leyendas Latinoamericanas by Genevieve Barlow, and Leyendas Mexicanas by Genevieve Barlow and William Stivers contain many of the most popular Mexican legends. They are written simply enough for the students so that they can read them easily. Questions for each legend are included in both books. It is wise to select the legends which will emphasize a particular cultural point such as “La china poblana” in Leyendas Mexicanas which tells the story of a young Asian girl captured by pirates and brought to Mexico. The outfit she was wearing was very different from that of the Mexican women. Instead of protesting her fate, the girl made a new life in Mexico. In her honor, the Mexican women wear a festival dress called “la china poblana”. A picture of this outfit can be found in Muchas Facetas de México on page 9.
b. The students can represent the legends they read by illustrating them or acting in skits based on them.
c. They can write their own legends in Spanish about a particular cultural point. For example, here is an original legend about the origin of the piñata:
Once upon a time there was a little boy named Miguel whose family was so poor that there were no toys for him to play with. The family had so little money they could barely pay for food or rent.

Miguel wanted something to play with very badly. He prayed every day for a toy.

One day, an angel appeared and said, “I will grant your wish if you do something special and dedicate it to me.” The little boy thought and thought. Finally he had an idea. “I will make a beautiful bird, and the angel will be pleased.”

He found a clay pot that his mother no longer needed, and some wire that his father was going to throw away. He used the pot as the body of the bird and fashioned the rest of the bird with the wire. He covered it with strips of brightly colored paper making it look like a beautiful quetzal bird, which resembled the one who lived in the tree next to his house. When he was finished, he hung the piñata on a branch of the tree.

The next day, the angel reappeared, thanked Miguel, and told him he would find a surprise inside the piñata. Miguel jumped and jumped, but he couldn’t reach it.

He found a stick and swung at the piñata. On the third swing, he hit it and broke it. Toys and candies spilled out all around him! Gleefully he played with the toys and ate the candy.

A few years later when Miguel was older, he remembered the angel’s visit, and decided to do the same thing for other poor boys and girls. He opened a shop in the Zócalo and made piñatas in many colors and in many different forms. Now, one can purchase a piñata from Miguel for all occasions. (H.J. Bauman, 1984)

d. Students can demonstrate a Mexican recipe or the making of a craft such as an ojo de Dios which is colorful yarn wrapped around two sticks in the shape of a cross, used for good luck. For more information about Mexican crafts, A Treasury of Mexican Folkways by Frances Toor is very useful. (see Teacher’s Reading List)

Objective 2  To trace the Spanish, Mexican, and Indian influences existing in the Southwest.

Strategies  There are many topics of interest to students: art, architecture, crafts, food, music, dance, religion, costumes, holidays, monuments, and famous people, historical and contemporary. Projects should be varied in format as well as in form. That is to say, students could work by themselves, in small groups, or in large groups. Their projects could be drawings, reports, montages (a grouping of pictures), collages (a grouping of many items which vary in form, texture, and color), three-dimensional models, and dioramas.

a. A study of place names (states and cities or towns with Spanish or Mexican names) has a twofold purpose: (1) as a part of language study, the students will translate these names and decide why the settlers chose them; and (2) the students will explore why these areas were settled by the Spanish or Mexicans, and how these first settlements have or have not continued to be Spanish or Mexican in character.
The Spanish or Mexican settlers gave names to their surroundings which reflected their cultures. Some of the place names come from a description of their area. Buena Vista, for example, means beautiful view. Other places were named in honor of a particular saint, or because they were discovered on that Saint’s Day. Florida was so named because it was discovered on el D’a de las flores pascuas or Easter Sunday. Still others were named for a famous person like Ponce de León or Hidalgo. Sometimes the settlers gave a religious idea as a name, such as Trinidad which means Trinity. Lastly, the Spanish or Mexican place names are the same as in Spain, such as Granada, or as in Mexico, like Zapata. (A list of suggested place names is included at the end of the unit.)
b. Spanish architecture is an extremely interesting study. The students can trace the structure of the buildings back to their Spanish sources. Several of the articles from Américas magazine (see Reading list for Students) are extremely well documented. Of particular interest are the following articles: “Proud, lonely Churches” by Pál Kelemen (volume 28 number 2, February, 1976) which is concerned with Mexican churches and their Spanish influences. It contains many fine photographs of these churches; “When Florida Was Spanish” by Guillermo de Zéndegui, which explains how the Spanish built their fortifications using the Indians’ method of making the fort circular with the palisades in a spiral; “The Missions of San Antonio” by Herb Taylor, Jr. (volume 24 number 10, October, 1972), in which the author concentrates on the missions, temporary structures to the Spanish, which were to teach the Indians about farming and also to speak Spanish, as well as to convert them to Christianity; “St. Augustine, U.S.A. 1565” by Guillermo de Zéndegui gives an excellent account of the founding of St. Augustine; Florida (volume 25 number 1, January, 1973); and as a contrast to Spanish architecture, “Space and life Style: A Maya Answer” by Linda Schele (volume 25 number 5, May, 1973) shows the construction of Palenque in southern Mexico. The Indians were exceptional builders. One wonders what would have been constructed if the Spanish had not destroyed most of the Indians’ buildings, and had borrowed their techniques as they did from the Moors in Spain.
c. Hispanic crafts or folk arts is another topic rich in tradition and historical or religious significance. “The Significance of Folk Arts” by Guillermo de Zéndegui (Américas, volume 25 numbers 11-12, November-December, 1973) explains the purpose of folk art and how it manifests itself. This is very helpful for the students. Understanding a people’s way of life includes appreciating its crafts.
Raul Calvimontes’ “Folk Arts Through the Ages” (Américas volume 25 numbers 11-12, November-December, 1973) gives an overview of Hispanic crafts in the Americas. There are excellent photographs of many of the folk arts. The most important sections for our purposes are “The Colony”(pages S-10-S-13) where he explains how the Spanish trained the Indians to create Spanish art in the New World, and how the Indians imbued these works of art with their own perspective. For example, in the churches and palaces where they were to sculpt altars, facades, ceilings, etc., they sculpted ears of corn, American plants and flowers, and American animals. For statues of Christ or the Virgin, the faces were Indian.
The other section of Calvimontes’ article which is important for us is “The Panorama Today” (pages S-15-S-18). Here he talks about the Mexican handicrafts in detail. He does not tell about the Hispanic crafts in the Southwestern United States, but there are some pictures of these crafts.
d. The customs and holidays of the Mexican-Americans can be studied as a contemporary phenomenon: how they are celebrated today, with what historical background, and how they have been altered, if at all, by their English-speaking neighbors. The best source for this information is in A Treasury of Mexican Folkways by Frances Toor. She explains most Mexican holidays and customs in an easy to read style. Another source, which would explain how these celebrations occur today, is information provided by the states in the Southwest (see Resources).
e. An in-depth study of Mexican food and its counterpart in the Southwestern states, and the customs surrounding them is another avenue of exploration. Making menus and actual dishes will show the students that every Spanish-speaking area has its own kind of cuisine unique to that area yet containing a common thread, the Spanish influence. A good source for Mexican food is any Diane Kennedy cookbook. Also, the Time-Life series of cookbooks has one volume dedicated to the cooking of the Southwestern United States. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages has a booklet containing easy Mexican recipes for classroom use.
____1. The students can study the folklore surrounding Mexican food, especially the gods and goddesses and holidays. For information use Frances Toor’s A Treasury of Mexican Folkways, and Ruth S. Lamb’s Mexican-Americans: Sons of the Southwest.
____2. Another intriguing activity is to discover the influence of Spanish cuisine on Mexican cuisine; what foods the Spanish brought with them; what foods the Mexicans had; and what foods the Spanish borrowed from the Mexicans, and vice versa. The two books mentioned in the paragraph above, contain some of this information.
____3. Using a cookbook on Southwestern cooking, the students can compare and contrast “Tex-Mex” cuisine and authentic Mexican food.
____ 4. The students can prepare a meal with as much authenticity as possible, using real mesa, for example (Mesa is corn meal flour). Ingredients can be found in some grocery stores like Stop and Shop, or in an Hispanic bodega (grocery store).
f. An interesting vocabulary study is that of the costume, equipment, and life-style of the American cowboy in the Southwest. Many Spanish words are used commonly, without the realization that these words are not English. For example:
el rodeo-like a fiesta campera in Spain where men test themselves in various contests with animals; the Mexicans as well as the cowboys twirl the lariat, ride bucking broncos, and wrestle bulls.
el corral-like a backyard in Spain or Mexico, but used to fence in horses or cattle in the Southwest.
Vamoose-Vamos-let’s go
la reata-the rope the cowboys call a lariat.
los chaparros-chaps or a leather shield for the cowboys’ legs.
el padre-priest (“Father”)
el vaquero-cowboy
el bronco-a wild horse
Twirling the lariat (la reata), and riding a bucking bronco are originally Mexican customs, which are still practiced today at rodeos in the Southwest.
g. The art of the Southwestern states can be studied for its Mexican or Spanish sources. Guadalupe González-Hontoria de Alvarez Romero’s “Aztec Featherwork” (Américas volume 25 number 1 January, 1973), as well as C. Bruce Hunter’s A Guide to Ancient Maya Ruins and Alma M. Reed’s The Ancient Past of Mexico, all discuss Pre-Columbian art of Mexico. The techniques of these ancient peoples have been handed down through the generations, and continue to appear in the weaving and pottery of today.
Estelle Caloia Roberts’ “Los Cuatro Mexico’s Majestic Artists” (Américas volume 29 numbers 6-7, June-July, 1977) treats the four major artists of this century: Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Rufino Tamayo. She explains the political background for these artists’ works, as well as their techniques. There are many excellent photographs of the most compelling paintings. This is a good source for the students as she also points out the Pre-Columbian influences on these contemporary artists. Many of the Hispanic painters of the Southwest were influenced by these artists.
Lastly, Irwin and Emily Whitaker’s “Contemporary Mexican Pottery An Ever-Changing Art Form” (Américas volume 26 number 8, August, 1974) shows the influence of Pre-Columbian civilization on the pottery of today. This is a well-documented article with terrific photographs.
h. Famous monuments can be researched for an oral presentation to the class. The students can make three-dimensional models of the monuments or draw them. The emphasis is on their historical importance, such as the Alamo in Texas, the missions along the Camino Real in California, etc. Most American History textbooks have the names of specific monuments other than those already mentioned.
i. Famous people can be divided into two categories: historical or contemporary. (A partial list of famous people is included at the end of the unit.) Some of the famous people in history are already familiar to the students: Santa Ana, Coronado, Cortés, Pizarro, etc. Others are not as well-known, but are equally important. An article of note is Francisco Teráns “The Conquistadors’ Ladies” (Américas volume 28 number 2, February, 1976). This article discusses the help of Indian women given to the Spanish conquistadors. This new information helps to shed a new light on the Conquest.
____1. Students can draw portraits of these people, make time lines of their lives, or illustrate an important event.
____2. Students could write newspaper articles about important events in the famous people’s lives.
For the famous people of today, the students have to rely on current magazines and newspapers for source material, for example on Cisneros, the mayor of San Antonio, Texas.
____1. The students can perform skits based on these people’s lives.
____2. Students can also write newspaper articles on these people, or as if they were a famous Hispanic of the Southwest today.
j. Music of the Southwestern states has been greatly influenced by Mexican and Spanish music. Some contemporary musicians of Mexico are listed, along with their contributions, in “Mexico A Story of Three Cultures” (Américas volume 30 number 3, March, 1978). Traditional Mexican music is discussed in Muchas Facetas de México by Jane Burnett.
____1. Students can learn some songs and sing them for their classmates.
____2. Students can also trace the Spanish or Mexican roots of the music, and compare and contrast the different versions of songs.
____3. For today’s students, an examination of contemporary music (for example rock and roll or country and western) would show them that what we listen to and like in Connecticut, is not necessarily the same all over the country.
____4. They could also compare and contrast the music of the Southwest with salsa (a mixture of Caribbean, African, Spanish, and Indian rhythms which is very popular in the Puerto Rican communities).
k. Mexican and Spanish dances are a colorful reminder of the Hispanic heritage in the Southwestern states. The students can learn some traditional dances and perform them for others. Two good sources are Frances Toor’s A Treasury of Mexican Folkways, and Edith Johnston’s Regional Dances of Mexico. Johnston’s book is accompanied by a tape containing the music. Her book illustrates the costumes and the steps necessary for performing the dances (see Reading List for Teachers).

Objective 3   To use students’ knowledge of early Mexican and American History to form opinions about life today in the Southwest.

Strategies  To fulfill this objective, the students must have a well-developed knowledge of the history of the Southwest from pre-historic times, through the growth of the Spanish colonies, to the Spanish-American War in 1898 when the Spanish finally ceded the last of their territories to the United States. It wasn’t until the Twentieth Century, through the revolutions in Central America and South America, that the Spanish were finally expelled from this hemisphere.

a. Students can study the Toltec, Mayan, and Aztec cultures of Mexico: their religion, their gods and goddesses, their customs, crafts, sports and games, legends, and food. Frances Toor’s A Treasury of Mexican Folkways is highly recommended for this topic.
b. The students can make maps of the Spanish territories of the New World, and of the Spanish-named cities and states of the United States today. These maps can be illustrated with monuments or symbols of important sites.
c. A time line of important events in the history of the American Southwest is another student project. It can be elaborate or simple. It should start with the first settlers of pre-historic times, and end in 1984. This can be an exciting activity for the whole class, working in groups, each concentrating on a different era.

Objective 4  To explore the life of Mexican-Americans today in established communities of the Southwest; to determine to what extent their lives are still influenced by their ancestry, and if the contact with the Anglo culture has changed their way of life.

Strategies  Using current periodicals and books such as Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya, the students will realize that the life of Mexican-Americans today is intensely tied to that of their ancestors. They will study the chicano political movements with insight gained from their work. That is to say, they will know that the Mexican-Americans are not immigrants to the United States. They are original residents just like the American Indians.

a. Students can debate current issues.
b. The students can write an analysis of Chicano politics.
c. The students can write a report or develop a skit about a contemporary Mexican-American.

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A FINAL THOUGHT

At this point, the students should be well-versed in the background of Mexican-Americans. A new course could now be offered in Mexican-American or Chicano literature.

There is still a necessity for a background study of the contributions of Cubans, Dominicans (from Santo Domingo), and Puerto Ricans to the culture of the United States.

FAMOUS PEOPLE
Moctezuma

Antonio de Mendoza

Fray Marcos de Niza

Juan de Tolosa

Felipe de Neve

José de Gálvez

Teodoro de Croix

Diego de Vargas

Moses Austin

Lucas Alamán

José Mar’a Tornel

President Guerrero

David G. Burnet

Anson Jones

John Slidell

General Moray Villamil

Joaqu’n Murrieta

Lázaro Cardenas

Octaviano A. Larrazola

Morelos

Juárez

Zapata

César Chávez

Cisneros

Hernán Cortés

Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado

Don Juan de Oñate

Galindo Navarro

Gaspar de Portolá

Juan Bautista de Ariza

Antonio Mar’a de Mart’nez

Stephen F. Austin

General Manuel Mier y Terán

Father Miguel Muldoon

Santa Ana (Anna)

Samuel Houston

James K. Polk

General Winfield Scott

Manuel de la Peña y Peña

Ezequiel de Baca

Colonel José Francisco Chávez

Hidalgo

Porfirio D’az

Francisco Villa

Francisco I. Madero

Gonzalo Méndez

PLACE NAMES

Nevada*

Alamo

Caliente

San Jacinto

Rio Tinto

Florida*

Havana

Pedro

Seville

Favorita

Española

San Mateo

St. Augustine

Ponce de León (inlet)

Gomez

Boca Ratón

Boca Chica

Boca Grande

Orlando

Punta Gorda

Naranja

Louisiana

New Iberia

New Mexico*

Counties:

San Juan

R’o Arriba

Valencia

San Miguel

Guadalupe

De Baca

Bernalillo

Chaves

Socorro

Luna

Doña Ana

Cities, etc.:

Aztec

Flora Vista

Governador

Dulce

Brazos

Ensenada

Tres Piedras

San Cristobal

Arroyo Hondo

Arroyoseco

E1 Prado

Pueblo

Ojo Caliente

Ratón

Pasamonte

Amistad

Bueyeros

Mosquero

Gallegos

Ojo Feliz

La Cueva

Buena Vista

Las Vegas

Alcalde

Los Alamos

Santa Fe

Sangre de Cristo (Mts)

Trujillo

Chaperito

Villanueve

Anaconda

Casa Blanca

San Ignacio

Pintada

Puerto de Luna

Las Palomas

Montana*

Vida

Alhambra

Arizona

Santa Cruz

Sierra Vista

Cascabel

San Simón

Dos Cabezas

Portal

Cazador

Don Luis

Huachuca

Palo Alto

San Luis

Gila River

Palomas Mts.

Mojave Desert

Valle

Mesa

Casa Grande

Toltec

Sombrero Butte

San Manuel

Bonita

Gerónimo

Puerco River

Ganado

Texas*

Amarillo

Matador

San Marcos

San Antonio

Velasco

Matagorda

Palacios

Refugio

San Patricio

Concepción

San Diego

Altavista

Ramirez

Hidalgo

Agua Nueva

Guerra

Zapata

Santa Elena

Alamo

Mercedes

San Juan

Los Ebanos

Laredo

El Indio

Del R’o

Val Verde

San Angelo

San Jacinto

Colorado*

Vasquez

Mesa

Salida

Buena Vista

Arriba

La Junta

Ayer

Las Animas

Granada

Mesa de Maya

Cuchara River

Trinidad

Segundo

Blanca

Alamosa

San Acacio

San Luis

Mesita

San Pablo

Garc’a

Mosca

Del Norte

Monte Vista

San Juan River

La Plata

California

El Centro

Chula Vista

San Ysidro

Coronado

E1 Cajón

San Diego

Rancho Santa Fe

Escondido

Vista

Santa Catalina

San Juan Capistrano

Santa Cruz Island

San Miguel Island

Santa Rosa Island

Santa Catalina Island

San Nicolas Island

San Clemente Island

Corona del Mar

Santa Ana

San Jacinto

Los Angeles

Cima

Yermo

San Bernadino

Santa Paula

Santa Bárbara

Santa Ynez

Guadalupe

Arroyo Grande

San Luis Obispo

Paso Robles

San Miguel

San Simeon

Mojave

Caliente

Monterey

Gonzales

Santa Cruz

Pescadero

Palo Alto

San Francisco

Alameda

Contra Costa

San José

Santa Clara

Merced

Modesto

Mariposa

Los Baños

Dos Palos

San Andreas

Sacramento

Los Molinos

*Spanish names for these states

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RESOURCES

1. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute
53 Wall Street
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
All of the Américas magazine articles cited in the unit are on file in the Institute Office.
2. Mexican Consulate
New York, New York
Write for information and pictures of Old Mexico and its territories which are now in the United States.
3. State Chamber of Commerce or Department of Tourism
Austin, Texas
Denver, Colorado
Phoenix, Arizona
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Carson City, Nevada
Helena, Montana
Tallahassee, Florida
Sacramento, California
Write for information and pictures showing the Spanish or Mexican cultural heritage. Ask for specific cities, too.

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READING LIST FOR TEACHERS

Brady, Agnes M. and Margarita Márquez de Moats. La Navidad (Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company.)

Christmas customs in all Spanish-speaking countries and New Mexico. A good, concise source of information.

Burma, John H. Mexican-Americans in the United States A Reader (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Company, Inc.), 1970.

One of many sociological studies. Of particular interest is the article entitled “The Family” by Arthur J. Rubel, which is taken from Across the Tracks (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966), Chapter 3. It concerns a fictional town, Mexiquito, which is supposed to typify Mexican-American family values. Some good insights.

Burnett, Jane. Muchas Facetas de México (Lincolnwood, Ill: National Textbook Company).

A good textbook for upper-level Spanish courses. It contains much information about Mexico today.

Hunter, C. Bruce. A Guide to Ancient Maya Ruins (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press), 1974.

Rather technical information for the non-art major, but it contains good photographs of monuments, statues, etc.

Johnston, Edith. Regional Dances of Mexico. (Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company).

An excellent resource! A tape of music for the dances can be purchased separately. The book contains instructions for doing the dances, some background information as to the purpose of the dances, and ideas about costumes.

Kennedy, Diana. The Cuisines of Mexico (New York: Harper and Row Publishers), 1972.

This cookbook is full of authentic recipes as well as information about the different foods. It also contains a list of addresses where one may purchase authentic ingredients.

Lamb, Ruth S. Mexican-Americans: Sons of the Southwest (Claremont, California: Ocelot Press), 1970.

An excellent source of information. Detailed historical information from pre-historic times, the Toltecs, Mayas, and Aztecs, through the conquistadors, the Spanish colonies, the annexation of Texas, to the present. It becomes a sociological treatise when it discusses the Mexican-Americans today.

Moore, Joan W. Mexican Americans Ethnic Groups in American Life Series (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.), 1970.

A dry sociological study. Good information about the history of Mexican-Americans, and the family.

Reed, Alma M. The Ancient Past of Mexico (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.), 1966.

This book discusses all the monumental cities in Mexico. There are good illustrations of monuments and some gods.

Toor, Frances. A Treasury of Mexican Folkways (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.), 1964.

An excellent source! This book contains information about Mexican worship, ceremonies, customs, holidays, music, dance, songs and translations of myths. There are also many useful illustrations.

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READING LIST FOR STUDENTS

Barlow, Genevieve. Leyendas Latinoamericanas (Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company).

A collection of legends from Latin America. The five Mexican legends are interesting and appeal to students.

Barlow, Genevieve and William Stivers. Leyendas Mexicanas (Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company).

A good selection of Mexican legends. Some are religious in nature, while others explain natural phenomena.

Boggs, Stanley H. “Pre-Maya Costumes and Coiffures” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat Of the Organization of American States), Volume 25 Number 2, February, 1973, pp. 19-24.

Interesting information and good photographs.

Brady, Agnes M. and Domingo Ricart. Dos Aventureros: De Soto y Coronado (Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company).

The story of two Spanish conquistadores related in an exciting manner.

Burnett, Jane. Muchas Facetas de México (Lincolnwood, Ill.: National Textbook Company).

A good book to read about Mexico.

Calvimontes, Raul. “Folk Arts Through the Ages” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the Organization of American States), Volume 25 Numbers 11-12, November-December, 1973, pp. S-8-S-24.

A good general introduction to the subject of folk art.

Casellas, Roberto. “Confederate Colonists in Mexico” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the Organization of American States), Volume 27 Number 9, September, 1975, pp. 8-15.

An interesting topic of the Civil War in the United States.

Colina, Rafael de la. “Reevaluating the Discovery” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 26 No. 10, October, 1974, pp. 2-4.

A discussion of the rights and wrongs committed during the conquest of the New World.

Cuéllar, Elizabeth Snoddy. “Mexico’s Many Costumes” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 28 No. 5, May, 1976, pp. 5-13.

Some excellent photographs of Mexican costumes.

Gannon, Francis X. “Latin America and Europe Today” Américas (Washington, D,C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 29 No. 10, October, 1977, p. 29.

Discusses the interaction between the countries of Europe and those of Latin America.

González-Hontoria de Alvarez Romero, Guadalupe. “Aztec Featherwork” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 25 No. 1, January, 1973, pp. 13-18.

Good photographs of an interesting folk art.

Hancock de Sandoval, Judith. “The Painted Ceiling of Tupátero” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 25 Nos. 6-7, June-July, 1973, pp. 2-11.

An interesting article about the decorations of a Catholic church.

Hogan, Brother Lawrence. “A Latin-American Chapel in Potomac” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 25 No. 1, January, 1973, pp. 25-28.

The Spanish churches built in their colonies are shown at their best in this church.

Holmgren, Virginia C. “Beasts from the New World” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 25 Nos. 11-12, November-December, 1973, pp. 7-15.

An interesting article depicting the animals in the New World.

Joya, Joseph John. “Hispanic America and U.S. Independence” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.) Vol. 28 Nos. 6-7, June-July, 1976, pp. 5-12.

This article details how the Revolutionary War affected other Americans.

Kelemen, Pál. “Proud, Lonely Churches” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 28 No. 2, February, 1976, pp. 2-11.

An interesting description of Spanish churches in Mexico.

“Mexico A Story of Three Cultures” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 30 No. 3, March, 1978, pp. 17-40.

An excellent treatment of background information on Mexico.

Peredo, Miguel Guzmán. “Exploring the Sacred Well” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 26 No. 8, August, 1974, pp. 17-23.

A study of underwater archeology in Mexican art.

Pietri, Arturo Uslar. “The World the Europeans Called New” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 28 No. 4, April, 1976, pp. 9-16.

An interesting description of the Americas.

Piñeiro, Armando Alonso. “When Argentina Conquered California” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 29 No. 6-7, June-July, 1977, pp. 34-37.

In the nineteenth century, the Argentinians wanted territory in the Pacific. On their way, they captured Monterey in California.

Profiles from Mexican History (Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company).

Individual books with the biographies of: Lázaro Cárdenas, Porfirio D’az, Hidalgo, Juárez, Francisco I. Madero, Moctezuma, Morelos, Francisco Villa, Zapata.

Reber, James Q., photographer. “Mexican Portfolio Landscape, Art, People” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 27 No. 5, May, 1975,

A great collection of photographs!

Roberts, Estelle Caloia. “Los Cuatro Mexico’s Majestie Artists” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 29 Nos. 6-7, June-July, 1977, pp. 38-45.

Mexico’s four greatest artists and their works are presented with many photographs.

Schele, Linda. “Space and Life Style: A Maya Answer” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 25 No. 5, May, 1973, pp. 33-39.

An interesting approach to Mayan architecture.

Soper, Cherrie L. and Montserrat Blanch de Alcolea. “Extremadura Cradle of Conquistadors” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 29 No. 10, October, 1977, pp. 34-40.

An interesting account of the origins of the Spanish explorers.

Taylor, Herb, Jr. “The Missions of San Antonio” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 24 No. 10, October, 1972, pp. 28-31.

An intriguing look at the Spanish mission.

Terán, Francisco. “The Conquistadors’ Ladies” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 28 No. 2, February, 1976, pp. 12-18.

An account of the aid given to the Conquistadors by Indian women.

Vasquez de Acuña, Isidoro. “The Kingdon of the XV Islands” Américas (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat of the O.A.S.), Vol. 25 No. 1, January, 1973, pp. 2-6. And “An Enduring Heritage” Américas Vol. 29 No. 10, October, 1977, pp. 30-33.

Details of the Spanish Conquest.

Whitaker, Irwin and Emily. “Contemporary Mexican Pottery” Américas (Wash.,D.C.: O.A.S.), Vol. 26 No. 8, August, 1974, pp. S-1-S-16.

Good photographs of Mexican pottery.

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