Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Home

Teacher’s Manual for Sex Education Instruction

by
Annette Vetre, Barbara Bailey and Marilyn Gaudioso


Contents of Curriculum Unit 81.03.09:

To Guide Entry


Introduction

The following unit was developed by three teachers and presented to their respective seventh grade science classes at Jackie Robinson Middle School as part of the required curricula. Our intentions were to organize information in a logical sequence so that parts or the entire unit may be utilized at any middle school level.

Course Outline

I. Survey—overall view of students’ present outlook
____A. Attitudinal
____B. Self-concept
____C. General knowledge of facts
II. Changes in Adolescence
____A. Hormonal
____B. Physical
____C. Emotional
III. Anatomy—identification/function
____A. Male
____B. Female
IV. Menstrual Cycle
V. Sexual Response
____A. Dating
________1. feelings
________2. activities
________3. decision-making
____B. Intercourse
________1. physical act
________2. conception
________3. genetics
VI. Pregnancy
VII. Contraception
____A. Methods and devices
____B. Abortion
VIII. Diseases
____A. Venereal
________1. gonorrhea
________2. syphilis
____B. Herpes
____C. Trichomonas
____ D. Venereal Warts
____ E. Pubic Lice

Objectives

1. Each student will gauge his/her attitude toward sexuality through use of a survey.
2. The students will list the secondary sex changes during adolescence.
3. The students will identify male and female anatomy and the function of the organs.
4. The students will explain the stages of the menstrual cycle.
5. The students will describe how human conception occurs.
6. The students will describe the stages of fetal development to birth.
7. The students will identify different means of contraception and the effectiveness of each.
8. The students will explain the causes, prevention, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

I. Survey of Students’ Outlook

Rationale

The teacher should be aware of student attitude prior to the teaching of the unit. At this point a survey covering the areas of self-concept, attitude, and general knowledge of sexual facts will afford the students an opportunity to express themselves. It will also allow insight as to the instructional needs of the students. Pre- and post-administration of the survey can measure the influence of the unit’s effectiveness.

Information

Each culture has specific rules and practices surrounding the initiation of an individual into adulthood. The universality of cultural and societal rules as applied to sexual experiences has been documented in the research of Margaret Mead and other noted anthropologists. The point should be made that the essential features of sexual instinct are present from conception and influenced by life experience.

Lesson Plan

(Administer the survey)

Introduce the unit by discussing the information section. Explain to students the importance of each person’s opinion and the need to respect everyone’s ideas. Each student should have an opportunity to express ideas. Pass out the survey (or part of it) and have students complete it independently.

Attitude

Directions: Rate each statement with one of the following numbers.

0 uncertain 3 neutral
1 strongly disagree 4 somewhat agree
2 somewhat disagree 5 strongly agree

___ 1. The naked body is beautiful and pleasurable, and nothing to be ashamed of.
___ 2. Sex information that is truthful should be available to young people without parents’ consent.
___ 3. Birth control information and devices should be available to young people without parents’ consent.
___ 4. Doctors should be able to treat young people for V.D. without telling their parents.
___ 5. Masturbation is a healthy, normal way of finding out about sexual feelings.
___ 6. Sexual activity before marriage is all right for two people who love each other.
___ 7. Sex only for physical pleasure is all right.
___ 8. Homosexuality is an acceptable and natural life-style.
___ 9. Homosexuals should not be discriminated against because they like members of the same sex.
___ 10. Pornography should be available for adults who want to buy it and use it.
___ 11. When an unmarried teenage girl becomes pregnant, it is her own fault.
___ 12. Raising a child is an easy job.
___ 13. Any woman should be able to have an abortion if she wants one.
___ 14. A pregnant woman can smoke, drink alcohol, and take drugs without hurting the baby.
___ 15. A married couple who are unable to have a baby should not try new scientific methods.
___ 16. Women who are raped encourage their attackers.

Self-Concept

Directions: Circle the answer that reflects your reaction to the statement.
1. I am an interesting person.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
2. I honestly like myself.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
3. I understand myself and the things I do.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
4. I am a moody person.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
5. I am happy with the way I look.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
6. If I could change something about myself, it would be _____
everything my attitude my looks other _____
7. I am comfortable telling my feelings to others.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
8. I get along well with others my own age.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
9. I have a lot of friends.
yes no
10. I like to do whatever my friends are doing.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
11. My friends try to imitate me.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
12. I get along well with adults.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
13. Most grown-ups think that I am a trouble maker.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
14. My teachers understand me.
almost always sometimes hardly ever never
15. If I have a question about my body or about sex, I ask my parents or guardians.
often sometimes hardly ever never
16. My parents or guardians have discussed sex with me.
often sometimes hardly ever never
17. If I have a question about my body or about sex, I ask my teacher.
often sometimes hardly ever never
18. If I had a serious problem, I would go to _____.
parents/guardian teachers friends no one other
19. Most of what I know about sex I learned from _____.

parent/guardian teachers friends books
television other_____

General Understanding*

Directions: Label the following statements true or false. If you do not know, write DK.

___ 1. Menstruation is an illness.
___ 2. If a girl isn’t menstruating by the time she is fourteen there is something wrong with her.
___ 3. Girls shouldn’t exercise or swim while they are menstruating.
___ 4. If a woman misses a period, she is pregnant.
___ 5. Menstruation always lasts five days.
___ 6. Most women do not have a 28-day menstrual cycle.
___ 7. The menstrual flow contains tissues as well as blood.
___ 8. Women can take baths and wash their hair while they are menstruating.
___ 9. Tampons should only be used by older women.
___ 1. Wet dreams can make a boy weak or ill.
___ 2. If a man ejaculated a lot, he will use up all of his sperm cells.
___ 3. An erection shows that a man is thinking about sex. _____
___ 4. Men can urinate when they have an erection. _____
___ 5. Ejaculation happens only during sexual intercourse.
___ 6. A man can ejaculate when he is sleeping.
___ 7. It is unhealthy for a man to have an erection unless it is followed by ejaculation.
___ 8. Erections can occur in male babies.
___ 9. The urethra carries semen through the penis.
___ 1. Masturbation causes pimples.
___ 2. Many people my age masturbate.
___ 3. People who masturbate are over-sexed.
___ 4. Both men and women masturbate.
___ 5. If you don’t masturbate, you won’t know how to have sex later.
___ 6. Masturbation can cause people to go crazy.
___ 7. If you masturbate a lot, your grades will go down.
___ 8. A man who masturbates frequently, will use up all of his sperm cells.
___ 9. Masturbation makes a person weaker.
___ 10. Masturbation can make a person feel guilty.
___ 11. People do not masturbate after they are married.
___ 1. Boys and girls should be told the same things about sex.
___ 2. Women don’t enjoy sex as much as men do.
___ 3. Men should have intercourse before getting married, but women should be virgins when they get married.
___ 4. The pleasure of sex is not as important as making babies.
___ 5. Birth control should be available to anyone who wants it.
___ 6. Sexual intercourse is a physical act in which the man’s penis enters the woman’s vagina.
___ 7. In order for human beings to reproduce, a sperm must unite with an egg.
___ 8. Birth control is the woman’s responsibility.
___ 9. The mother and father should take equal responsibility in raising a child.

*From MODERN HUMAN SEXUALITY by Burt Saxon and Peter Kelman. Copyright © 1976 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

II. Changes in Adolescence

Rationale

The normal changes that occur during adolescence may have a less traumatic effect if the individual fully understands what will happen to his/her body during puberty. It is important to stress the variation in individual growth rates. Students should not become alarmed if their bodies or social maturity does not match their peers’.

Information

During puberty the pituitary gland signals the body to release hormones which stimulate physical and emotional changes.

Males—usually starts between 12 and 16 years of age:

1. grows taller and heavier
2. growth of different parts at different rates (i.e. hands and feet grow first)
3. growth of hair (face, underarms, chest, legs, and around sex organs)
4. oilier skin and hair
5. appearance of pimples or acne
6. perspires a great deal
7. change in voice—lower and deeper (cracking or breaking of voice during the change)

Females—usually starts between 9 and 16 years of age:

1. growth and filling out of breasts; larger rounder hips and buttocks
2. increased rate of growth
3. growth of hair (underarms, legs, and around sex organs)
4. oilier skin and hair
5. appearance of pimples or acne
6. perspires a great deal
7. begins to have her period.

Males and Females:

1. becomes more aware of the opposite sex
2. becomes more conscious of appearance (own and others)
3. becomes more concerned with cleanliness
Male Secondary Sex Characteristics. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
Female Sex Characteristics. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)

III. Anatomy

Rationale

Basic factual information pertaining to the location and identification of male and female reproductive organs is needed to understand the normal functioning of the body. Visual materials should be utilized in order to clarify the teaching of this information.

Information

Male Reproductive System

I. External

____A. Penis
________1. main sex organ consisting of head and shaft
________2. made of soft tissue
________3. usually soft, limp and hangs down
________4. at birth covered by flap of skin(foreskin)
____________a. can be removed for cleanliness or
____________ religious customs
____________b. can be done at any age
________5. vary in length, width, and shape—all are normal and functional
________6. carries urine and sperm to the outside of the body
____B. Scrotum
________1. pouch of skin behind the penis
________2. contains two male sex glands called testes or testicles
____________a. produce male sex hormone—testosterone
____________b. forms sperm cells
(Note: Location of testes in external pouch is essential since sperm production can only occur at temperatures slightly below inner body temperature.)

II. Internal
____A. Prostrate gland—produces milky, sticky fluid called semen that helps carry sperm through the penis
____B. Testes (testicles)—produces 10 to 30 billion sperm cells a month
____C. Epididymis—coiled tubes at the top of each testes which store extra sperm
____D. Sperm—male sex cell consisting of a head and tail, microscopic in size
III. Ejaculation
____A. Erection
________1. tissue in penis fills with blood
________2. penis becomes larger and harder; stands out from body
________3. necessary for sexual intercourse
4. can end without ejaculation

____B. Orgasm (climax)
________1. sudden rush of feelings accompanying ejaculation
________2. causes ejaculation (release of semen from the tip of the penis)
____C. Course of the Sperm
________1. moves from epididymis through vas deferens
________2. passes from vas deferens into urethra
________ where sperms join with the semen from the prostrate gland.
________3. ejaculated out of erect penis by muscle movements
____D. Nocturnal emission (wet dream)
________1. release of semen during sleep; natural occurrence
________2. number usually decreases as individual grows older
(Note: Male babies often have erections, but boys do not produce sperm cells until puberty.)

Male Reproductive System (Side View). From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
Structure of a Sperm. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)

Male Anatomy
Name __________ Date _____

I. True—False

_______ 1. The testes (testicles) are two male sex glands.
_______ 2. A male baby can produce sperm.
_______ 3. Sperm can be produced at body temperature (98.6°F)
_______ 4. Deepening of the voice is a secondary sex characteristic.
_______ 5. The epididymis stores sperm.

II. Matching

1. urethra a. penis stands out from the body
2. erection because tubes fill with blood.
3. scrotum b. pouch of skin containing testes
4. circumcision c. fluid that carries sperm
5. semen d. carries urine and sperm out of the body
e. removal of foreskin

III. Fill-Ins

____1. The male sex hormone produced by the testes is _____.
____2. The prostrate gland makes a fluid called _____.
____3. The sudden rush of pleasant feelings just before ejaculation is called _____.
____4. The_____gland releases a hormone causing the body to begin puberty.
____5. The release of semen and sperm from the penis is called _____.

IV. Multiple Choice—You may choose more than one answer for any questions.

____1. Sperm cells are made up of a _____.
tail head body legs
2. An adult male produces_____sperm cells a month.
10-30 billion 2-6 million 900
3. A penis can be different in _____.
length width shape
4. The penis is made of a_____.
shaft head neck
5. The time when a boy’s body begins to change into a man’s body is called_____.
testosterone testes puberty

Female Reproductive System

I. External—important role in sexual arousal

____A. Clitoris—organ that, when stimulated, may become erect and bring about an orgasm
____B. Hymen—membrane that partially guards the entrance to the vagina

II. Internal—important role in reproduction

____A. Vagina—passageway from the uterus through which:
________1. menstrual flow leaves the body
________2. sperm can enter uterus during intercourse
________3. baby passes during birth
____B. Uterus—organ in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby
________1. thick walled, pear-shaped (3” long) muscular organ
________2. made up of body, isthmus, and cervix
________3. has three layers of walls
(Note: Uterus, especially the cervix, is a common site of cancer. Symptoms can be hidden. It is important that a woman should go to her doctor once a year for an internal examination and a Pap smear.)

____C. Fallopian tubes—extend from ovaries to top of uterus
________1. mature egg travels through tubes to the uterus
________2. inner lining covered by cilia (microscopic hairlike projections) which move the egg through the tubes
____D. Ovaries—two almond shaped glands
________1. produces two female sex hormones—estrogen and progesterone
________2. responsible for formation of ova or eggs (female sex cells necessary for reproduction)
(Note: At birth, ovaries contain tens of thousands of follicles, each containing a cell that could develop into an egg. At puberty, there are only a few thousand left. Of these, only 400 to 500 will mature into ova.)

Female External Genitalia. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
The Female Reproductive System. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)

Female Reproductive System
Name __________ Date _____

A. True/False
_______ 1. Girls generally begin puberty at an earlier age than boys.
_______ 2. Eggs are produced in the uterus.
_______ 3. A fertilized egg attaches to the clitoris and develops into a baby.
_______ 4. At puberty, girls begin to menstruate.
_______ 5. Fallopian tubes extend from the ovaries to the uterus.
B. Matching
1. vagina _____ a. two glands responsible for the
2. uterus _____ production of hormones and eggs
3. hymen _____ b. pear-shaped muscular organ in
4. ovaries _____ which a fertilized egg can develop
5. clitoris _____ into a baby
c. the organ when stimulated may
bring about an orgasm
d. membrane that partially guards
the entrance to the vagina
e. passage way from the uterus
C. Fill ins
____1. Another name for menstruation is_____.
____2. ._____is when the mature egg breaks through the wall of an ovary.
____3. ._____is the periodic cycle involving hormone, physical, and psychological changes.
____4&5. The names of two female hormones are_____and _____.
D. Fact/Myth
Write “fact”on the line if the statement is correct. Write “myth” on the line if the statement is not true.
_______ 1. Menstruation is an illness.
_______ 2. If a girl isn’t menstruating by the time she is 14, there’s something wrong with her.
_______ 3. Girls shouldn’t exercise while menstruating.
_______ 4. Warm baths may relieve menstrual cramps.
_______ 5. If a woman misses a period, she is pregnant.
_______ 6. Menstruation always lasts 5 days.
_______ 7. Most women do not have a 28-day menstrual cycle every month.
_______ 8. The menstrual flow contains tissue as well as blood.
_______ 9. Women can swim while they are menstruating.
_______ 10. Women should not wash their hair while they are menstruating.
_______ 11. Only older women should use tampons.

Masturbation

Rationale—Many people of all ages masturbate, and many people do not. There are some people who think masturbation is wrong, sinful or harmful. Other people think it’s natural and pleasurable. It’s important to stress to the students that masturbation is a normal sexual behavior and that many doctors and psychologists agree that behaviors though, it can be emotionally harmful if there are guilt feelings. There doesn’t have to be any guilt feelings if a person knows the facts about masturbation and if they’re aware of their own feelings.

Information

A. Masturbation is the rubbing or handling of the sensitive skin of both partners.
____1. Male—penis
____2. Female—clitoris
B. Feelings
____1. pleasurable
____2. may cause an orgasm
C. Problems
____1. not physically harmful
____2. can be emotionally harmful if there are feelings of guilt.

Lesson Plan

For the sake of accuracy, it is helpful to present the information while utilizing the visual materials. It is suggested that the following procedure be used in order to teach and simultaneously reinforce the information.

Step 1. Pass out diagrams to each student. Make sure that students understand what is depicted in each.
Step 2. Have students fill in the information on the diagram (i.e. write definition next to each term.)
Step 3. Have students complete the work sheet for each respective reproductive system. Allow them to use their notes.
Step 4. Administer the Male-Female Reproductive Systems quiz.

Male-Female
Reproductive Systems

Name __________ Date _____

A. True/False
_______ 1. The testes are two male sex glands.
_______ 2. Fallopian tubes extend from the ovaries to the uterus.
_______ 3. Sperm can be produced at body temperatures (98.6°F). _____
_______ 4. Eggs are produced in the uterus.
_______ 5. A fertilized egg attaches to the clitoris and develops into a baby.
B. Matching
___ 1. urethra a. two glands responsible for the
___ 2. vagina   production of hormones and eggs
___ 3. erection b. pear-shaped muscular organ in which
___ 4. uterus   a fertilized egg can develop
___ 5. scrotum   into a baby
___ 6. hymen c. the organ when stimulated may
___ 7. circumcision   bring about an orgasm
___ 8. ovaries d. membrane that partially guards the
___ 9. semen   entrance of the vagina
___ 10. clitoris e. passage way from the uterus
f. penis stands out from the body
    because tubes fill with blood
g. pouch of skin containing testes
h. fluid that carries sperm
i. carries urine and sperm out of body
j. removal of foreskin
C. Fill—Ins: ovulation, estrogen, menstruation, testosterone, progesterone, semen, ejaculation
____1. The male sex hormone produced by the testes is _____.
____2. ._____is when the mature egg breaks through the wall of an ovary.
____3. The prostate gland makes a fluid called_____.
____4. ._____is the periodic cycle involving hormone, psychological changes.
____5. The release of semen and sperm from the penis is called _____.
____6. The names of two female hormones are_____and _____.
D. Label the female reproductive system.
____1. _____
____2. _____
____3. _____
____4. _____
(figure available in print form)

IV. Menstrual Cycle

Rationale

Menstruation is the normal process of the female

reproductive system which has emotional as well as physical

effects on the body. In order to understand conception,

students should know the stages of the menstrual cycle

and the hormonal influence on the body. It is necessary

to address the specific problem of personal hygiene

during menstruation.

Information

A. Menstruation—periodic cycle involving hormonal, physical, and psychological changes
____1. Beginning of menstruation (menarche)—age 9 to 16; end of menstruation (menopause)
____ —age 45 to 55
____2. Involves production of an egg and preparation of the uterus for pregnancy, and its return to an “unprepared” state if pregnancy does not occur
____3. Lasts about 28 days in women, about 31 days in teenage girls
B. Cycle is continuous and divided into 4 stages
____1. Two events must take place:
________a. maturing of an egg in the ovary
________b. beginning preparation of uterus in case egg is fertilized
____2. Ovulation—mature egg breaks through outer wall of one ovary
____3. Thickening of uterine wall; movement of egg through one Fallopian tube toward the uterus (3-4 days)
____4. Menstruation (period)—thickened lining of uterus breaks down
________a. cellular material, fluids, and small amount of blood lost through vagina
________b. Lasts 3 to 7 days
C. Can affect girls/women emotionally and physically
____1. (few days before and during menstruation) may experience change in mood, headache, and swelling of breasts
____2. need not interfere with any physical activity
D. Products to absorb menstrual flow
____1. Sanitary napkins—used with belt or by adhesive strip sticking to underpants
____2. Tampons—inserted into vagina
E. Sex and menstruation
____1. not dangerous; no medical reason to avoid intercourse during period
____2. Less chance of becoming pregnant, but not completely “safe” time

V. Sexual Response

Rationale

Among the increasing responsibilities of adolescence is decision-making surrounding dating. This portion of the unit should be preceded with discussion of the issue of human sexual response and its relation to social maturity and peer pressure. The foundations of mutually nurturing interpersonal relationships rest on open communication between partners. It is essential to stress the importance of the partners’ honest sharing of feelings before beginning sexual activity. The physical and emotional act of sexual intercourse is the expression of the partners’ strong attraction for one another. Sexual partners should be aware of not only the positive outcomes but also the negative consequences as well.

Information

A. Dating
____1. Sharing feelings
________a. talking together
________b. body contact—necking
________c. body contact—petting (deliberately stimulating the person’s sex organs using hand or mouth)
________d. involving loving feelings for the other person
____2. Sexual activities—foundations for meaning and enjoyment
________a. both partners consent—involves decisionmaking
________b. atmosphere of relaxation—externally and internally (body hygiene necessary for enjoyment)
________c. foreplay—deepening of sharing (kissing, caressing, petting)
____1. causes erection in male
____2. causes female to secrete liquid along vaginal lining
____3. Decision-making
________a. negative consequences of premarital sex
____________1. unexpected emotional involvement erroneously interpreted as long-term commitment
____________2. unwanted pregnancy
____________3. guilt and regret—violating moral codes of parents or religion
____________4. feeling “conned” or “used”
____________5. possibilities of V.D.
________b. positive consequences of premarital sex
____________1. Learning pleasure of sexual response within a loving healthy relationship
____________2. feeling good about your body—attractive, desirable
____________3. deepening the sense of intimacy and caring
____________4. Learning about sexual functioning
____________5. Learning about sexual responsibility
B. Sexual Intercourse
____1. Physical act (coitus)—man’s penis enters the woman’s vagina
________a. before intercourse
____________1. male—penis becomes erect
____________2. female—does not have to be sexually aroused, but usually vagina becomes lubricated making it easier for the penis to enter the vagina
________b. during intercourse
____________1. couples move rhythmically
____________2. penis moves in and out of the vagina
____________3. may be kissing, touching, making sounds, expressing feeling
____________4. continues until both reach orgasm
________c. after intercourse
____________1. relax, talk or continue to pet
____________2. if couple decides to have intercourse again, they must wait until male is able to have another erection
____2. Conception
________a. (at orgasm) semen ejaculated into vagina
________b. sperm swim into uterus then into Fallopian tubes
____________1. several hundred sperm reach there
____________2. Live for 72 hours or longer
________c. fertilization—sperm joins egg
____________1. if egg arrives in the tube while sperm are there, it can become fertilized
____________2. egg can only be fertilized within 24 hours after entering Fallopian tube
____________3. once one sperm cell fertilizes the egg, other sperm cells cannot enter the egg (If more than one sperm penetrates the egg, it dies.)
(Note: Possible for pregnancy to occur even if actual intercourse has not taken place. If during petting or sex play, the male ejaculates semen near the opening of the vagina, it is possible for some of the semen to get into the vagina.)

____3. Genetics
________a. chromosomes—joining of 23 chromosomes from the mother’s egg with 23 chromosomes from father’s sperm; embryo resulting with 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
________b. genes—each section of a chromosome responsible for transmitting characteristics from parent to off-spring
____________1. physical traits are inherited from one’s parents
____________2. genes are either dominant or recessive (dominant traits overshadow recessive traits)—example: father with brown eyes, a mother with blue eyes—the offspring will most likely have brown eyes since “brown-eyedness” is a dominant gene.
________c. sex determination—sex of offspring is controlled by chromosomes in the sperm cell
____________1. male sperm cells have XY pair of chromosomes
____________2. female cells have XX pair of chromosomes
(ex. When sperm cell fertilizes an egg, the embryo becomes a female it is is XX or male if it is XY)

VI. Pregnancy

Rationale

With responsibility of parenting, it is important to supply information about pregnancy. Consideration is given to the initial symptoms experienced, tests that are administered to verify a pregnancy, and health considerations that are pertinent to the condition of pregnancy.

Information

A. Definition
____1. once the egg has been fertilized pregnancy has begun
____2. embryo is carried and develops in the uterus
____3. baby is born after 266 days (approximately 9 months)
B. Symptoms
____1. missing or skipping a period
____2. fatigue or tiredness
____3. swelling or tenderness of breasts
____4. urinating more frequently
____5. increased vaginal discharge
____6. vomiting or nausea (morning sickness)
C. Tests
____1. As soon as possible, after initial symptoms are experienced, a woman should go to a doctor, midwife, or clinic for pregnancy testing.
________a. tests are not reliable before the sixth week of pregnancy
____2. types of tests:
________a. urine analysis
________b. blood test
D. Health
____1. diet—eat well-balanced meals
____2. rest—extra rest required to fight fatigue
____3. exercise—strengthens the body
____4. drugs should be avoided completely during pregnancy
________a. some cause serious birth defects
________b. chemicals pass from mother to baby
____5. emotions range from excitement to depression
________a. feeling depend on whether the pregnancy was planned or not
________b. also depends on whether the woman has someone to share the experience with or not
____6. sexual intercourse is allowed during pregnancy, unless medically or emotionally hazardous
E. Fetal Development
____1. soon after fertilization, egg begins cell division (mitosis) as it moves downs the Fallopian tube into the uterus
____2. about seven days after fertilization, mass of cells (embryo) becomes attached to inner wall of the uterus and buries itself in the lining (implantation)
____3. embryo absorbs food from tissues of the uterus and begins to grow
____4. cell division continues until three layers form the baby’s organs
________a. 1st layer—nervous system, skin, sense organs, mouth
________b. 2nd layer—muscles, bones, blood vessels, sex organs
________c. 3rd layer—muscles, bones ,blood vessels, sex organs
____5. membranes form around the embryo:
________a. amnion, amniotic sac, or “bag of waters”—clear, watery fluid which provides a moist cushion to protect the embryo
________b. placenta—provides “food” (nourishment) for the embryo
________c. umbilical cord—attaches embryo to mother
____6. after two months the embryo is called the fetus
____7. nine months are required for the fetus to develop to the extent that it can survive outside the mother’s body
________a. premature babies are born before the full nine months; the earlier it is born, the less chance of survival
____8. important periods of fetal growth:
________a. 4 weeks—head formed, with eyes and ears beginning to form; heart and liver appear; tail is seen
________b. 8 weeks—eyes, nose, mouth, ears formed also fingers and toes; digestive system forming; circulatory and nervous systems are working
________c. 12 weeks—arms, legs, hands, feet are formed; sex can be determined; lungs begin development; fetus move slightly
________d. 16 weeks—heart beat can be heard; skin fully developed; eyelashes, eyebrows, head-hair appear
________e. 16-38 weeks—(final development) weight gain (1 lb/wk.) in last 2-3 weeks; eyes opened by 22nd week; fetus is active; during 7th month, fetus turns to head-down position in the uterus
F. Stages of Birth
____1. first stage (2-24 hours long)
________a. fetus moves to head-down position
________b. labor pains begin series of contractions of the uterus caused by cervix expanding to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal (vagina)
____2. second stage (1-2 hours long)
________a. mother pushes with muscles of the abdomen
________b. fetus’ head appears at vaginal opening, followed by one shoulder, then the rest of the body
________c. doctor/midwife guides baby out of the birth canal
________d. once the baby is out, umbilical cord is cut
____3. third stage—the afterbirth (placenta and fetal sac) is pushed out
(Note: breech birth—feet or buttocks come out first caesarean section—doctor cuts through the mother’s abdomen into the uterus and removes the baby)

Amniotic Sac. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
CHILDBIRTH SEQUENCE I. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
CHILDBIRTH SEQUENCE V. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
CHILDBIRTH SEQUENCE VII. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)

Sexual Intercourse

Conception
Name __________ Date _____

I. True/False
_______ 1. During sexual intercourse the man’s penis enters the vagina.
_______ 2. The penis doesn’t have to be erect for intercourse.
_______ 3. A wetness in the vagina is a sign that a woman is sexually excited.
_______ 4. Sperm cells are produced and stored in the male’s testicles.
_______ 5. Sperm cells travel in semen.
_______ 6. A man’s penis can only become erect by touch.
_______ 7. Some woman experience many orgasms during intercourse.
_______ 8. Some women have no orgasms at all.
_______ 9. Semen is ejaculated into the Fallopian tube at orgasm.
_______ 10. Sexual intercourse is a physical and emotional act.
_______ 11. After Orgasm a couple can immediately have sex again.
_______ 12. Sexual intercourse is called “making love” by many people.

II. Matching

___ 1. conception a. the fertilized egg attached
___ 2. embryo   to the uterine wall
___ 3. fetus b. kissing and touching prior to
___ 4. non-identical twins    intercourse
___ 5. identical twins c. two eggs released and fertilized
___ 6. lubricant d. one fertilized egg that splits
___ 7. foreplay   in half
e. wetness of the vagina
f. the fertilization of the egg by a sperm
g. the fertilized egg is called this after l4th weeks

III. Fillins

____1. The_____is the narrow lower end of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
____2. Usually_____hundred sperm cells survive the journey to the Fallopian tubes.
____3. Sperm cells may live_____hours or more in the Fallopian tubes.
____4. The journey together of a sperm cell and an egg is called_____.
____5. An egg can usually only be fertilized within_____hours after it enters the Fallopian tubes.

Pregnancy and Birth

Name __________ Date _____

I. Matching

___ 1. fetal development a. a series of contractions
___ 2. placenta b. organ through which embryo get
___ 3. umbilical cord   food and air
___ 4. stethoscope c. cell divisions, cell specialization
___ 5. Labor         and growth
d. attaches embryo to the placenta
e. instrument that measures heartbeat

II. True/False

_______ 1. All women are happy to be pregnant.
_______ 2. A missed period is always the first sign of pregnancy.
_______ 3. Tenderness of the breast is a sign of pregnancy.
_______ 4. All women have the same symptoms if they’re pregnant.
_______ 5. Women go through physical and emotional changes.
_______ 6. If you think you have one of the symptoms, you should wait before you go to a doctor.
_______ 7. By the time you miss your second period you’re eight weeks pregnant.
_______ 8. It doesn’t matter if you don’t eat right or get enough rest during pregnancy.
_______ 9. Drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes can harm your baby.
_______ 10. All major organs and limbs are developed by the end of the 14th week.

III. Fillins

____1. By the_____week the mother can feel the fetus moving.
____2. Between the_____and the 24th week the heartbeat of the fetus can be heard.
____3. There are_____stages of labor
____4. The_____must be fully expanded for the second stage to begin.
____5. Feet or buttocks first is called a_____birth.
____6. A_____section is performed if a baby can’t be delivered normally.

IV. Bonus
Explain what happens in each stage of labor.

VII. Contraception

Rationale

Contemporary social mores dictate that careful decisions be made concerning the use of contraception. It is important to stress that people do have some control regarding reproduction. With current medical knowledge, one can limit the number of offspring, avoid an inopportune time to become pregnant, or determine not to have any children at all. Throughout this portion of the unit, the partnership of those engaged in sexual relations should be stressed, with particular emphasis placed upon the shared responsibility for contraception.

The information exposes the individual to the purpose of contraception and how it may be utilized positively in order to achieve one’s future goals, especially regarding partnership and family. The specific methods, devices, and surgical techniques are presented in a comparative manner, stressing use, effectiveness, and possible side effects. Abortion is handled as an optional means of terminating a pregnancy, a “back-up” technique in the event that one’s primary method of contraception has failed.

Information

See attached contraception chart.

A. Contraception—Birth Control: ways to prevent the fertilization of an egg

(figure available in print form)
Contraception

A. Matching

___ 1. Abstinence a. A chemical that kills sperm cells
___ 2. Condom b. Pulling the penis out of the
___ 3. Spermicide   vagina before ejaculation
___ 4. Withdrawal c. A rubber cap that covers the cervix
___ 5. Diaphragm d. An operation that sterilizes men
___ 6. Vasectomy e. A piece of rubber that covers
___ 7. Douche  the penis
___ 8. Rhythm method f. Washing out the vagina with liquid
___ 9. Birth control pills g. Not having intercourse
___ 10. Tubal ligation h. An operation that sterilizes
___ 11. IUD   a woman
i. A small plastic or metal device that is inserted into the uterus
j. Hormones that prevent eggs from maturing
________  k. Only having intercourse on “safe days”

B. True/False
_______ 1. Spermicides are in the form of creams, jellies, or foam.
_______ 2. Vasectomies and tubal ligation operations can’t be undone.
_______ 3. Douching is a very effective birth control method.
_______ 4. A condom has to be fitted by a doctor.
_______ 5. Once an IUD is put in the uterus, it can’t be removed.
C. Fill Ins
____1. Both_____and_____must be fitted by a gynecologist/midwife.
____2. Birth control pills contain the female hormones and_____.
____3. Diaphragms must be left in place for_____hours after intercourse.
____4. Having no sexual intercourse is called _____.
____5. Birth control devises prevent_____of an egg.
D. Choose One
____1. The most effective birth control method: rhythm withdrawal spermicide
____2. One side effect of the IUD: headaches tearing of the uterus fever
____3. Condoms fit: in the vagina over the cervix over an erect penis
____4. Female sterilization involves: cutting Fallopian tubes
____sewing up the uterus removing eggs from the ovaries

Contraception Lesson Plan

In order to present the facts to the students, we put all of the information on charts

Step 1. Pass out the charts to each student and discuss each form of contraception. (Which partner uses it, effectiveness, etc.)
Step 2. Bring in each contraceptive device—ex. plain their use—pass around the room for students to examine.
Step 3. Have a guest speaker (someone associated with a hospital or clinic) to redo step 2. Also this person can answer any questions the students may have and tell the students where to go for help.
Step 4. Contraception Ditto for students to complete in class.
B. Abortion—termination or end of pregnancy
____1. Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage)—natural termination of a pregnancy, usually occurring during the first sixteen weeks
____2. Induced abortion—not natural; caused by an outside agent
________a. dilation and curettage (D and C)—a metal instrument (dilator) holds open the cervix, while a sharp metal instrument (curette) scrapes the embryo and placenta off the walls of the uterus
________b. vacuum or suction method—a tube is inserted into the uterus and mild suction is used to suck out the growing embryo
________c. saline injection—hormones and chemicals are injected into the bloodstream or uterus causing labor to begin so that the fetus is pushed out
________d. hysterotomy—surgery to remove fetus
____3. Safety of abortion
________a. within the first 12 weeks—relatively simple procedure
________b. from the 13th to 20th week—more complicated
________c. after the 20th week—for legal reasons, difficult to get an abortion Abortion should not be considered a primary means of birth control but can be considered a back-up measure in case contraception fails.
Abortion was legalized in 1973, but is surrounded by much controversy. Opposing views:

prolife—fetus is a living being from moment of conception; abortion is murder
pro abortion—fetus is alive but cannot survive outside mother’s body; therefore, abortion is not murder of another separate human being
pro-choice—woman’s body is the host of the child and she undergoes many dangerous risks in pregnancy; she should have the choice whether to carry or abort
A feasible alternative to abortion is adoption.
Mechanical Contraception. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

INTRAUTERINE DEVICES

(figure available in print form)
CONDOM

(figure available in print form)
CERVICAL CAP

(figure available in print form)
DIAPHRAGM AND INSERTION DEVICE

(figure available in print form)
DALCON SHIELD

(figure available in print form)
COOPER-“T”

(figure available in print form)
SAF-T-Coil

(figure available in print form)
From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Rhythm Method by Basal Body Temperature. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)
Female Sterilization. From EDUCATION FOR SEXUALITY: CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS FOR TEACHING, Second Edition, by John J. Burt and Linda Brower Meeks. Copyright © 1975 by W.B. Saunders Company. Copyright 1970 by W.B. Saunders Company. Reproduced by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

(figure available in print form)

VIII. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Rationale

Due to the current epidemic proportion of sexually transmitted diseases, this topic is presented to increase awareness of the situation, knowledge of disease symptoms, and an understanding of the need for medical treatment. Each affliction is discussed with respect to transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and complications if untreated. A through examination of the following diseases or conditions is included: gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, trichomonas, venereal warts, and pubic lice.

Information

A. Venereal Diseases
____1. gonorrhea—caused by gonococcus bacterium
________a. transmitted through genital, oral and anal sex
________b. symptoms:
____________1. males—(3 to 7 days after contact) painful, burning urination with discharge of pus from penis; sometimes swelling of lymph nodes in groin area
____________2. females—(several weeks or months after contact) vaginal itching and discharge or pus; sometimes painful urination and back pain
________c. diagnosis—microscopic examination of culture of pus material
________d. treatment—injection of appropriate antibiotic (penicillin, oral tetracycline, spectinomycin)
________e. complications
____________1. males-(after two weeks without treatment) infection of prostrate, testes, urinary tract; permanent sterility; arthritis
____________2. females-uterine infection; pelvic inflammatory disease affecting gential and urinary tract; permanent sterility; arthritis
____2. syphilis—caused by spirochete
________a. transmitted through genital, oral, and anal sex
________b. symptoms: (3 stages)
____________1. primary—(3 to 4 weeks after infection) painless chancre (oozing sore) appears where contact has occurred; disappears in 1 to 5 weeks.
____________2. secondary—(several weeks or months after chancre) skin rash over body; mucus patch in throat; loss of hair; enlargement of lymph nodes in neck; may have headache, fatigue, nausea, fever; disappear after 2 to 6 weeks.
____3. Late—may show no further symptoms during person’ life
________c. diagnosis—examination of blood to detect spirochete
________d. treatment—injection of antibiotic, with follow-up tests
________e. complications of late stage—infection and destruction of major organs; injury to heart and major blood vessels; infection of spinal cord and brain (causing paralysis or insanity) can be fatal
B. Genital Herpes—caused by Herpes virus, Type 2
____1. transmitted through genital, oral, anal sex
____2. symptoms—(within 2 to 6 weeks after infection) small, painful bumps on sex organs that rupture to form soft, open sores; lymph nodes may swell (after several days, sores heal)
____3. diagnosis—microscopic examination of infected cells
____4. treatment—no known cure; painkilling drugs used to relieve discomfort
____5. complications
________a. return of infection when body is weakened
________b. development of uterine cancer (infected women become more susceptible)
________c. infection of infant during birth process causing illness or death
C. Trichomonas—caused by a protozoa
____1. transmitted through sexual contact or contact with toilet seats, towels, or wash clothes since germs can survive in moist places for several hours
____2. symptoms -
________a. males—no symptoms; basically carriers
________b. females—yellow to white frothy discharge with an unpleasant odor; itchiness and irritation of the vagina
____3. diagnosis—microscopic examination of a drop of vaginal discharge; bright red spots on vaginal wall
____4. treatment—metronidazole (flagyl)
____5. complications—infection becomes less severe if not treated but cervix may be damaged (may be connected to development of cervical cancer)
D. Venereal Warts—caused by a virus
____1. transmitted by genital, oral, anal sex
____2. symptoms—(after a few months) pink, soft cauliflower-shaped bumps; male—on penis or anus, female—on vagina, cervix, vaginal lips
____3. diagnosis—visual appearance of bumps
____4. treatment—chemically removed with podophillin; surgically removed
____5. complications—probably none; complete removal difficult, may reappear
E. Pubic Lice (crabs)—caused by phthirus pubis
____1. transmitted by close physical contact, including sex
____2. symptoms—mild to severe itching; appearance of tiny drops of blood on underwear
____3. diagnosis—visual appearance
____4. treatment—use of medication especially for this problem (Kwell) available at a drug store or by a doctor’s prescription
____5. complications—probably none; just irritation caused by the parasites (barely visible by the naked eye) as the attach themselves to base of pubic hairs and suck blood at these points

Venereal Diseases

Name __________ Date _____
A. Matching. Match each disease with its treatment. You may need to use some answers more than once.
___ 1. Gonorrhea a. no known treatment
___ 2. Syphilis b. sterilization of clothing
___ 3. Herpes   and bedding; special soap
___ 4. Trichomonas c. metronidazole (flagyl)
___ 5. Venereal Warts d. surgical removal
___ 6. Pubic Lice e. injection of penicillin or another antibiotic
B. Choose the best answer or answers. Circle the answer.
____1. Diseases especially harmful to an infant or fetus:
________syphilis herpes trichomonas gonorrhea
____2. Best form of V.D. prevention:
________early treatment oral sex male wearing condom
____3. Most V.D. can be treated with:
________vitamins penicillin orange juice antibiotics
____4. In which stage do syphilis symptoms disappear:
________first (primary) second (secondary) third (late)
____5. Disease in which female has a foul-smelling discharge:
________herpes lice trichomonas
____6. Sterilization of clothes is necessary if a person has:
________trichomonas warts herpes lice
____7. To diagnose Herpes, a doctor would:
________take a blood test examine cells examine pus
____8. Complications of venereal warts:
________none infection illness death
C. True/False
_______ 1. Venereal Diseases are spread from person to person through sexual contact.
_______ 2. Men do not show any signs of VD until the disease is serious.
_______ 3. VD germs can live for a long time outside the body.
_______ 4. One type of VD can be transmitted by toilet seats.
_______ 5. Clean people never get VD.
_______ 6. Herpes cannot be cured.
_______ 7. Pubic lice are caused by a virus.
_______ 8. Venereal warts must be surgically removed.
_______ 9. Gonorrhea can cause destruction of major organ systems.
_______ 10. Throat and rectal infections may result from trichomonas.
D. Symptoms. Match the symptoms to the diseases: Herpes, gonorrhea, trichomonas, syphilis, warts, lice
____1. pink, soft bumps in dry areas _____
____2. rash on skin; loss of hair _____
____3. painful urination; pus from penis _____
____4. mild to severe itching _____
____5. severe, continuous vaginal itching _____
____6. small, painful bumps or blisters _____
____7. chancre on sex organs _____
____8. mild urethral discharge _____
____9. soft, painful open sore _____
E. Identify each with a short answer.
____1. Chancre _____
____2. VD _____
____3. Arthritis _____
____4. Phthirus pubis_____
____5. Treponema pallidum _____

to top


Audio Visual Aids

A Baby Is Born—23 minutes—color—16mm Planned Parenthood

This film depicts an actual hospital delivery with the husband taking a meaningful supportive role.

Life Before Birth—2 filmstrips with cassettes Time, Inc.

These filmstrips show excellent photographs of actual embryonic and fetal development up to the ninth month.

Then One Year—19 minutes—color—16mm Planned Parenthood Adolescent changes, both physical and emotional, are presented in this film. Explanation of male and female experiences during adolescence is given.

to top


Bibliography

Adult

Burt, John J. and Linda Brower Meeks. Education for Sexuality. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1975.

This source provides excellent diagrams and definitions useful in teaching the physiological aspect of the unit.

Kelly, Gary. Sexuality: The Human Perspective. Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1980.

This book is a thorough guide for all aspects of human sexuality. Historic as well as contemporary views of many topics are provided. It is highly recommended as a practical reference.

Newton, David. Understanding Venereal Disease. Portland, Maine: J. Weston Walch, Publisher, 1979.

Information on sexually transmitted diseases is presented in this book in a concise, easy to understand format. Discussion of diseases is clear, avoiding overly technical medical explanations.

Saxon, Burt and Peter Kelman. Modern Human Sexuality. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976.

This book provides definitions, explanations, diagrams, etc. at a level that can be easily understood by adolescents. It was designed as a text for teaching sex education. It also provides activities that develop decision-making skills.

to top


Bibliography

Children

Bode, Janet. Kids Having Kids: The Unwed Teenage Parent. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1980.

A book written for teenagers that focuses on the problems surrounding the increasing numbers of unwed teenage mothers and fathers. Statistical information, organizations which are helpful resources to teenagers, and a frank discussion of alternatives available to pregnant teens are especially well done.

Colton, Helen. Our Sexual Evolution. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1971.

This book allows the reader insight into the development of current sexual mores and attitudes from a historical perspective.

Johnson, Eric W. Love and Sex in Plain Language. New York: J.P.Lippencott Company, 1977.

A book which helps the youngster understand his/her emerging sexual feelings.

Langone, John. Like, Love, Lust: A View of Sex and Sexuality. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980.

The author clarifies and differentiates the meanings of the words: like, love, lust. Their relationship to sex and sexuality is discussed in this interesting book.

Nilsson, Lennart. A Child is Born. New York: Delacorte Press, 1966.

This book is an excellent classroom reference for teachers and students. It presents detailed information and photographs of fetal development.

Young, Eleanor R. Venereal Disease: The Questions, The Answers. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1973.

Done in question/answer format, this book is an excellent source of information on venereal disease.

to top

Contents of 1981 Volume III | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute

© 2014 by the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute
Terms of Use Contact YNHTI