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Valerie Ann Polino
Between the two strong and opposing cultures of Virginia and New England, the only continuous highway was the sea. The early model of New England could hardly have worked in the South, and neither could the early model of Virginia have worked in the North. Two main cultures emerged from the English settlements in the North and South: the Southern planter society had a ruling aristocracy and great class distinctions between the wealthy and the poor; New England was more of an egalitarian settlement under the control of a Puritan oligarchy, in which a strong middle class had developed.
The first concern of the European settlers, after they arrived in America, was to provide themselves with shelter. They did this with whatever materials were at hand, according to whatever methods of construction they could remember, devise,or observe. The earliest shelters in all frontier situations were similar; caves were dug in hillsides, tent-like structures were made of tree branches and covered with cloth, or stakes were driven into the ground to form palisades which were roofed with rushes or branches woven into mats and covered with sod or plastered with mud.
Of the original houses built by the first settlers, there seem to be no remains, but there is much documentary evidence. The first dwellings, at least among the poorer class, were what were called “cellars.” They were so named because they were constructed in exactly the sane way as were the outdoor cellars used for the storage of vegetables. None of the well-to-do among the settlers made use of these cellars except for the first few weeks, or perhaps, months of their stay. The homes of the poor no longer exist today; they were either torn down or left to decay. Most of the homes that remain today are representative of the middle and wealthy classes.
The hones of the English colonists were derived from both the manor house and the humble cottage of their mother country. In seeking the origins of the style of building and manner of their construction, it is found that, in the colonies, the differences in construction are traceable to the parts of the old country from which the majority of settlers came. It was the most natural thing in the world for them to bring with them impressions of their native home. It was just as natural for them to erect dwellings more or less in the same way as they had been accustomed to do in their homeland. (HANDOUT III) Always to be taken into consideration, however, was the availability of materials and tools necessary for construction.
Five hundred miles along the Atlantic from Delaware Bay to the Savannah River, from coastal tidewaters to the uplands of the Piedmont, the South spread its plantations. In this great region Southern colonial architecture developed, from crude shelters and frame and brick farmhouses in the 17th century to the sophisticated Georgian mansions of the l8th century. The settlers of the South were predominantly English and had no quarrel with the Anglican Church, or with the King. They were loyal to the institutions and beliefs of England and this is reflected in their architecture.
On May 14, 1607, the establishment of the colony of Jamestown, Virginia,was founded. While gentlemen watched, laborers and seamen cleared trees and erected a log palisade for protection. James Fort was a large triangle; its river side measured 420 feet long and its other two sides measured 300 feet. (slide) At each corner was a bulwark built like a half moon on which cannons were mounted. The main gate faced the river. The fort enclosed about one acre with small dwellings paralleling the walls (slide) and a church, guardhouse, and storehouse at the center. The buildings were constructed of wood beams and clay bound with straw and, possibly, saltmarsh grass. The roofs were made of rushes. (slide) The chimneys of the first dwellings also followed this pattern of construction, so that fire was always a threat. Windows and doors were openings cut in the side of the house. Glass or oilskin was not used in the beginning. Instead, wooden shutters were used to close the openings. (slide)
It is not at all strange that during the first years at Jamestown very few houses were erected. The structures that were built were not meant to be permanent but were meant to serve as shelters from the elements. Few of the colonists intended to remain any longer than was necessary to make their fortune. Only twelve of the party of 104 were laborers; the group of artisans included jewelers, gold refiners, and a perfumer.
Jamestown grew in size, serving as the seat of the colonial government in Virginia until 1698. On October 31 of that year, the State House was destroyed by fire. The General Assembly voted to move Virginia’s capital from the unhealthy marshes of Jamestown to Middle Plantation six miles away. The Assembly also renamed the village Williamsburg. It soon became the center of Virginia’s political and social life, while Jamestown rapidly declined and was finally abandoned.
New England saw the first serious attempt at colonization with the settlement at Plymouth in 1620 and Boston in 1630. If any one thing may be said to be typical of colonial structures in New England it is that the material used is generally wood. Several reasons may be given for this characteristic of the New England structure. In the first place the Puritans who came from England were familiar with frame structures. Brick had been introduced for building the smaller dwellings in England only a few years before they started out for the New World. Probably a more important reason for the adoption of wood for the first homes is that lime was not easily obtained. There was an abundance of sand, clay, and stone, but the absence of lime made the manufacture of mortar out of the question. Only eight houses of brick and four of stone are known to have been built before 1700 in New England.
The colonial architecture of New England has sometimes been viewed as a new achievement in a new world. It has been assumed that the colonists adapted the traditions of their homeland to the new environment, evolved new forms, and achieved an architectural style that was essentially American. Nothing could be further from the truth. So far as can be determined no single new building technique was invented and no new architectural form evolved in the English colonies in the 17th century.
Late in 1620 a group of Englishmen, whose nonconforming ideas (slide) brought them into conflict with England’s official church, landed in the New World. These Pilgrims, as later generations were to call them, built a settlement called Plimoth Plantation or New Plimoth. In the seventeenth century a plantation was any new colony or settlement of people. Life in Plimoth was unsecured. As a result, the first building the Pilgrims erected was the fort-meetinghouse. Built upon the hill over-looking the village,the structure was a large square building, with a flat roof. On the top were placed cannons that commanded the countryside; the lower part of the fort was the meetinghouse. (slide)
The first homes built were constructed of timber, probably split logs. The cracks were filled with clay. (slide) The earliest form of roofing material used by the Pilgrims was thatch. Reeds and rushes were gathered from nearby swamps, bound into bundles,and lashed to the roof. The thatch was piled layer upon layer until it was about one foot thick. (slide) These houses were of the simplest design and the windows were filled with oiled linen in place of glass which was expensive and hard to obtain.
Knowledgeable builders were scarce in the colony during the first years. In 1628 Governor Endicott arrived and brought with him a group of builders. (slide) Because wooden chimneys and thatched roofs were in constant danger of catching fire, laws were passed which forbade these materials to be used. (slide) As a result of the lack of lime, the early homes had no plaster walls. (slide) Around each home was a garden containing fruit trees, kitchen vegetables,and herbs. In colonial times, growing plants just for pleasure was considered frivolous. In the 17th century the housewife had to produce in her garden many things that we buy in the store today. In addition to the plants raised for flavoring and curing food, she produced the ingredients for tonics, drinks, simple cosmetics, insect repellents, dyes, candies, and whatever she might need for medicine. (slide)
The simplest form of English cottage architecture was a one-room house with a fireplace at one end, sometimes referred to as an end-Chimney structure. To gain more space the owner often built an attic or sleeping loft under the steeply pitched roof. (slide) Homes of indentured servants brought to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from England were similar to this one. Capped by a steeply pitched roof, the exterior encompassed only 500 square feet. One multi-purpose area served as the living room, dining room, kitchen workroom, and adult bedroom.
A ladder ascended to a children’s sleeping loft. (slide) The fireplace was the family’s sole source of heat and primary source of evening light. (slide)
The most widely used expansion of the basic plan in 17th-century New England was the addition of a one-story lean-to at the back of the house. The “saltbox” architecture along with the Cape Cod cottage is probably the most widely adopted house plan in use today. The development of the saltbox was simple. For centuries English cottages were only one room deep. As prosperity increased homeowners began to build an addition called a lean-to at the rear of the house. (HANDOUT IV) By the end of the sixteenth century, saltboxes were common in England. When the colonists came to the New World, they transplanted the cottage architecture they knew in their homeland. The central-chimney saltbox plan became standard and appeared with minor variations throughout New England. (slide)
The Hyland House in Guilford, Connecticut, is a fine example of an early saltbox with a lean-to addition. (slide) The original part of the house was built in 1660 by George Hyland. A 1700 addition at the rear gives the dwelling its saltbox shape. The house has diamond pane windows; their small size reflects the scarcity and high price of glass which was imported from England. Other examples of the saltbox were the Thomas Lee House in East Lyme. The house dates from 1660 and is the oldest frame house in Connecticut. (slide) It began as a single room with a chamber above, but expanded to make room for the owner’s fifteen children. The Paul Revere House in Boston is thought to have been built in 1667. (slide) It is a simple rectangle of two stories topped by a high-pitched shingle roof and a great chimney. The second story overhangs the ground floor. The John Howland House in Plymouth was built in 1666. An addition was added in 1670. (slide) A close look at the house will reveal the distinction between the original house and the addition. The Turner House in Salem, Massachusetts was built about 1670. (slide) There were a number of additions to the original house, in 1678, 1680, and 1690. Eventually the house had fourteen rooms, eight gables, a rambling collection of wings and roofs looking out across Salem Harbor.
As we have seen, one of the earliest forms of English cottage architecture was a house enclosing a single room, with a fireplace at one end. The cottages of Cape Cod evolved from this plan. Settlement of the Cape, east of Bourne on Buzzards Bay began around 1637. By the 1700’s the towns of Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth were established, as well as Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Turo, and Provincetown. Cape Cottages were built low to the ground to lessen resistance to the winter wind. They usually faced south to gather the maximum amount of warmth from the winter sun. There were three types of Cape Cottages, the half-house, three-quarter house, and full cape. (HANDOUT V)
In the half-house plan, the family gathered and ate in the kitchen or “keeping room.” The buttery contained storage space for dishes and food and was the food preparation center. The borning room, close to the kitchen where water could be boiled, was for birthing. It also served as a nursery where infants could be near the mother but not underfoot. The parlor was used for ceremonial occasions like weddings and funerals. The three-quarter house had an enlarged kitchen and a small bedroom added. The full cape had a balanced look with pairs of windows flanking a central door.
With New England’s great abundance of stone, it may seem strange that stone houses were so extremely rare in the l7th and early l8th century. But several reasons account for this: wood was easy to shape, lime for mortar was scarce, and the colonists were unfamiliar with stone buildings. The most notable of the stone houses is the Reverend Henry Whitfield House in Guilford, Connecticut, built about 1693. (slide) Stone for the house came from a ledge about a quarter of a mile away. The mortar was made of yellow clay and crushed oyster shells. With plenty of stone on hand, the walls were made two feet thick. The Whitfield House served as garrison, church, inn.and meeting house as well as the Reverend’s private residence. (slide)
Around the beginning of the 18th century America entered a new architectural era. By 1700 the colonies of the eastern seaboard had been settled for three-quarters of a century. The population was about 275,000 and was to double itself every twenty years up to 1790. It was a population in which class distinctions were becoming increasingly important. Wealth was pouring into the eastern cities. Boston, Newport, Williamsburg, Portsmouth, and Charleston were the metropolises of the l8th century, and in them ship owners, merchants, and plantation owners formed the nucleus of a new leisure class. While the arts, crafts. and architecture of 17th-century America seemed to reflect the pattern of rural England, the general culture of the l8th century in both England and America was predominantly an urban one. London set the standard in dress, literature, art, architecture, and home furnishings.
The splendid structures built on the eastern seaboard, between 1700 and 1776, were patterned after the Georgian style of the same period in England. The term “colonial Georgian” best describes the architecture of the first three quarters of the 18th century in America. The term differentiates American architecture of the 18th century from the 17th century, American Georgian from English Georgian,and also acknowledges the relationship between the periods and styles. With certain regional variations Georgian styling was the predominant motif for the homes of the well-to-do from Maine to the Carolinas by the middle of the 18th century. It is important to point out that Georgian architecture was the style of the leisure class and in most cases not used by the poor class although some features were adopted in vernacular architecture.
Probably no incident had more influence upon the modernizing of architecture in England, and, in due course, that of the American colonies, than the Great Fire of London which occurred in 1666, when 13,000 houses and 90 churches were destroyed. The rebuilding of so vast a section of the city called for architects. Three English architects, lingo Jones, Sir Christopher Wren, and James Gibbs, influenced the rebuilding, developing a whole school of architectural design, and eventually influenced the work done in the colonies. Neither Wren, Gibbs, nor any of their followers, except John James, ever came to the colonies. This, however, did not prevent their influence from being felt. Gibbs, for example, wrote a number of pattern books and builder’s handbooks which were full of plates of his designs. The fire was also an important stimulus for the use of brick, not only in the construction of public buildings but private homes as well.
Unlike the Puritans of New England, many of the settlers of the southern colonies were well-to-do Englishmen, attracted to the area by its promise of agricultural wealth. Their high social standing was reflected in their architecture. Williamsburg was the capital of Virginia from 1699 to 1779, a span of years almost identical to the period in which the Georgian style flourished in America. Virginia was the wealthiest and most architecturally advanced of the colonies and its capital had the most impressive group of public buildings in the colonial Georgian style. Williamsburg was a planned town; the major axis, the Duke of Glouster Street, (slide) is 99 feet wide and seven-eighths of a mile long. At the west end of the street is the College of William and Mary (slide) and at the east end is the Capitol. The city was laid out according to the principles of 18th-century city planning, with streets and blocks laid out in relation to the main avenue.
The Capitol (slide) was ordered built by an Act in 1699, less than one year after the last of several statehouses in Jamestown had been burnt. As a precaution against fire the Capitol was designed without chimneys, and the use of fire, candles, or tobacco was strictly prohibited. In 1723 two chimneys were added, candles were brought in, and permission was given to smoke tobacco. The building was gutted by fire in 1774, 178O, and again in 1823. The period of the Capitol is signified by the coat of arms of Queen Ann on its tower and the flag of the Great Union. (slide) The Capitol consists of two wings; one contains the Hall of the House of Burgesses on the first floor (slide) and committee rooms on the second floor. The other wing, furnished more elaborately, housed the General Courtroom, on the first floor, and the Council Chamber on the second. (slide)
Virginia was a colony with few towns and no cities; the royal governor ruled through a system of officers controlled by the families who had become rich through landholdings and tobacco. The Governor’s Palace was the official residence of several governors. In 1706 funds were set aside to erect an official mansion. The building was not completed until 1720. (slide)
The main building is Georgian in style (slide) and in many respects resembles English country estates of the period of the two Georges. The grounds consist of formal gardens (slide). In 1751 a wing was added to provide a ballroom and state dining room adequate for the official entertaining required of the royal governor. (slide) While the exterior of the Colonial Georgian mansions are imposing and dignified, the interiors reflected, to an even greater degree, the newly found wealth and elegance of eighteenth century colonial life.
From 1715 to the present day the Burton Church has been in continuous use. It is a fine example of a Southern colonial church. (slide) The use of arched doors and both rounded and arched windows is typical of colonial churches in Virginia. A large pew was set aside for the use of the governor and the council. The governor was also provided with a canopied chair. (slide)
The taverns of Williamsburg played an important part in the life of the colony. They were the center of political and social activity. Two such taverns are the Raleigh Tavern, (slide) and the Weatherburn tavern. (slide)
As prosperity came to the colonists the homes of the professional or leisure classes took on more grace and distinction. New homes were built with four and five rooms on each floor, instead of two. The leaded glass window panes gave way to doublerhung sashes. More attention was given to fine carpentry, good paneling, and doorways. Fine examples of Georgian architecture include the Payton-Randolph House (slide) and the Brush-Everard House. (slide) The Brush-Everard House was a typical town house of an eighteenth-century gentleman. The first-floor rooms and central hall have paneled wainscoting. In two other rooms there is wallpaper which reproduces the design of fragments found in the house. (slide) The George Wyth House was designed and built by Richard Taliaferio for his daughter and son-in-law Wyth. (slide) The interior is representative of period furnishings (slide). The house, outbuildings (slide), and gardens (slide) form a miniature plantation. In the south separate outbuildings housed kitchen, laundry, offices, and servants’ rooms.
The rivers of the South were the only means of communication in the early days and along them grew the great plantations. With its one-crop economy, high landholdings, and the introduction of slave labor,the South was destined to develop an aristocratic society and aristocratic architecture. As the ambition of the planters increased so did the size of the plantation.
The James River was the center of the plantation society in Virginia. Carter’s Grove is a James River plantation six miles southeast of Williamsburg. Shaded by a row of trees (slide) the Georgian mansion looks from the high ground toward the river a quarter of a mile away. (slide) It is made up of five sections and stretches just over 200 feet from end to end. The original 400-acre tract was bought by Robert Carter for the benefit of his daughter Elizabeth. At the time of his death he was said to have been the owner of 300,000 acres of land and 1,000 slaves. His will specified that the plantation should pass to Elizabeth’s son, Carter Burwell. It was Carter Burwell who built the main portion of the house.
The main sites of Georgian architecture in New England were the seaports. With the gradual shift of the economic basis of colonial life from agriculture to manufacturing and shipping, the coastal communities grew from village to town to city. The Georgian style in New England flourished first in the cities where the wealth of the Yankee trader was concentrated and where the commercial and cultural ties with England were strongest. Since the Georgian style was an expression of wealth, it first evolved in the large and fine mansions of Portsmouth, Boston, and Newport.
It is worth noting that in New England there was a large group of middle-class houses, in contrast to the South, where there was almost no middle ground, architecturally, between the mansions of the wealthy and the cabins of the slaves. As the eighteenth century progressed the houses of the middle class became small versions of the Georgian mansions the wealthy built. The flourishing colonial community boasted a number of churches, schools, colleges, and government buildings which, like the houses, reflected the Georgian style. (slide)
Throughout the eighteenth century, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, served as a military base and a center of commerce. As a provincial capital, the residents regarded themselves as something more important than a normal colonial society, and they attempted to copy their counterpart in Georgian England. Portsmouth, then the eleventh-largest city in the colonies, was also one of the richest. Georgian house plans reveal the great wealth of the period by the large number and greater size of rooms, compared with those of the seventeenth century. The homes included a kitchen, a separate dining room, and a library. A sitting or drawing room served as a family room. The parlor was reserved as a formal room unless, as in larger homes, there was a banquet hall or ballroom. The servants’ quarters were placed in a separate ell off the kitchen at the back of the house.
The homes of the residents of Portsmouth reflected their society. The MacPheadreas-Warner House (slide) is considered an outstanding example of early Georgian architecture. It was built in 1716 by Captain MacPheadres, a rich merchant of Scotch-Irish descent, and is the oldest brick house in Portsmouth. The walls are fifteen inches thick. The windows on the first floor are topped by segmented arches and on the second floor by flat arches. The rooms are large for the time; for example, the great parlor is nearly twenty feet square. The Wentworth-Gardner House, built in 1760, is another fine example of Georgian architecture. (slide) The house contains eight rooms, four on the first floor and four on the second, each with a fireplace. This plan displays very characteristic Georgian symmetry.
Boston, by virtue of its position as the capital of the Massachusetts Colony and a major city in New England, numbered among its citizens groups of merchants and officials whose chief ties to England were strong. One of the oldest government buildings in America still in existence is the Old State House, built in 1728. (slide) The seal, the cupola, and the carved lion and unicorn, symbols of the English Empire, proclaim its official function.
Faneuil Hall (slide) was built and given to the City of Boston by Peter Faneuil in 1742 as a meeting place and market. It was designed by Boston architect, John Smibert. Burned in 1761, it was rebuilt in 1763 and enlarged in 1805. Two stories high and 40 by 100 feet when first built, the first floor consisted of the open arcades of the public market. On the second floor were the offices for town businesses and a hall large enough to accommodate a thousand people. The roof is topped by a large cupola on top of which is a weathervane in the shape of a gargantuan grasshopper of hammered copper, with green glass eyes.
The people of Boston were predominantly Episcopalian. Christ Church, also referred to as Old North Church, is the oldest standing church in Boston. The first worshippers desired Christ Church to reflect the dignity of Prayer Book worship and to provide a fit setting for their church festivities. The cornerstone of the church was laid in April of 1723. Since most of the fine churches of the eighteenth century were designed by Sir Christopher Wren, it was only natural that the builders of the Church of England in America should turn to his designs for inspiration. Old North Church is constructed of hand made bricks, 513,654 in all. Its walls are two and one half feet thick. The steeple is 190 feet high. The spire of the church has long been famous because of its connection with Paul Revere’s ride. (slide)
In New England, only Newport, Rhode Island, ranked with Boston as a center of commerce, wealth, and fine architecture in the eighteenth century. Newport grew rapidly as a shipbuilding and shipping center, as well as a haven for privateers and ships of war. Commercially it became one of the richest ports in the colonies; its fleet of merchant ships sailed all over the world. The long wharf was lined with small ships and taverns. (slide)
The first settlers of Rhode Island were very tolerant in matters of religion, accepting within their colony men and women who were banished elsewhere in New England. Newport has the first Friends or Quaker Meeting House in America, the first Jewish Synagogue, the oldest Baptist Congregation, and one of the first Episcopal Churches, and all these groups contributed to the development of the colony. Trinity Church was built in 1726 by Richard Munday and became the prototype for the wooden churches which later became familiar throughout New England. The slim spire is topped with the gold crown of England. (slide) The Touro Synagogue, the oldest in the United States, has served the Jewish residents of Newport since 1763. (slide) It was designed and built by Peter Harrison, who created some of the finest churches and public buildings of his day, and who became one of the most important and distinguished architects of the American colonies.
The architectural development evidenced by the public buildings in Newport was without equal for its time. The scrolled window on the west front of Colony House (slide), its dormers, balustrade, and borders, were features to be found in homes, but on public buildings these features were greater and more impressive. Designed by Richard Munday in 1739, it was ordered built by an act of the General Assembly, and not completed until 1742.
The change in architectural style in the early 1700’s which is so evident in Newport’s public buildings appeared in the domestic architecture of the day as well. (slide)
We have seen that the houses of the earliest period in Connecticut were of two rooms, one at each side of the fireplace, on each floor. As more room became necessary a kitchen was built and covered by a lean-to roof. The increase in wealth in the 1700’s and the colonists’ desire to follow English fashion brought a change in architectural style based on Georgian architecture. The greatest improvement was the abandonment of the long, sloping, lean-to roof. The back of the house was raised to the same height as the front. The Webb House in Wethersfield, built in 1752 by Joseph Webb, is a good example of the changing style. (slide) Its gambrel roof and columnar front entrance porch contributed to its architectural distinction.
Aside from drawings and written accounts, little is known or left of colonial architecture in New Haven. A few examples stand today as a reminder of our colonial period. Connecticut Hall at Yale, formerly called Old South Middle (slide), was built in 1750, with funds provided by the Legislature. It is the only pre-Revolutionary building left at Yale. The Jehiel Forbes House was built in 1767, the only one known to have been built of stone in New Haven. The John Pierpont House, now the Yale Faculty Club, was built in 1767. Built for the well-to-do, the house reflects New Haven life style prior to the American Revolution.
The eighteenth-century Georgian homes provide concrete and tangible evidence of the economic and cultural growth of the English colonies in the New World; growth that made it possible to shake off the restraints of the mother country and achieve the status of an independent nation.
HANDOUT I—The English Colonies
- A. Introduction
- ____I. Background
- ________HANDOUT I Map of the Thirteen English Colonies indicating settlements, towns, cities covered in this unit.
- ________HANDOUT II Colonial Architecture reference sheet to be used in conjunction with slides.
- ____II. First Shelters in Colonies
- ________HANDOUT III English Cottage Architecture; have students compare these to architecture seen in the slides.
- B. Early Colonial Period 1607-1700
- ____I. Introduction-The South
- ________a. Jamestown, Virginia, Slides
- ____________LESSON I. (1) Have students sketch Fort James.
- ________________(2) Have students sketch structure of early shelters, note chimney, roof, door, window.
- ____II. Introduction-New England
- ________a. Plymouth, Massachusetts, Slides
- ____________LESSON II (1) Have students sketch the fort/meetinghouse.
- ________________(2) Sketch cottage, steeply pitched roof, no glass in windows, plain door.
- ________b. Saltbox Architecture Slides
- ____________HANDOUT IV Saltbox architecture—go over with students floor plan, construction
- ____________LESSON III Have students sketch the John Howland House, note addition to the rear, change in windows.
- ________c. Cape Cod Cottage
- ____________HANDOUT V Cottage construction.
- ________d. Stone Construction Slides
- ____________LESSON IV Have students sketch the front entrance of the Whitfield House, diamond-shaped windows.
- C. “Colonial” Georgian Period 1700-1776
- ____I Introduction
- ________a. Growth of the Colonies
- ________b. Major cities—refer back to HANDOUT I
- ________c. Definition of “Colonial” Georgian.
- ________d. Great London Fire—impact on architecture.
- ____II. The South
- ________a. Williamsburg, Virginia, Slides
- ____________LESSON V Have students sketch the George Wythe House.
- ________b. James River Plantation Society
- ____________Carter’s Grove Slides
- ____III. New England
- ________a. Introduction Slides
- ____________(1) Focal point of Georgian architecture
- ____________(2) Importance of the middle class
- ____________(3) Ties with England
- ________b. Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Slides
- ____________LESSON VI Have students sketch the windows of the MacPheadres House. Note 1st floor segmented arches on top of the windows; flat arches on top of 2nd floor windows.
- ________c. Boston, Massachusetts, Slides
- ____________LESSON VII Have the students sketch the steeple of Old North.
- ________d. Newport, Rhode Island, Slides
- ____________(1) Influence of religion on the colony
- ____________(2) Architect Richard Munday.
- ____________(3) Architect Peter Harrison.
- ____________LESSON VIII Have the students sketch bootscraper, door latch, door knocker, door arch.
- ________e. Connecticut Slides
- ____________(1) Introduction.
- ____________(2) Wethersfield.
- ____________(3) New London.
- ____________(4) New Haven.
- ____________LESSON IX Have the students sketch Connecticut Hall, Yale University.
16th century English cottage near Yalding, Kent
The building-block drawing illustrates how many 17th Century American Colonial houses were expanded to assume a saltbox configuration.
BLOCK 1 shows the original structure—a one room deep, two-story house with a chimney at one end.
BLOCK 2 shows the first addition to the house, a two-story section beyond the Chimney.
BLOCK 3 shows the second addition—a one story lean-to at the rear, which gives the house a saltbox shape.
Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten: The Archeology of Early American Life. New York: Anchor, 1977.
Drury, John. The Heritage of Early American Houses. New York: Coward-McCann, 1948.
French, Leigh. Colonial Interiors, Photographs and Measured Drawings of the Colonial and Early Federal Periods. New York: W. Hellurn Inc., 1923.
Hanlin, Talbot Faulkner. The American Spirit of Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Isham, Norman M. Glossary of Colonial Architectural Terms. Boston: The Walpole Society, 1939.
Jackson, Joseph. American Colonial Architecture. Philadelphia: David McKay Co., 1924.
Kettell, Russell H., ed. Early American Rooms 1650-1858. Portland: Southworth-Anthoensen, 1936.
Kimball, Fiske. Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the Early Republic. New York: Dover Publishers Inc., 1950.
Marrison, Hugh Sinclair. Early American Architecture from the First Colonial Settlements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1952.
Miller, John Fitzhugh. The Architects of the American Colonies. Barr, Mass: Barr Publishers, 1968.
Pratt, Richard. The Golden Treasury of Early American Houses. New York: Hawthorn Books inc. Publishers, 1967.
Quimby, Ian, ed. Material Culture and the Study of American Life. New York: Norton, 1978.
Rose, Harold W. The Colonial Houses of Worship in America. New York: Hasting House, 1963.
Vanderbilt, Cornelius. The Living Past of America. New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1955.
Waterman, Thomas T. The Dwellings of Colonial America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1950.
Weissman David. Underfoot: An Everyday Guide to Exploring the American Past. New York: Scribner, 1976.
Southern Colonial Architecture
Chandler, Joseph Everette. The Colonial Architecture of Maryland. Boston: Bates and Guild Co., 1902.
Coffin, Lewis A. Brick Architecture of the Colonial Period of Maryland. and Virginia. New York: Architectural Book Publishers Co., 1919.
Crana, Edward Andrews. Examples of Colonial Architecture in South Carolina and Georgia. New York: Architectural Book Pub. Co. Inc., 1926.
Deering, Davis. Annapolis Houses. New York: Architectural Book Publishers Co. Inc., 1947.
Elwell, Newton W. The Architecture, Furniture and Interiors of Maryland and Virginia During the 18th Century. Boston: G.H. Polley and Co., 1897.
Forman, Henry Chandler. The Architecture of the Old South, 1585-1850. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948.
Forman, Henry Chandler. Old Buildings, Gardens and Furniture of Tide- water Virginia. Cambridge, Md: Tidewater Publishers, 1967.
Nichols, Frederick D. The Early Architecture of Georgia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1957.
Waterman, Thomas Tileston. The Mansions of Virginia 1706-1776. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1941.
New England Architecture
Baker, Norman B. Early Houses of New England. Rutland, Vt: C.E. Tuttle Co., 1967.
Bridenbaugh, Carl. Peter Harrison, First American Architect. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1949.
Briggs, Martin Shaw. The Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers in England and in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1932.
Chamberlain, Samuel. Cape Cod. New York: Hasting House, 1937.
Chamberlain, Samuel. Open House in New England. Brattleboro, Vt: Stephen Daye Press, 1937.
Congdon Herbert W. Old Vermont Houses. Brattleboro, Vt: Stephen Daye Press, 1940.
Corner, James M. Examples of Domestic Colonial Architecture in New England. Boston: Bates and Guild, 1901.
Cummings, Abbott Lowell. Architecture in Early New England. Sturbridge, Mass: Olde Sturbridge Village, 1967.
Downing, Antionette Forrester. Early Homes of Rhode Island. Virginia: Garrett and Massie Inc., 1937.
Garvan, Anthony. Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial Connecticut. New Haven: Yale Press, 1951.
Isham, Norman. Early Connecticut Houses. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1965.
Kelly, Frederick, J. Early Connecticut Meetinghouses. (2 Vols.) New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Kelly, Frederick, J. The Early Domestic Architecture of Connecticut. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1924.
Kingman, Ralph Clarke. New England Georgian Architecture. New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1913.
Macdonald, Albert J. Old Colonial Brick Houses of New England. Boston, Mass: Rogers and Manson Company, 1917.
McManis, Douglas R. Colonial New England: A Historical Geography. 1975.
Riley, Phil, M. The Colonial Architecture of Salem. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1919.
Sinnott, Edmund W. Meeting House and Church In Early New England. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.
Washburn, Delphine. Newport Historic Guide. Fall River, Mass: Ellson Printing Company, 1967.
Contents of 1978 Volume IV | Directory of Volumes | Index | Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute