Yale Depression and Cognition Program




Current Research


Related Links





Susan Nolen-Hoeksema

Curriculum Vitae

Rumination Response Scale

You may download the Ruminative Responses Scale below for use in  research. 
To score the RRS, simply add a participant's scores on the 22 items. We have not 
established cut-offs or norms. Instead we use the scale as a continuous measure.

Here is a link to an article describing some psychometric analyses of the scale.


Graduate Students

Yael Levin

I am interested in how deficits in emotion regulation and the process of rumination can contribute to the onset of psychopathology, and how targeting these elements in childhood and adolescence may prevent the onset of a wide range of psychiatric illness. My current work targets these maladaptive patterns in adolescent females and works to reduce rumination and increase emotion regulation strategies through the use of a novel school-based intervention.


Kirsten Gilbert

I am interested broadly in emotion and emotion regulation, especially in relation to positive mental health outcomes and the development of psychopathology during adolescence. More specifically, I am interested in how positive emotion regulation in particular may be both adaptive for adolescents and also how its’ dysregulation may lead to clinical pathology.  I am also interested in understanding different strategies that target and increase positive emotion in adults and adolescents, such as mindfulness and physical activity, as well as how negative and positive emotion regulation interact in these processes.


Brett Marroquín

My research focuses on the relationship between emotion and social cognition in the psychopathology of depression and suicide.  Integrating approaches from clinical and social psychology, my current work examines interpersonal influences on cognitive processing and emotion regulation during social support interactions, and how such processes go awry in depression.  I also study individual differences in people's reliance on emotions in the present as information about the future, and how these differences play a role in depressive and suicidal hopelessness.  Other interests include interpersonal emotion regulation in close relationships, and psychosocial vulnerability to depression and suicide in ethnic and sexual minority populations.

Vera Vine

My research focuses on people's abilities to understand and identify their emotions in a given moment, and on the mechanisms linking the understanding of on-line emotions to subsequent thought processes, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. I am also interested in the ways in which cognition and physiology interact to influence the clarity of emotions and other facets of subjective emotional experience.


Liz Tepe

I am interested in studying emotion regulation, especially implicit emotion regulation, as a way to understand dysfunction in mood disorders.  I am also interested in examining the interplay between explicit and implicit emotion regulation processes and their potential implications for the etiology, maintenance, and recurrence of depression.  I am also fascinated by the factors that determine the adaptability of emotion regulation strategies that individuals utilize to cope with depression and to what degree these strategies are successful.