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Faculty Profiles

Paul D. Cleary Anna M. R. Lauder Professor and Dean of Public Health. Dean Cleary’s research includes developing better methods for using patient reports about their care and health status to evaluate the quality of medical care and studying the relationships between clinician and organizational characteristics and the quality of medical care. His recent research includes a study of how organizational characteristics affect the costs and quality of care for persons with AIDS, a national evaluation of a continuous quality improvement initiative in clinics providing care to HIV-infected individuals, developing Web-based decision tools to improve cancer care decision making, and a study of the long-term impact of patient-centered hospital care. He also is principal investigator of one of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) grants funded by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research to develop surveys for collecting information from consumers regarding their health plans and services. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin

Brian P. Leaderer Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, and Deputy Dean of Public Health. Professor Leaderer’s research activities focus on developing tools and methods for assessing human exposures to air contaminants, and assessing the impact of health and comfort resulting from those exposures. His research involves both controlled human studies conducted in environmental chambers and epidemiologic studies. Professor Leaderer’s chamber-based research includes characterizing air emissions from important indoor sources (environmental tobacco smoke [ETS], kerosene space heaters, building materials and building furnishings), developing inexpensive passive monitors for monitoring concentrations of indoor air contaminants (i.e., ETS and nitrous acid), and assessing the odor and irritation of emissions of volatile organic compounds from building furnishings. Professor Leaderer’s air pollution epidemiologic research studies include assessing the impact of particle and vapor phase acids on the respiratory health of infants and their mothers; determining the impact of ETS exposure on pregnancy outcome; assessing the impact of environmental agents (residential aeroallergens, suspended particles, ozone, etc.) on the development and severity of asthma in children; investigating the nature and causes of the building-related occupancy complaint syndrome (BROCS); and a study of the impact of unvented wood burning for cooking on the birthweights of infants and incidence of childhood pneumonia in the Mam Indians in Quetzaltenango in the highlands of Guatemala. Professor Leaderer is codirector of the Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology. M.P.H., Ph.D. Yale University

Serap Aksoy Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. A major goal of Professor Aksoy’s research is to understand the molecular mechanisms that enable tsetse to transmit trypanosomes, in particular insect midgut and salivary gland gene products that may allow the parasites to differentiate and establish. Ph.D. Columbia University

Jonathan B. Borak Clinical Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Dr. Borak’s research/scholarly activities during the past fifteen years have mainly addressed the human toxicology of industrial chemicals. At first, his activities focused on acute high-dose exposures to “hazardous materials.” His more recent work has focused on the quality of toxicological data utilized in quantitative risk assessments. Of particular interest have been the methods and adequacy of exposure assessments and the nature of susceptible populations. A number of his published studies were based on data that were initially compiled and presented to regulatory agencies (e.g., USEPA, OSHA) and advisory boards (e.g., NAS, ACGIH), and have proven influential. M.D. New York University

Michael B. Bracken Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Bracken’s primary research interest is in the area of the epidemiology of diseases of pregnancy, newborns, and early childhood with an emphasis on genetic and environmental risk factors for causation and iatrogenic factors in patient care. Professor Bracken is codirector of the Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology. He has been the recipient of numerous grant awards and has published more than three hundred papers, chapters, and reports, and two books: Perinatal Epidemiology (Oxford, 1984) and Effective Care of the Newborn Infant (with J. C. Sinclair, Oxford, 1992). M.P.H., Ph.D. Yale University

Elizabeth H. Bradley Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management, and Director of Global Health Initiatives. Professor Bradley’s research interests span domestic and international health care quality with focus on quality improvement and outcomes research. She is working on two projects to improve cardiovascular care as well as hospice care in the United States, and she also leads several projects aimed at health system strengthening in Ethiopia, Liberia, South Africa, and China. M.B.A. University of Chicago; Ph.D. Yale University

Susan H. Busch Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Busch conducts health services research on the treatment of depression and managed care. She has extensive training in management and economics. Ph.D. Harvard University

Xi Chen Assistant Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Chen’s research focuses on social and economic behaviors and their consequences in underdeveloped contexts. His recent research involves his own fieldwork examining social interactions on stigmatized behavior, escalating gift spending, and early child health. His research attempts to offer more plausible explanations to the Deaton food puzzle and questions conventional anti-poverty programs that do not fully understand social customs. He also explores how demographic characteristics in China, as a result of son preference and the one-child policy, affect consumption and income-generating behavior as well as public health. Ph.D. Cornell University

Maria Ciarleglio Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Ciarleglio’s primary research interest focuses on the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials, particularly the integration of Bayesian methodology into frequentist sample size determination and monitoring. She is also interested in studying family resilience, coping, and mental health problems in the active duty military population. Ph.D. Yale University

Elizabeth B. Claus Professor and Director of Medical Research, Department of Biostatistics. Dr. Claus’s work has focused on (1) cancer and genetic epidemiology, with an emphasis on breast cancer, and (2) the development and implementation of statistical models of cancer risk. She has recently completed a state-wide population-based case/control study of breast carcinoma in situ. This is the largest prospective study of its type and will be used to define genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for the disease. Over the next five years, Dr. Claus will follow this group of women in an effort to define factors that predict medical and quality-of-life outcomes for women diagnosed with breast carcinoma in situ. In addition to her work in breast cancer, Dr. Claus’s research interests include the study of neurosurgical outcomes, particularly for pediatric patients. M.D., Ph.D. Yale University

Theodore H. Cohen Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Cohen’s research focuses on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases of global public health importance. Pathogens of particular interest include TB and HIV. His work incorporates mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of surveillance data and observational studies, with current field studies based in South America, southern Africa, and eastern Europe. M.D. Duke University; M.P.H. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Dr.P.H. Harvard School of Public Health

Zack Cooper Assistant Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Cooper’s work focuses on investigating the causes of variation in health care providers’ productivity within and across countries and understanding how competition, transparency, and financial incentives operate in hospital and insurance markets. His current research includes three projects. The first is using patient-level data from three large commercial insurers to look at the causes of variation in hospital prices across the United States. The second is using data from the Netherlands, the United States, Canada, and England to compare hospital productivity across the four countries. The third project is a large-scale randomized control trial investigating the impact of good hospital management on patient outcomes and hospital spending. Ph.D. The London School of Economics

Forrest W. Crawford Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Crawford’s work focuses on statistical methods for learning from stochastic processes in genetics, evolution, epidemiology, neuroscience, and public health. His ongoing projects include studies of evolutionary dynamics of infectious diseases, intra-host viral evolution, human microbiome analysis, DNA sequence alignment, DNA forensics, reporting error models for self-reported quantities in surveys, and analysis of medical image data. He is also interested in theoretical and methodological issues in statistical inference, including probabilistic matrix factorization, regularization for high-dimensional regression problems, Bayesian nonparametrics, and optimization. Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles

Mayur M. Desai Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, and Director of the Advanced Professional M.P.H. Program. Professor Desai’s research interests focus on: (1) improving the quality and outcomes of medical care in complex and vulnerable populations, including persons with mental disorders, veterans, immigrants, and the elderly; and (2) workforce issues in public health and medicine. His interests also include psychosocial and psychiatric epidemiology, cardiovascular disease, and health services research. Professor Desai teaches courses on epidemiologic research methods and data analysis. M.P.H., Ph.D. Yale University

Andrew T. DeWan Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor DeWan’s research interest is to understand how variation in the human genome contributes to complex human diseases. His current work uses high-throughput methods to conduct genome-wide association studies to map disease susceptibility loci as well as developing methods to improve how this information is utilized and interpreted. He is also interested in identifying genetic and environmental factors that interact and contribute to disease susceptibility. M.P.H. University of Minnesota, Ph.D. Rockefeller University

Nicole C. Deziel Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Professor Deziel’s research seeks to evaluate and improve environmental exposure assessment methods for application in epidemiologic studies. She examines the relative contribution of different exposure pathways and studies how well indirect exposure measures, such as questionnaire- or GIS-based metrics, compare to biological or environmental measurements. She investigates several classes of pollutants, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and persistent organic pollutants. Professor Deziel is particularly interested in women’s and children’s health outcomes and cancer. She is affiliated with the Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology (CPPEE). M.H.S., Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University

Arthur B. DuBois Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Dr. DuBois’s research activities concern nitric oxide emanating from the lungs and nasal cavity in humans and in animals. One object is to find out whether inflammation of the lungs produces more nitric oxide, and whether that gas can be used as a measure of the amount of lung irritation during health surveys. Another object is to determine why nitric oxide concentrations in the human nose can be a thousand times as great as those in the air expired from the lungs of the same person. Dr. DuBois’s recent interests have concerned mechanisms by which inhaled dust particles initiate bronchoconstriction and immune responses in the lung alveoli. His summer research has included brain tissue hypoxia as it affects the blood pressure of bluefish. Past studies have been on body fluid redistribution in gravity and under weightless conditions. Previously, his primary research was on pulmonary physiology and lung function in normal people and in people with respiratory insufficiency. M.D. Cornell University

Robert D. Dubrow Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Dr. Dubrow has been heavily involved in public health education, as well as in research. He is a cancer epidemiologist whose current research focuses on two areas: glioma and HIV-related malignancies. He has published on the descriptive epidemiology of glioma, dietary risk factors for glioma, and glioblastoma outcomes. With regard to HIV-related malignancies, he has published on liver cancer, anal cancer, and lung cancer in HIV-infected persons. Dr. Dubrow serves as chair of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Cancer Core and cochair of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) Malignancy Working Group. M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania

Denise Esserman Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Esserman’s work has largely focused on the application of statistical methods in longitudinal data analysis, missing data, and survey methodology. She has worked on a large array of projects, from basic science to clinical trials to large secondary data analysis to implementation science, as well as across many disciplines, including Hepatitis C, medication adherence, pediatric obesity, autism, and hypertension. Ph.D. Columbia University

Adrienne S. Ettinger Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Ettinger’s research focuses on the effects of environmental exposures on reproductive, perinatal, and children’s health. She is affiliated with the Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology (CPPEE). The objective of her work is to understand how common genetic variants, epigenetic events, and dietary nutrients may modify susceptibility to environmental exposures in the maternal-fetal unit and, ultimately, impact toxicant-induced pregnancy and developmental outcomes. Her research involves the epidemiologic analysis of environmental exposure to metals and the associated human health effects in several new and ongoing longitudinal birth cohort studies being conducted in the United States and internationally. These studies aim to provide new insights to better understand how environmental risks within and between populations vary with respect to exposure, underlying susceptibility, and developmental stage. M.P.H. Boston University; Sc.M., Sc.D. Harvard University

Durland Fish Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Fish’s research interests are in the areas of ecology and prevention of vector-borne infectious diseases. Recent emphasis has been on tick-borne pathogens causing Lyme disease and human ehrlichiosis in the northeastern United States. Current projects include natural and artificial regulation of vector populations, vector competence for viral and bacterial pathogens, co-infection and transmissions of multiple pathogens, geographic and spatial analysis of epidemiological data, and use of satellite imagery to predict vector-borne disease risk. Ph.D. University of Florida

Abigail S. Friedman Assistant Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Friedman’s research applies behavioral and health economics to better understand why individuals engage in costly health behaviors and health-related decision making, with particular attention to the role of mental health as well as implications for population-level disparities. Ranging from studies of risky health behaviors to the behavioral economics of Medicare plan choice, her work seeks to both clarify the underpinnings of such decisions and identify mechanisms of influence, thereby informing policies to improve population health and reduce inequality. Ph.D. Harvard University

Alison P. Galvani Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Galvani is focusing her research on theoretical modeling of the evolution and epidemiology of infectious diseases. She is particularly interested in evaluating both the short-term and long-term repercussions of different public health policies on the prevalence and intensity of disease, including emerging diseases. Ph.D. University of Oxford

Jhumka Gupta Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Gupta is a social epidemiologist with a primary research focus on the public health impacts of gender-based violence against women and girls. She has served as co-investigator on federally and internationally funded research projects in the areas of intimate partner violence, sex trafficking, and HIV. This work includes investigating men’s risk factors for perpetrating gender-based violence against women, and understanding associated health consequences in both men and women. Much of her work focuses on immigrant/migrant and refugee populations, both within the United States and abroad (Bangladesh, Colombia, Haiti, India, Nepal). She is particularly interested in examining how the social context of migration influences health behaviors and outcomes, including gender-based violence, HIV, and reproductive health. Sc.D. Harvard School of Public Health.

Nicola L. Hawley Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Hawley’s research focuses on obesity and related noncommunicable diseases. She is particularly interested in the developmental origins of obesity, specifically obesity in pregnancy and its consequences for maternal outcomes and offspring obesity; and infant growth, feeding behaviors, and later cardio-metabolic risk. She has ongoing projects and collaborations in American Samoa, Independent Samoa, South Africa, and the United States. Ph.D. Loughborough University, UK

Robert Heimer Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Heimer’s major research efforts include scientific evaluation of HIV prevention programs for drug injectors, virological assessment of the risk of drug injection behaviors, and analysis of the interrelationship between hepatitis virus infections and injection drug use. Ph.D. Yale University

Josephine Hoh Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Professor Hoh’s current research focuses on developing analytical methods in mapping genetic origins and assessing environmental risks in human diseases and complex traits, and functional genomic and evolutionary studies of p53 responsive genes. Ph.D. Rutgers University

Theodore R. Holford Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Holford’s primary research interests are in the development and application of statistical methods in public health and medicine. One topic he has especially focused on recently has been how trends in cancer epidemiology are described, especially through the use of age-period-cohort models. The development and application of statistical models that incorporate the underlying biology motivate other aspects of his research as well. His collaboration with the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study has led to the development of new ways of analyzing data collected from clinical trials of patients who have this type of injury. These methods enable investigators to better understand the effect of improvements in overall neurological function by separating the components due to the level on the spinal cord that is injured and the severity of that injury. Ph.D. Yale University

Jeannette R. Ickovics Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Ickovics’s research lies at the intersection between public health and psychology. She investigates the interplay of the complex psychological, medical, and social factors that influence the health of the person and of the community. She uses this lens to examine the challenges faced by those who have often been marginalized by the health care system and by society. She is an authority on women’s health, with a particular focus on HIV/AIDS (including both prevention and adjustment to disease) as well as more general research on the interaction of biomedical and psychosocial factors that promote good health and recovery. Professor Ickovics’s recent research has been directed toward a series of community-based longitudinal studies examining the associations between adolescent pregnancy and risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. She is currently conducting large randomized controlled trials on the effects of “bundled” group prenatal care on diverse reproductive health outcomes. Professor Ickovics is director of CARE: Community Alliance for Research and Engagement, which works on a large research initiative linking neighborhood revitalization and health. Ph.D. George Washington University

Melinda L. Irwin Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Irwin’s primary research interests are in the area of physical activity and cancer prevention and prognosis. She is trained in exercise physiology, epidemiology, and clinical trials. Specifically, Professor Irwin’s research involves the exercise effect on breast cancer biomarkers among high-risk individuals and cancer survivors. Other ongoing research includes determinants of exercise adherence and physical activity methodology. M.P.H. University of Washington; Ph.D. University of South Carolina

Danya E. Keene Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Social and Behavioral Sciences Division. Professor Keene’s mixed-methods research broadly explores how social policies contribute to health inequality, with a particular focus on issues related to housing, neighborhoods, and place. For example, her work has examined how urban revitalization and public housing demolition may affect the health of low-income African American communities in Chicago, Atlanta, and nationally. She is also conducting mixed-methods research that explores linkages between home foreclosure and health. Professor Keene is also interested in social stigma and its relationship to geographic and social inequality. For example, she is conducting research that considers negative representations of place or “spatial stigma” as an understudied mechanism that connects places to the health of their residents. Ph.D. University of Michigan

Trace S. Kershaw Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Kershaw’s research is in the area of HIV/STD prevention and reproductive and maternal-child health epidemiology. Specifically, Professor Kershaw is interested in integrating HIV/STD and unwanted pregnancy prevention with prenatal and postnatal care for young high-risk women and their male partners. He is currently involved in several research projects assessing the influence of behavioral interventions aimed to reduce the occurrence of HIV/STD and negative perinatal and postnatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, maternal mortality) for young pregnant women in the United States and abroad (e.g., South Africa, Haiti). M.P.H. Yale University; Ph.D. Wayne State University

Kaveh Khoshnood Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Khoshnood is involved in several studies of HIV infection and health service utilization among drug users. His other areas of research interest are program evaluation, drug policy reform, and the linkage between health and human rights. M.P.H., Ph.D. Yale University

Albert I. Ko Professor and Chair, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Dr. Ko’s research focuses on infectious diseases that have emerged as a consequence of rapid urbanization and urban poverty. He coordinates a research and training program in Brazil and is particularly interested in understanding the natural history of leptospirosis, a spirochetal disease that has become a health problem in urban slum environments due to rat-borne transmission. Current projects include (1) prospectively studying a cohort of slum residents to identify risk factors for leptospirosis and determine the effectiveness of sanitation programs as a prevention measure, (2) characterizing pathogen-related factors that influence the development of severe disease outcomes such as pulmonary hemorrhage, and (3) developing rapid diagnostics and vaccine candidates for this neglected tropical disease. Dr. Ko’s group is also conducting community-based research on other urban slum health problems, including bacterial meningitis, vaccine-preventable diseases, and dengue. All of these projects combine field epidemiology and translational research approaches to identify intervention strategies that can be implemented in urban slum communities. M.D. Harvard University

Becca R. Levy Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, and Division Head, Social and Behavioral Sciences Division. Professor Levy’s research explores psychosocial influences on aging. Her studies focus on how these influences, particularly older individuals’ perceptions of aging, affect cognition and health in old age. She studies this by examining: (1) how the aging process differs among cultures that vary in their stereotypes of aging; and (2) how a psychosocial intervention, designed to trigger either positive or negative perceptions of aging, influences a variety of outcomes in older individuals including memory, physical performance, and cardiovascular response to stress. In addition, Professor Levy examines how psychosocial factors influence recovery and survival in old age. Ph.D. Harvard University

Judith H. Lichtman Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, and Director of Undergraduate Studies. Professor Lichtman’s research covers a broad range of cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure. In addition to studying clinical factors associated with disease prevention, she has been interested in the development of risk stratification scales to identify individuals at greatest risk for recurrent vascular events. A specific focus of her research has been the overlap between vascular diseases, such as the risk of stroke following myocardial infarction. Her current research includes the development of a longitudinal, patient-linked Medicare database to examine clinical aspects of cardiovascular, peripheral vascular, and cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. This work will examine the rates and trends of vascular disease over time, the utilization of vascular procedures, and short- and long-term vascular outcomes including mortality and recurrent illness. An important component of this research will be to determine how rates and outcomes vary by age, race, gender, and geographic location. M.P.H., Ph.D. Yale University

Haiqun Lin Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Dr. Lin’s primary research interests concern the development, implementation, and application of statistical methods in longitudinal biomarkers for disease processes. Her research activity has been directed toward characterizing the joint responses of the longitudinal PSA readings and prostate cancer incidence utilizing mixture models. She had been trained in medicine and molecular and cellular biology prior to a formal education in statistics. M.D. Beijing Medical University; Ph.D. Cornell University

Shuangge Ma Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Ma’s research interests include analysis of interval-censored survival data and regularized estimation with applications to analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. He is currently working on analysis of case I interval-censored data with cure proportion and analysis of genomic data with clustering structures. He is also interested in clinical trial design, cardiovascular study, and HIV study. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin

Xiaomei Ma Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Ma’s research interest is in the etiology of chronic noninfectious diseases, particularly cancer. She has been studying the role of immunologic factors and environmental chemical exposures in the etiology of childhood leukemia for the last few years. She is also interested in molecular classification and genetic susceptibility of the disease. Other ongoing research includes methodological issues in selection of control subjects in case control studies, and DNA methylation in leukemia cases. M.S. Shanghai Medical University; Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley

Robert W. Makuch Professor, Department of Biostatistics, and Director, Regulatory Affairs Track. Professor Makuch’s primary research interests involve methodologic issues in the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical studies. In particular, he is interested in the appropriate design and analysis of active control equivalence studies, and he has described how controls should be selected, how the sample size for these studies is determined, and what constitutes appropriate methods of analysis. Interim analysis in general, and the development and application of conditional power methodology in particular, is another active research area. These methods have been used in numerous settings, including a multicenter, Yale-based study for the identification of a new therapy for the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage. Analytic areas of interest include prospective individual matching designs and methods for the analysis of longitudinal data. These methodological developments have been directed primarily in the area of cancer and HIV. Ph.D. Yale University

Lawrence E. Marks Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Professor Marks’s research interests focus on the development of quantitative models to account for human sensory and perceptual responses to environmental stimuli. One interest is the perception of flavors of foods. A goal is to understand better how food flavors guide eating behaviors and food intake. This line of research focuses on mechanisms by which stimulations of flavor receptors in the mouth (gustation) and nose (olfaction) interact to allow rapid detection and identification of flavors. A second interest is the role of selective attention in perception. This line of research asks how attention to particular stimuli increases speed and accuracy in perceiving those stimuli. A third interest is in synesthesia in perception. A small portion of the population consistently experiences unusual perceptions involving “secondary” sensory qualities, for instance, seeing shapes and colors when hearing sounds. This line of research aims at clarifying the place of synesthesia in perception, language, and cognition. Ph.D. Harvard University

Susan T. Mayne Professor and Chair, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Mayne’s primary research interests are in the area of nutrition and cancer prevention. She is trained in nutritional biochemistry, epidemiology, and clinical trials. She has been studying the role of dietary factors in the etiology of various cancers for more than two decades, and she also has a broader research interest in the role of lifestyle factors in cancer, including their interactions with genetic factors. She is currently principal investigator of two NCI-funded research projects: one evaluating a novel methodology for assessing nutrient status noninvasively using human skin, and a second project that is evaluating lifestyle factors and genetics in relation to basal cell carcinoma risk. The latter project is part of the Yale SPORE (Specialized Program of Research Excellence) in skin cancer. Professor Mayne is the primary liaison between the Yale School of Public Health and the Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, where she serves as program leader for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Program, and also an associate director for population sciences for the Yale Cancer Center. She is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors for the U.S. National Cancer Institute, and also the Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences. Ph.D. Cornell University

Diane McMahon-Pratt Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, and Director of Postdoctoral Affairs. The focus of the research in Professor McMahon-Pratt’s laboratory is the genus of parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, which causes a spectrum of diseases known as leishmaniasis. Using biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, the laboratory is involved in the study of molecules that are developmentally regulated by the parasite during its life cycle; these molecules should provide clues as to how the parasite survives and/or manipulates its environment within either the insect vector or mammalian host. She is also interested in understanding and elucidating the immune effector mechanisms involved in the control of infection by the mammalian host. Ph.D. Harvard University

Joan Monin Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Professor Monin’s research examines how emotional processes affect health in older adult relationships. Currently her research focuses on understanding how exposure to a loved one’s suffering affects the physical and psychological health of older adult caregivers. Her research combines survey methods and laboratory experiments to understand the mechanisms (e.g., emotional contagion, cardiovascular reactivity) and moderators (gender, individual differences in attachment) involved in these processes. Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon University

Chimaeze D. Ndumele Assistant Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Ndumele’s research is centered on identifying the drivers of inequitable access to health care services for vulnerable populations. His work commonly examines the impact of organizational structure and changes in local and federal policy on the provision and use of health services. Current research includes a group of studies aiming to forecast the likely effects of the forthcoming Medicaid expansion; the evaluation of a natural experiment that randomly assigned Medicaid enrollees to one of two types of managed care plans; and work exploring the effects of transitioning from Medicaid to Medicare on the use of health services. Ph.D. Brown University

Ingrid M. Nembhard Associate Professor, Health Management Program, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Nembhard’s research examines organizational learning and quality improvement in health care organizations through an organizational behavior lens. In recent work she has studied the influence of leadership, front-line staff interactions, and team learning strategies on the success of improvement projects. Her ongoing research studies the conditions under which health care organizations participate in interorganizational learning to facilitate organizational change. Ph.D. Harvard University

Linda M. Niccolai Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Niccolai’s primary research interest is in behavioral aspects of HIV and STD prevention. Specifically she is interested in studying individual- and partnership-level determinants of sexual risk behaviors, particularly among underserved populations. Other ongoing research activities include studies of woman’s reproductive health (including pregnant women) and HIV/STD prevention. Ph.D. Tulane University

John E. Pachankis Associate Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Social and Behavioral Sciences Division. Professor Pachankis’s research focuses on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. His research seeks to identify the psychosocial (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity) and contextual (e.g., urban migration) processes underlying LGBT individuals’ disproportionate experiences with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. His research combines social and clinical psychological methods and life course developmental models to inform investigations into stigma, LGBT mental health, and LGBT health intervention development. He is currently involved in several projects aiming to develop and disseminate behavioral interventions to improve the health of the LGBT community. Ph.D. State University of New York at Stony Brook

A. David Paltiel Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Paltiel is engaged in numerous research projects concerned broadly with issues of resource allocation and decision making in the health sector. His work focuses on the development of methods and models for the economic evaluation of a variety of pharmaceutical products, medical technologies, and public health activities. He has published on such subjects as the costs and consequences of antiretroviral therapy, the economics of HIV and cancer screening, the theoretical foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis for resource allocation, optimal timing and targeting policies for AIDS prevention and treatment policies, and the cost-effectiveness of preventing AIDS complications. Ph.D. Yale University

Sunil Parikh Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Dr. Parikh’s research interests focus on translational studies of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. He focuses upon several aspects of malaria: early immune responses to infection, human genetics, and treatment. Current projects include: (1) understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimalarials using a combination of individual and population-based approaches to inform treatment guidelines; (2) characterizing the impact of pharmacogenetic variants on drug metabolism and treatment outcomes; (3) understanding the impact of the HIV epidemic on the treatment of malaria in co-endemic regions; and (4) characterizing the impact of host transcriptional and genetic variability in early immune responses to malaria. Dr. Parikh has ongoing projects in several African countries, including Uganda, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria. M.D. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; M.P.H. University of California, Berkeley

Curtis L. Patton Professor Emeritus, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Patton’s research interests include identification and characterization of trypanosome-specific calmodulin response elements, as well as studies of structure and biological function of trypanosome calmodulin. Under physiological conditions, treatment with methylating agents induces synchronous differentiation in these parasites. In his research Professor Patton is characterizing carboxyl methyltransferases and methylesterases and determining the role of S-adenosyl-methionine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine in alpha-difluoromethylornithine-induced differentiation. Ph.D. Michigan State University

Peter N. Peduzzi Professor, Department of Biostatistics, and Director, Yale Center for Analytical Sciences. Professor Peduzzi’s primary research interests involve the development of statistical methods for the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials and research on aging. In particular, he is interested in the design and analysis of comparative effectiveness clinical trials to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different options for treating a specific medical condition in a selected population, including the determination of which patients benefit most from treatment. Other research activities include matching of Bayesian and frequentist approaches to sample size and monitoring of clinical trials and analyzing longitudinal studies in which death is a competing event. He is also principal investigator of the VA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut, and the codirector of the Biostatistics Core of the Yale Pepper Center. Ph.D. Yale University

Rafael Pérez-Escamilla Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology; Director, Office of Community Health; and Director, Global Health Concentration. Professor Pérez-Escamilla’s research program concentrates on domestic and global community/public health nutrition issues including (1) efficacy and effectiveness of community health worker models for improving behavioral, metabolic, and disease outcomes among Latinos with type 2 diabetes, (2) prenatal and infant nutrition, (3) household food security measurement and policies, (4) growth and development of infants born to HIV-positive women, and (5) nutrition education program design and evaluation. He is currently (co)leading health disparities, nutrition, and food security capacity building programs in Connecticut, Ghana, and Brazil. All of his projects include strong community outreach and workforce development efforts to help translate scientific findings into improved practices and health outcomes at the community level. Ph.D. University of California, Davis

Melinda M. Pettigrew Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Professor Pettigrew uses a combined molecular and epidemiologic approach to understand infectious diseases in infants and young children. Her main projects involve the identification of bacterial factors important for the pathogenesis of pneumococcal infections and an analysis of the impact of environmental exposures on otitis media. Ph.D. Yale University

Virginia E. Pitzer Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Pitzer’s research focuses on mathematical modeling of the transmission dynamics of imperfectly immunizing infections. She studies how interventions such as vaccination, improved treatment of cases, and improvements in sanitation affect disease transmission at the population level. Her primary research focus is on rotavirus, one of the leading causes of severe diarrhea in children in developed and developing countries, for which two new vaccines have been recently introduced. Current projects include (1) understanding the transmission dynamics and potential impact of vaccination in developing countries, and (2) developing and applying epidemiological methods to estimate the waning of vaccine-induced immunity for rotavirus. She is also interested in the spatiotemporal dynamics of RSV and evaluating control options for typhoid fever. Sc.D. Harvard School of Public Health

Harvey A. Risch Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Dr. Risch’s research interests are in the areas of cancer etiology and prevention, and in epidemiology methods. His work has included studies on the etiology of pancreatic, ovarian, and upper gastrointestinal neoplasms, with particular emphasis on genetic poly­morphisms and major genes, hormonal factors and cancer, occupational/environmental exposures and cancer, diet and cancer, and Helicobacter pylori and cancer. He has been principal investigator of two case-control studies of pancreatic cancer, in Connecticut and in Shanghai, China, and co-investigator on a third study in Queensland, Australia, as well as principal investigator of three large case-control studies of ovarian cancer, two in Canada and one in Connecticut, and a case-control study of esophageal and stomach cancer in Connecticut. He is associate editor of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute and of the American Journal of Epidemiology, and editor of the International Journal of Cancer. M.D. University of California, San Diego; Ph.D. University of Chicago

Nancy H. Ruddle John Rodman Paul Professor Emerita of Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Professor Ruddle’s laboratory is interested in several aspects of protein products of thymus-derived lymphocytes, particularly cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, their regulation and roles in lymphoid development and pathogenesis of viral and autoimmune disease. Her laboratory has studied the regulation, mechanism of action, and biological role of a family of lymphokines called lymphotoxin (LT, LTα, TNF-β), LT-β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). They have studied molecular regulation of LT, LT-β, and TNF-α production and identified negative and positive elements in the genes and flanking DNAs and evaluated different mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of these genes. They are studying the role of LT, LT-β, and TNF-α in pathogenesis of inflammation in diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and HTLV-1 hypercalcemia and have developed transgenic mouse models to study their activities in these diseases. Ph.D. Yale University

Mark J. Schlesinger Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Schlesinger’s health policy research includes assessments of federal programs for children and the elderly; studies of the growth of for-profit enterprises in health and mental health care; investigations of the scope and consequences of various forms of “managed care” and utilization management, including their application to “managed competition”; and analyses of public attitudes toward health care reform. His research on other aspects of social policy includes studies of government contracting for services from private agencies; public perceptions and attitudes shaping intergenerational tensions and age-targeted social programs; and the comparative performance of private nonprofit, for-profit, and public agencies. Ph.D. University of Wisconsin

Fatma Shebl Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Dr. Shebl’s current research involves examining the role of inflammation and infection in cancer risk. Dr. Shebl is mainly interested in hepatitis C virus research and is currently working with several collaborators to examine genetic and non-genetic determinants of spontaneous and drug-induced clearance. She also established new statistical analytic methods to estimate incidence rate in the presence of misclassification errors. In addition, she has special interest in introducing novel use of existing statistical methods to the field of epidemiology. Dr. Shebl’s future research will focus on understanding cancer’s molecular basis and identifying biomarkers for early cancer detection, especially for hepato­cellular carcinoma. M.D. University of Alexandria, Egypt; Ph.D. University of Maryland

Jody L. Sindelar Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management. Professor Sindelar also has an appointment at the Institute of Social and Policy Studies at Yale and is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economics Research. She is president of the American Society of Health Economics, and serves on several advisory and editorial boards. Her primary research area is the economics of substance abuse including smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, and obesity. Her work has been published in medical care, health services, addiction, and economics journals. Professor Sindelar has been a principal investigator on multiple grants with funding from NIAAA, NIDA, NIA, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, among others. Current research interests include (1) analyzing the roles of socioeconomic factors, health habits, and work-life on the aging process, (2) the role of stress and self-control grant on stress and addiction as part of a roadmap grant, and (3) behavioral economics. Ph.D. Stanford University

Jeffrey P. Townsend Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, and Director of Bioinformatics, Yale Center for Analytical Sciences. Professor Townsend’s research interests include bioinformatics, mathematical modeling, and gene expression analysis. Research topics include the estimation of selection coefficients on mutations within genes and pathways that underlie the somatic evolution of cancer, and global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of dynamic infectious disease models. Professor Townsend also performs research on the evolution of gene expression using pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi, including the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Ph.D. Harvard University

Christian Tschudi Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, and Director of Graduate Studies. Professor Tschudi’s studies focus on the biology of trypanosomes, the causative agent of devastating diseases in Africa and South America. Most projects utilize bioinformatics and modern genetic techniques to identify and dissect parasite-specific functions with the long-term goal to identify candidate molecules that can be targets for chemotherapy. He is also interested in understanding gene silencing by RNA interference in African trypanosomes with the objective of uncovering its biological function. Ph.D. University of Basel, Switzerland

Vasilis Vasiliou Professor and Chair, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Professor Vasiliou has established an internationally recognized research program that has been continuously funded by NEI/NIH and NIAAA/NIH since 1997. His research interests include mechanisms of cellular responses to environmental stress, gene-environment interactions, the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases and glutathione in metabolism and disease (e.g., diabetes, gout, and cancer), and the evolution of gene families. Drug discovery also represents an area of active interest, particularly given the recent identification of aldehyde dehydrogenases as markers of cancer stem cells. In a multi-investigator collaboration with several universities and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), Professor Vasiliou is developing small molecules that will enhance the efficacy of the chemotherapy and radiotherapy of cancer. Ph.D., Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece

Shiyi Wang Assistant Professor, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Dr. Wang’s primary interests focus on outcomes research and decision science. He is currently working on evaluation of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for women with newly diagnosed early breast cancer. He is interested in combining systematic literature reviews, simulation modeling, and secondary data analyses to examine issues that are critical to clinicians and policy makers’ decision making. M.D. Taipei Medical University; Ph.D. University of Minnesota

Zuoheng Wang Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Wang’s research focuses on the development of statistical and computational methods to address problems in genetics, in particular, genome-wide association studies. Her current project involves identifying genomic variants contributing to type 2 diabetes. She is also interested in integrating information from genomics and expression experiments to understand the genetic basis of human complex diseases. Ph.D. University of Chicago

Daniel M. Weinberger Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. Dr. Weinberger’s research focuses on the biology and epidemiology of pneumo­coccus, a major bacterial pathogen that causes a large burden of disease worldwide, particularly among young children and the elderly. Major research questions are related to bacterial evolution and strain dominance, bacterial-viral co-infections, and seasonal determinants of bacterial disease incidence. He also does work focused on improving the interpretation of disease surveillance data and understanding geographic variations in vaccine impact. These projects have direct relevance for interpreting post-vaccination disease data and for understanding the potential impacts of bacterial evolution on long-term vaccine effectiveness. The Weinberger lab employs a variety of tools including experimental and statistical approaches. Ph.D. Harvard University

Daniel Zelterman Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Zelterman’s research interests are centered in applied statistics. Before coming to Yale in 1995, he studied the limits of human longevity and models related to other extreme value models. He is currently doing research on clinical trials at the Yale Cancer Center. This research covers survival analysis, modeling of cancer mechanisms, and discrete distributions. His interests in cancer epidemiology and genetics have brought him to examine the analysis of pedigrees, familial clusters of disease, and similar computationally intensive statistical methods. Ph.D. Yale University

Heping Zhang Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Zhang’s research interests are in the general area of regression analysis: theory, methodology, and applications. Recently, he has been developing and implementing a nonparametric tree-based method that allows one to analyze data with multidimensional responses and with continuous and/or categorical covariates. This tree-based method is especially suitable for risk factor analyses of large, complex epidemiologic studies. Professor Zhang is also interested in statistical genetics and neuroimaging analyses. Ph.D. Stanford University

Yawei Zhang Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Dr. Zhang’s research interests are in the areas of cancer epidemiology, etiology, and prognosis. She is especially interested in the effects of environmental factors, endogenous and exogenous hormones, genetic susceptibility, and gene-environmental interactions on human cancer risk. Her main research projects involve environmental factors, genetic susceptibility, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; gene-environmental interactions and breast cancer risk; and early life exposures and breast and testicular cancer risk. M.D. West China University of Medical Science, China; M.P.H., Ph.D. Yale University

Hongyu Zhao Professor and Chair, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Zhao’s research interests focus on applications of probability and statistics to molecular biology and genetics. The projects in his laboratory include (1) genome-wide association studies, (2) haplotype analysis in population-based and family-based studies, (3) eQTL mapping in different organisms, (4) pathway-based genomics analysis, (5) transcriptional regulatory network reconstruction, (6) protein interaction networks, and (7) disease biomarker identification through proteomics. Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley

Tongzhang Zheng Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Professor Zheng’s research interests have been in the area of cancer epidemiology and environmental epidemiology. He is the principal investigator for a number of ongoing case-control studies, including a case-control study of GST genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors and risk of female breast cancer; a case-control study of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; a case-control study of viral and environmental etiology of Hodgkin’s disease; a case-control study of multiple myeloma in Connecticut; and a case-control study of cancers of the stomach and esophagus in China. He is also the principal investigator for a case-control study of indoor air pollution and asthma among schoolchildren in Beijing. Sc.D. Harvard University

Bingqing Zhou Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics. Professor Zhou has primary research interests in the areas of survival analysis and analysis of correlated responses, with particular focus on competing risks survival data. Her current work involves regression modeling of cumulative incidence for competing risks data, common in cancer clinical trials. She has applied this research to the incidence of deficient blood platelet counts for a cancer drug currently in clinical development at a major pharmaceutical company. Her collaborative research has involved cancer prevention and treatment, pulmonary diseases, and otolaryngologic disease. Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Yong Zhu Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Health Sciences. Professor Zhu’s research interests focus on using a molecular epidemiological approach to study genetic susceptibility markers and their interactions with environmental exposure in human disease development. He has been developing and validating novel phenotypic and genotypic assays and biomarkers for several smoking-related cancers. By utilizing various techniques in molecular biology, molecular cytogenetics, cell biology, and computational biology, he identifies biomarkers that can characterize inherited genetic predisposition and cellular response to environmental factors. In addition, Professor Zhu is interested in applying evolutionary concepts and tools in biomarker study and medical research. He is currently using phylogenetic analysis to screen biomarkers for molecular epidemiological study and addressing the role of gene-environment interaction in human disease in the context of human evolutionary history. Ph.D. Rice University

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