Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Course Descriptions

Courses designated “a” meet in the fall term only.

Courses designated “b” meet in the spring term only.

Courses designated “a and b” are yearlong courses.

Courses designated “c” meet in the summer term.

Bracketed courses are not offered in the current academic year.

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Biostatistics

BIS 505a, Introduction to Statistical Thinking I This course provides an introduction to the use of statistics in the fields of epidemiology and public health. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability distributions, parameter estimation, and hypothesis testing, as well as an introduction to sampling and simple linear regression. Statistical analysis using the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) software on the PC is introduced. E. Claus

BIS 505b, Introduction to Statistical Thinking II This continuation of BIS 505a covers multiple regression, analysis of variance, nonparametric tests, survival analysis, poisson regression, and logistic regression. The course concludes with a review of commonly used statistical methods. As in the first term, the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) software package is used for statistical analysis. Prerequisite: BIS 505a. M. Ciarleglio

BIS 511a, GIS Applications in Epidemiology and Public Health The study of epidemiology often seeks to determine associations between exposure risk and disease that are spatially dependent. Geographic information systems (GIS) are modern computer-based tools for the capture, storage, analysis, and display of spatial information. GIS technologies are just beginning to be used for public health planning and decision making. Public health applications of GIS provide cost-effective methods for evaluation interventions and modeling future trends, and also provide a visual tool for data exploration. This class teaches the technical and design aspects of implementing a GIS project in public health and provides students with basic tools for using GIS. Examples are given to introduce a variety of applications in the field of epidemiology. T. Holford

BIS 515c, Accelerated Biostatistics This intensive seven-week summer course provides a comprehensive introduction to the use of statistics in the fields of epidemiology, public health, and clinical research. Students gain experience conducting and interpreting a broad range of statistical analyses. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability distributions, parameter estimation, hypothesis testing, sampling, analysis of variance, nonparametric tests, and linear regression. Through weekly computer laboratory sessions, students become familiar with the SAS statistical software package. For students in the Advanced Professional M.P.H. program; not open to students in the traditional two-year M.P.H. program. M. Ciarleglio

BIS 525a and b, Seminar in Biostatistics Faculty and invited speakers present and discuss current research. F. Crawford

[BIS 538b, Survey Sampling: Methods and Management This course reviews the major sampling plans: simple stratified, systematic, and cluster random sampling. The uses of weighted data and ratio estimation are discussed. The course emphasizes application of methodology, including use of SUDAAN. Prerequisite: BIS 505b or equivalent. Not offered in 2013–2014]

BIS 540a, Fundamentals of Clinical Trials This course addresses issues related to the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials. Topics include protocol development, examination and selection of appropriate experimental design, methods of randomization, sample size determination, appropriate methods of data analysis including time-to-event (possibly censored) data, and interim monitoring and ethical issues. Prerequisites: BIS 505a or equivalent and second-year status. R. Makuch

BIS 557a, Computational Statistics This is a graduate-level course in the theory and practice of statistical computing. The goal of the course is to develop analytical and computational skills that will enable students to solve computational challenges in their own research. The course covers basic mathematical and statistical techniques that statisticians use when analyzing data and models for which there is no ready-made software. Every component of the course covers theoretical concepts, implementation details, and applications to real data or common statistical models that students will encounter in practice. This course is not an introduction to programming, nor is it a survey of software packages for doing statistics; the course covers fundamentals of using the R language, but students are expected to be already familiar with basic concepts in programming. F. Crawford

BIS 561b, Advanced Topics and Case Studies in Multicenter Clinical Trials This course addresses advanced issues related to the design, conduct, monitoring, and analysis of multicenter randomized clinical trials. Topics include organizational, regulatory, and human rights issues; an overview of design strategies; advanced topics in sample size estimation and monitoring; data management and quality assurance procedures; cost-effectiveness and quality of life; and case studies of vaccine trials, factorial trials, primary and secondary prevention trials, large simple trials, strategy trials, and cost-effectiveness. The case studies include many of the classical and landmark clinical trials, such as the polio vaccine field trial, Physicians Health Study, and the trials of AZT for the treatment of AIDS. Prerequisite: BIS 505a. P. Peduzzi, M. Ciarleglio

BIS 575b, Introduction to Regulatory Affairs This course provides students with an introduction to regulatory affairs science, as these issues apply to the regulation of food, pharmaceuticals, and medical and diagnostic devices. The course covers a broad range of specialties that focus on issues including legal underpinnings of the regulatory process, compliance, phases of clinical testing and regulatory milestones, clinical trials design and monitoring, quality assurance, post-marketing study design in response to regulatory and other needs, and post-marketing risk management. The complexities of this process require awareness of leadership and change management skills. Topics to be discussed include: (1) the nature and scope of the International Conference on Harmonization, and its guidelines for regulatory affairs in the global environment; (2) drug development, the FDA, and principles of regulatory affairs in this environment; (3) the practice of global regulatory affairs from an industry perspective; (4) description/structure/issues of current special importance to the U.S. FDA; (5) historical background and FDA jurisdiction of food and drug law; (6) the drug development process including specification of the important milestone meetings with the FDA; (7) risk analysis and approaches to its evaluation; (8) use of Bayesian statistics in medical device evaluation, a new approach; (9) use of data monitoring committees and other statistical methods for regulatory compliance; (10) developments in leadership and change management; and (11) food quality assurance including risk analysis/compliance/enforcement. Through course participation, students also have opportunities to meet informally with faculty and outside speakers to explore additional regulatory issues of current interest. R. Makuch

BIS 623a, Applied Regression Analysis This course covers linear regression, estimation, and testing hypotheses in multivariate regression, regression diagnostics, analysis of variance, and adjusting for covariates. Emphasis is on the application of methods. SAS software is used throughout the course. Prerequisite: BIS 505b or equivalent. B. Zhou

BIS 625a, Categorical Data Analysis This course presents methods for analyzing categorical data in public health, epidemiology, and medicine. Topics include discrete distributions, log-linear models, and logistic regression. Emphasis is placed on the application of the methods and the interpretation of results by applying the techniques to a variety of data sets. Prerequisite: BIS 505b or equivalent. Z. Wang

[BIS 626a, Gerontologic Biostatistics: Statistical Methods for Clinical Research with Older Study Participants and for Basic Aging Research This course addresses the statistical issues that arise in the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of clinical research with older study participants and of basic aging research. Special attention is given to the conceptual understanding of the challenges involved in aging research and to the practical application of methods for meeting those challenges. Topics include issues such as multicomponent intervention clinical trials, triggered sampling observational designs, and transition modeling. All topics are illustrated with case studies from the Yale Program on Aging. Prerequisite: BIS 505a/b. Not offered in 2013–2014]

BIS 628b, Longitudinal and Multilevel Data Analysis This course covers methods for analyzing data in which repeated measures have been obtained for individuals over time. Different methods are discussed to handle both continuous and discrete longitudinal response data. Both subject-specific and population averaged approaches are covered (with particular reference to capturing the heterogeneity between different individuals). Some of the approaches covered include linear, nonlinear, and generalized mixed effects models, as well as generalized estimating equations. The course also covers exploratory methods, approaches for handling missing data, and possibly transition models and advanced topics such as multivariate longitudinal responses, nonparametric longitudinal responses, the joint consideration of longitudinal and survival data, and the joint consideration of longitudinal and spatial data. Emphasis is placed on applying the methods, understanding underlying assumptions, and interpreting results. Both SAS and S-Plus software are used throughout the course. Prerequisites: BIS 623a and 625a. H. Lin

BIS 630b, Applied Survival Analysis This half-term course demonstrates statistical methods for analyzing and interpreting time-to-failure data. The techniques described include the construction and analysis of failure rates, survival curves, significant tests for comparing survival curves, and semi-parametric models for the analysis of time-to-failure data including the proportional hazards model. Skills for using statistical software to perform the calculation are developed. In addition, study design is covered, including sample size and power calculations. Prerequisites: BIS 505a and 505b; and BIS 623a or 625a. M. Ciarleglio

[BIS 631a, Topics in Genetic Epidemiology This course discusses the role of human genetics in epidemiology and public health, focusing on the epidemiology of Mendelian disorders and the genetic and environmental contributions to common, complex familial traits. Topics of discussion include (1) study designs for assessing the importance of genetic factors (population-based as well as family-based designs such as high-risk pedigrees and twin studies), (2) methods for determining mode of inheritance, and (3) the identification and mapping of genes through linkage analyses, candidate-gene approaches, genome-wide association studies, and admixture mapping. Applications of these approaches to clinical medicine are presented. Prerequisites: BIS 505a and 505b (or equivalent) as well as course work in basic genetics. Not offered in 2013–2014]

BIS 632b, Design and Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies This half-term course considers methods for analyzing the association of one or more factors with disease. Topics include the analysis of cohort studies, case-control studies, and vital rates. The analysis of matched data is also discussed. Emphasis is placed on the application and interpretation of the techniques. Issues of study design are also covered. Prerequisites: BIS 505a and 505b; and BIS 623a or 625a. M. Ciarleglio

[BIS 643b, Theory of Survival Analysis and Its Applications This course presents the statistical theory underlying survival analysis. It covers different models of censoring and the three major approaches to analyzing this type of data: parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric methods. The application of this theory through some exemplary data sets is also presented. Prerequisites: STAT 541a and 542b. Offered every other year. Not offered in 2013–2014]

BIS 645b/CB&B 647b/GENE 645b, Statistical Methods in Human Genetics Probability modeling and statistical methodology for the analysis of human genetics data are presented. Topics include population genetics, single locus and polygenic inheritance, parametric and nonparametric linkage analysis, population-based association studies, family-risk prediction models, and DNA fingerprinting. Prerequisites: BIS 505a and b, or equivalent; and permission of the instructor. H. Zhao

[BIS 646b, Nonparametric Statistical Methods and Their Applications Nonparametric statistical procedures including recursive partitioning techniques, splines, bootstrap, and other sample reuse methods are introduced. Some of the supporting theory for these methods is proven rigorously, but some is described heuristically. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are illustrated by medical and epidemiological studies. Students may be required to compare these methods with parametric methods when analyzing data sets. Familiarity with basic statistical theory and computer languages is assumed. Prerequisites: STAT 541a and 542b. Not offered in 2013–2014]

[BIS 648a, Statistical Methods for Sequence Data Analysis The availability of massive amounts of sequencing data has generated both great promises and significant challenges for biological and biomedical researchers. This course focuses on the statistical and computational issues arising from the analysis of these data. Topics to be covered include data pre-processing, allele calling, RNA-seq analysis, ChIP-seq analysis, and metagenomics data analysis. The course combines methodology expositions with real data examples to illustrate the discussed methods. Not offered in 2013–2014]

[BIS 651b, Spatial Statistics in Public Health Statistical methods for the analysis of spatial data that arise from health studies are developed in order to account for spatially correlated outcomes. Techniques to be discussed include methodology for continuous responses such as inverse distance weighting and Kriging. Bayesian models for smoothing disease risk maps are derived. Environmental exposure models are developed. In addition, spatial/temporal models are discussed that allow the analysis of both sources of correlation. Techniques are illustrated using data from ongoing studies. Prerequisite: STAT 541a and 542b. Not offered in 2013–2014]

BIS 678a, Statistical Consulting This class offers the chance for students to gain experience and practical knowledge working as a biostatistician in a real-world setting. Students collaborate with an investigator, designing and implementing statistical approaches to further clinical research efforts under the supervision of an instructor. This class prepares students for further, unsupervised collaborations in their careers as biostatisticians with an emphasis on developing effective oral and written communication skills. Prerequisite: open to second-year Biostatistics doctoral students, or by permission of the instructors. P. Peduzzi, M. Kane

BIS 691b, Theory of Generalized Linear Models This course considers a class of statistical models that generalize the linear model through the link functions of response mean. Major varieties of GLMs including models for Gaussian, Gamma, binomial, un/ordered polynomial, and Poisson responses are discussed. Goodness of fit of the models and overdispersion are considered. Extensions to correlated responses are examined through the approaches of quasi-likelihood and generalized estimating equation. The course covers both theoretical and applied aspects of data analytic issues arising from practice. Prerequisites: STAT 542b, BIS 623a, and some knowledge of matrix calculation. Offered every other year. S. Ma

[BIS 692b/CB&B 645b/STAT 645b, Statistical Methods in Genetics and Bioinformatics Introduction to problems, algorithms, and data analysis approaches in computational biology and bioinformatics; stochastic modeling and statistical methods applied to problems such as mapping disease-associated genes, analyzing gene expression microarray data, sequence alignment, and SNP analysis. Statistical methods include maximum likelihood, EM, Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and some methods of classification and clustering; models include hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks, and the coalescent. The limitations of current models, and the future opportunities for model building, are critically addressed. Prerequisite: STAT 661a, 538a, or 542b. Prior knowledge of biology is not required, but some interest in the subject and a willingness to carry out calculations using R is assumed. Not offered in 2013–2014]

BIS 695c, Summer Internship in Biostatistical Research The purpose of this course is to provide students with the opportunity of gaining practical experience in the analysis and the development of biostatistical methods as part of a health sciences research team including medicine, public health, pharmaceutical industry, or health care delivery. This experience provides a basis for developing a dissertation thesis proposal that has practical significance for addressing important scientific questions. Students work with a biostatistics faculty mentor to select a suitable placement for the summer intern, and a one-page description of the plans will be submitted to the instructor at least three weeks prior to starting the program, for approval within two weeks. Upon completion of the internship, a written report of the work must be submitted to the instructor no later than October 1. Prerequisite: completion of one year of the Ph.D. or M.S. program or permission of the instructor. H. Zhao

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Chronic Disease Epidemiology

CDE 502b/EHS 502b, Physiology for Public Health The objective of this course is to provide a comprehensive working knowledge of the primary physiologic and metabolic systems that respond to environmental stressors. A major emphasis of the course is to analyze potential health consequences of these stressors: examining vulnerabilities affected by age, chronic disease, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as protection afforded by healthy lifestyle factors. C. Yeckel

CDE 505a/PSYC 657a, Social and Behavioral Foundations of Health This course provides students with an introduction to social and behavioral science issues that influence patterns of health and health care delivery. The focus is on the integration of biomedical, social, psychological, and behavioral factors that must be taken into consideration when public health initiatives are developed and implemented. This course emphasizes the integration of research from the social and behavioral sciences with epidemiology and biomedical sciences. M. White

CDE 505c, Accelerated Social and Behavioral Foundations of Health This intensive seven-week summer course provides students with an introduction to social and behavioral science issues that influence patterns of health and health care delivery. The focus is on the integration of biomedical, social, psychological, and behavioral factors that must be taken into consideration when public health initiatives are developed and implemented. This course emphasizes the integration of research from the social and behavioral sciences with epidemiology and biomedical sciences. Not open to students in the traditional two-year M.P.H. program. J. Ickovics

CDE 508a/EMD 508a, Principles of Epidemiology I This course presents an introduction to epidemiologic definitions, concepts, and methods. Topics include history of epidemiology, descriptive epidemiology, measurement of disease occurrence and association, study design (ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control studies, cohort, and intervention), surveillance, measurement validity and screening, random variation and precision, bias, confounding, effect modification, and causality. The course also teaches skills for quantitative problem solving, and the understanding of epidemiologic concepts in the published literature. L. Niccolai

CDE 515c, Accelerated Epidemiology This intensive seven-week summer course provides a comprehensive overview of epidemiologic concepts and methods. Topics include measurements of disease frequency and association, study design (including randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and ecologic studies), screening principles, reliability and validity, bias, confounding, and effect modification. After completing this course, students are able to calculate and interpret epidemiologic parameters, identify the strengths and weaknesses of various study designs, and apply the principles and methods of epidemiology to the design and analysis of new studies. Not open to students in the traditional two-year M.P.H. program. M. Desai

CDE 516b, Principles of Epidemiology II This is an intermediate-level course on epidemiologic principles and methods. The course covers bias, introduction to multivariable analysis for confounder control and assessment of effect modification, indirect standardization, matching, residual confounding, survival analysis, randomized controlled trials including cluster-randomized trials, multiplicity and subgroup analysis, sample size and power, meta-analysis, screening, genome-wide association studies, use of biomarkers in epidemiology, and epidemic investigation. Through lectures, class discussion, readings from the peer-reviewed literature in both chronic and infectious disease epidemiology, and homework assignments, students learn to (1) evaluate the scientific merit and feasibility of epidemiologic study designs; (2) review, critique, and evaluate epidemiologic reports and research articles; (3) perform epidemiologic calculations; and (4) draw appropriate inferences from epidemiologic data, all at the intermediate level. Prerequisites: CDE/EMD 508a and BIS 505a. R. Dubrow

CDE 520b/EHS 520b, Case-Based Learning for Genetic and Environmental Diseases This course covers the basic concepts, methodology, and up-to-date research approaches central to understanding genetic and environmental causes of human diseases. Lectures are based on comprehensive illustrations with several historical landmark studies; real-life stories, cartoons, and videos are used throughout. Students leave the class with an appreciation of genetics and an understanding of how to appropriately use the study designs, analyses, and interpretations to discover disease susceptibility genes. In addition, students learn how epigenetics affects disease presentation. Critically, students are expected to equip themselves to tackle the causes of the disease of their own interest. Participation in in-class as well as out-of-class discussions, take-home quiz sets, hands-on exercises with real data, and a presentation are the criteria for the final grade. No prerequisites. J. Hoh

CDE 523b, Measurement Issues in Chronic Disease Epidemiology This course addresses the measurement issues in chronic disease epidemiology from a practical perspective. The first part of the course covers the use and limitations of currently available techniques for measuring exposure to a number of etiologic factors such as diet, alcohol, tobacco, physical activity, psychological stress, and environmental exposures. The latter part of the course focuses on the measurement of outcome for some of the major chronic diseases, along with some practical considerations involved in conducting chronic disease epidemiology research. Prerequisite: CDE/EMD 508a. X. Ma

CDE 525a and b, Seminar in Chronic Disease Epidemiology & Social and Behavioral Sciences This seminar is conducted in two series: once a month it focuses on speakers and subjects of particular relevance to CDE students, and once a month it focuses on speakers and subjects of particular relevance to SBS students. Students are introduced to research activities of the department’s faculty members, with invited outside investigators to complete the schedule. The CDE series is required for first-year CDE students. The SBS series is required for first-year SBS students. Cross-attendance is optional. S. Mayne, T. Kershaw, and faculty

[CDE 531a/PSYC 664a, Health and Aging Since 1900, the number of individuals aged sixty-five and older has tripled and life expectancy has increased by about thirty years. The course examines some of the health issues related to this growing segment of the population. Class discussions address such questions as: How does the aging process differ between cultures? What kind of interventions can best reduce morbidity in old age? How can health policy adapt to the aging populations? This course integrates psychosocial and biomedical approaches to the study of aging. Not offered in 2013–2014]

CDE 532b, Epidemiology of Cancer This course applies epidemiologic methods to the study of cancer etiology and prevention. Introductory sessions cover cancer biology, carcinogenesis, cancer incidence, and mortality rates in the United States, and international variation in cancer rates. The course then focuses on risk factors for cancer (including tobacco, alcohol, hormonal factors, diet, radiation, and obesity/physical activity) and on major cancer sites (including colon, breast, and prostate). Emphasis is placed on critical reading of the literature. Prerequisite: CDE/EMD 508a. B. Cartmel

[CDE 533b, Topics in Perinatal Epidemiology Pregnancy, delivery, and reproduction provide the course’s organizing focus. The current perinatal epidemiologic literature is critically reviewed from a methodological perspective. Subjects studied include birth control, infertility, miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, preterm labor and delivery, aspects of prenatal care, congenital malformations, perinatal risks for cancer and other chronic diseases, SIDS, and infant mortality. Students actively participate in a seminar format and develop an understanding of what evidence is needed to establish causal relationships in this specialty. Implications of research findings for public health policy, individual decision making, and future studies are considered. Not offered in 2013–2014]

CDE 534b, Applied Analytic Methods in Epidemiology This computer lab-based course provides students with a comprehensive overview of data management and data analysis techniques. The SAS statistical software program is used. Students learn how to create and manipulate data sets and variables using SAS; identify appropriate statistical tests and modeling approaches to evaluate epidemiologic associations; and perform a broad array of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses using SAS and interpret the results. Prerequisites: BIS 505a, CDE/EMD 508a, and students must have taken or currently be taking BIS 505b (or, for Advanced Professional M.P.H. students, successful completion of BIS 515c and CDE 515c). M. Desai

CDE 535b, Epidemiology of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart disease and stroke are among the leading causes of death and disability among industrialized nations. This course introduces students to the major categories of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. Students are challenged to think about how individual diseases contribute to the epidemic of vascular disease in the United States. In this course, students learn basic principles about the rates of disease, risk factors, clinical trial results, and outcomes of heart disease and stroke. Through the analysis of actual studies, students apply basic epidemiology to critically evaluate current literature and topics in this field. Sessions include a clinical overview of a specific disease or risk factor, as well as highly interactive discussion of a specific epidemiologic topic or principle. Students are encouraged to develop their own solutions to current gaps in the epidemiologic literature. J. Lichtman

CDE 541a, Community Health Program Evaluation This course develops students’ skills in designing program evaluations for public health programs, including non-governmental and governmental agencies in the United States and abroad. Students learn about different types of summative and formative evaluation models and tools for assessment. The course content is based on an ecological framework, principles of public health ethics, a philosophy of problem-based learning, and critiques of evaluation case studies. Students write evaluation plans for a specific existing public health program. Students may also work as a team with a local community health agency reviewing their evaluation plans and providing guidance on developing a program evaluation plan for one of the agency’s public health programs. D. Stevens

CDE 543a/EMD 543a, Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status. D. Humphries

CDE 545b, Health Disparities by Race and Social Class: Application to Chronic Disease Epidemiology One of four overarching goals of Healthy People 2020 is to “achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.” This course explores disparities in the chronic diseases that contribute disproportionately to ill health, resource utilization, reduced quality of life, and mortality. Taking a life course perspective as we explore disparities across the spectrum of chronic diseases, we focus on differences in health between diverse racial/ethnic and/or socioeconomic groups, primarily in the United States. The primary focus of this course is on understanding the determinants and consequences of health disparities, learning to critically evaluate health disparities research, and thinking creatively about elimination strategies. A sound foundation in epidemiological methods and a working knowledge of the major chronic diseases are required. Prerequisites: CDE/EMD 508a, and CDE 505a or 571b. B. Jones

CDE 562a, Nutrition and Chronic Disease This course provides students with a scientific basis for understanding the role of nutrition and specific nutrients in the etiology, prevention, and management of chronic diseases. Nutrition and cancer are particularly emphasized. Other topics addressed include cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and aging. Implications for federal nutrition policy (dietary guidelines, dietary supplement regulations, food labeling, etc.) are discussed. Prerequisites: biology, biochemistry, and physiology helpful. S. Mayne

CDE 571b, Psychosocial and Behavioral Epidemiology This course provides a systematic overview of psychosocial and behavioral influences on health, illness, and recovery. The factors of interest that influence health include but are not limited to: individual psychological characteristics (e.g., personality traits and cognitive orientations), characteristics of the primary social environment (e.g., social connectedness, social support, social isolation, stressors related to work or family), and broader contextual factors reflecting social structural variables (e.g., social class, race, culture, discrimination, ageism). The interplay of the foregoing factors of interest with biomedical and clinical variables constitutes a central theme, and health behaviors (including, but not limited to, diet, exercise, and social engagement) are considered as behavioral pathways between psychosocial exposures and (physical) health outcomes. J. Rozanova

CDE 572a, Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle Interventions This course reviews the methods and evaluation of obesity prevention and lifestyle interventions conducted in multiple settings (e.g., individual, family, and community settings, as well as policy-level interventions). Topics include physical activity, nutrition, and weight-loss interventions in various populations (children, adults, those who are healthy, and those with chronic diseases). The course combines didactic presentations, discussion, and a comprehensive review of a particular lifestyle intervention by students. This course is intended to increase the student’s skills in evaluating and conducting obesity prevention and lifestyle interventions. M. Irwin

CDE 573a, Social and Cultural Factors in Mental Health and Illness This course provides an introduction to mental health and illness with a focus on the complex interplay between risk and protective factors and social and cultural influences on mental health status. We examine the role of social and cultural factors in the etiology, course, and treatment of substance misuse; depressive, anxiety, and psychotic disorders; and some of the severe behavioral disorders of childhood. The social consequences of mental illness such as stigma, isolation, and barriers to care are explored, and their impact on access to care and recovery considered. The effectiveness of the current system of services and the role of public health and public health professionals in mental health promotion are discussed. M. Smith

CDE 574b, Developing a Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Intervention The primary objective of the course is to gain experience in intervention research by developing a health promotion and disease prevention intervention. Students choose a health problem (e.g., physical inactivity, smoking, HIV risk) and develop an intervention focused on favorably changing the determinants and behavior that influence the health problem. The course emphasizes transferring concepts from the abstract to the concrete. Students develop an intervention manual consisting of actual intervention materials, and methods that specifically outline how the intervention will be designed, conducted, evaluated, and disseminated. Throughout the course, students participate in a peer review process to evaluate and give feedback for each section of the intervention manual. T. Kershaw

[CDE 575b, Religion, Health, and Society The course examines the impact of various dimensions of religiousness on mortality and health status, giving special attention to the relation between religion and other social factors such as age, gender, race, and class. Discussion focuses on the public health implications of the epidemiological findings including the nature and significance of faith-based programs serving health needs. Special attention is given to studies drawn from religiously diverse populations. Offered every other year. Not offered in 2013–2014]

CDE 577b, Interdisciplinary Research Methods in the Social and Behavioral Sciences In this course, students learn about social and behavioral health research methods through lectures, reading assignments, group discussions, class activities, and research projects. During the lecture portion of the class, students learn how to translate abstract ideas into testable hypotheses and how best to choose among a wide range of research methods and procedures. Class demonstrations, group discussions, and activities help students learn about research methods to address questions about how social and behavioral factors are associated with health. To illustrate the different types of research methods that can be used, we focus on social relationships, emotions, and health for group discussions. For individual projects, however, students are free to examine any psychosocial and behavioral question of interest to them. J. Monin

CDE 585a/GLBL 529a/LAW 20568, Sexuality, Health, and Human Rights The course explores the application of human rights perspectives and practices to issues in regard to sexuality and health. It addresses the necessity—and complexity—of adding nuanced rights perspectives to programming and advocacy on sexual health. Through reading, interactive discussion, paper presentation, and occasional outside speakers, students learn the tools and implications of applying rights to a range of sexuality and health-related topics. The overall goal is twofold: to engage students in the world of global sexual health and rights policy making as a field of social justice and public health action; and to introduce them to conceptual tools that can inform advocacy and policy formation and evaluation. A. Miller

[CDE 591b, Epidemiology and Control of Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries This course is designed to introduce public health graduate students to a broad range of critical global health issues, with a particular emphasis on understanding global health through a social epidemiology lens. Global health topics to be considered include data sources/measurement, global burden of disease, demographic and epidemiologic transitions, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, reproductive health, cancers, obesity, mental health, complex humanitarian emergencies, human trafficking, and gender-based violence against women. The health of immigrant and refugee populations within the United States is also discussed. The course uses a range of formats (lectures, group discussion, video clips, and classroom exercises). Examples from diverse regions are covered in the readings and in lecture. Through individual and group assignments, students have the opportunity to explore global health issues in the context of a particular country/region in greater depth. Prerequisite: CDE/EMD 508a. Not offered in 2013–2014]

CDE 594a, Maternal-Child Public Health Nutrition This course examines how nutrition knowledge gets translated into evidence-informed maternal-child food and nutrition programs and policies. Using multisectorial and interdisciplinary case-study examples, the course highlights (a) socioeconomic, cultural, public health, and biomedical forces that determine maternal-child nutrition well-being; and (b) how this understanding can help shape effective programs and policies capable of improving food and nutrition security of women and children. Topics include maternal-child nutrition programs, food assistance and conditional cash-transfer programs, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Prerequisites: CDE 508a and BIS 505a. R. Pérez-Escamilla

CDE 596b/LAW 21416, Global Health Justice Practicum This course fuses didactic and experiential learning on critical topics at the intersection of public health, rights, and justice in the twenty-first century. Students have the opportunity to explore analytic and practical frameworks that engage a diverse range of legal frameworks and processes that act as key mediators of health, including producing or responding to health disparities in the United States and worldwide. Readings and project approaches draw from legal, public health, historical, anthropological, and other fields to introduce students to the multiple lenses through which health issues can be tackled, and to build their competence to work with colleagues in other disciplines around such interventions. Enrollment limited to twelve. A. Kapczynski, A. Miller, G. Gonsalves

CDE 597a, Genetic Concepts in Public Health This course is geared toward public health students with an interest in genetics, but no previous genetics course work. The course spends a significant amount of time dedicated to introductory genetic principles from the central dogma of DNA-RNA-protein to how the human genome is organized. The course continues with discussions specifically related to disease gene mapping and finally covers topics including gene-gene interactions, genetic screening, and ethics. Students leave the course with a basic understanding of genetic concepts and how these are applied in a public health setting. The course prepares interested students for more advanced course work in genetic epidemiology, statistical genetics, or human genetics. A. DeWan

CDE 617b, Developing a Research Proposal Students develop a research grant proposal in NIH-type format. This includes the development of a research question, specific aims, study hypotheses, reviewing and summarizing relevant scientific literature, choosing a study design, and developing a data collection and analysis strategy. Students meet with the instructor and submit drafts of sections of the grant proposal throughout the course and make interim presentations to the class on their progress. During the final weeks of the course, each grant proposal is reviewed for feedback. Students then revise their proposal based on the reviewers’ comments and resubmit the revised proposal to the instructor for a final grade. Prerequisite: BIS 505a, CDE 516b (can be taken concurrently), doctoral status, or permission of the instructor. Auditors are not allowed. A. Ettinger

CDE 619a, Advanced Epidemiologic Research Methods This advanced course focuses on quantitative issues and techniques relevant to the design and analysis of observational epidemiologic studies. Starting with formal definitions of the commonly used epidemiologic parameters, and assuming a working knowledge of ANOVA and linear regression, the course covers analyses based on various related types of regression, e.g., logistic, Poisson, Cox, etc. The GLIM and PECAN computer programs are described and used throughout. Students analyze and discuss data sets of generally increasing complexity. Prerequisites: BIS 505a, 505b, doctoral status, or permission of the instructor. H. Risch

CDE 634b, Applied Analytic Methods in Epidemiology II The goal of this course is to provide students with the knowledge and necessary skills to carry out advanced analytic methods in epidemiology. Through lectures and readings, students are introduced to various advanced modeling techniques that are commonly used in epidemiology. In addition, students are taught how to use, manipulate, and understand the provided programming codes using the relevant software. Students have the chance to practice through laboratory times and multiple exercises. Students are trained on interpreting the results of the relevant method, describing the method, and presenting the results. The analytic techniques covered include propensity score analysis, mixed models, cluster analysis, area under the curve, principal component analysis, factor analysis, nested-case control analysis, case cohort analysis, discriminant analysis, mediation modeling, pathway analysis, hierarchal modeling, structural equation modeling (SEM), latent class analysis, and classification and regression tree analysis. F. Shebl

[CDE 635a, Life Course Epidemiology for Chronic Disease This course, aimed at CDE students with sufficient background in principles of epidemiology, introduces a life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology using a multidisciplinary framework to examine the life experience, not as disconnected stages, but as an integrated continuum. It examines basic principles of human development and decline across the life span, from the prenatal period through senescence, and the concept that health outcomes reflect timing of events throughout various life stages. Life course epidemiology focuses on understanding the importance of time in associations between exposures and outcomes at the individual and population levels and how these temporal relationships are interconnected and manifested in population-level disease trends. Such an approach to chronic diseases offers a way to conceptualize how underlying social and environmental determinants of health, experienced at different life course stages, can differentially influence the development of chronic diseases, as mediated through specific proximal biological processes. The course provides students with an opportunity to understand key concepts of life course epidemiology and to critically examine and discuss methodological issues around study design and analysis. The course illustrates the application of this perspective through the evaluation of empirical evidence linking life course processes to major chronic diseases of public health importance (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes). This course is conducted in a seminar format with a structured discussion and is open only to registered students taking the class for a grade; no auditors are allowed. Prerequisites: CDE 508a and 516b. Not offered in 2013–2014]

CDE 650a, Introduction to Evidence-Based Medicine and Health Care Evidence-based medicine and health care use best current evidence in addressing clinical or public health questions. This course introduces principles of evidence-based practice in formulating clinical or public health questions, systematically searching for evidence, and applying it to the question. Types of questions include examining the comparative effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions, etiology, diagnostic testing, and prognosis. Particular consideration is given to the meta-analytic methodology of synthesizing evidence in a systematic review. Also addressed is the role of evidence in informing economic analysis of health care programs and clinical practice guidelines. Using a problem-based approach, students contribute actively to the classes and small-group sessions. Students complete a systematic review in their own field of interest using Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Prerequisite: students must have passed CDE 516b, or obtain permission of the instructor. M. Bracken

CDE 670a,b, Advanced Field Methods in Chronic Disease Epidemiology The course offers direct experience in field methods in chronic disease epidemiology for doctoral students who have not yet taken qualifying exams. Students are expected to actively participate as part of a research team (8–10 hours per week) doing field research in some aspect of chronic disease epidemiology. It is expected that their progress will be directly supervised by the Principal Investigator of the research project. This course can be taken for one or two terms and may be taken for credit (pass/fail). Prerequisite: arrangement with a faculty member must be made in advance of registration. Faculty

CDE 676b, Questionnaire Development This course is designed to direct students through the process of questionnaire selection and development for use in health research. Questionnaires and surveys are used extensively in medical, epidemiological, and public health research. The specific questionnaire utilized has great potential to affect research conclusions. Students learn to critically evaluate existing measures and how to construct questionnaires for use in health research. Topics include constructs and operational definitions, writing and evaluating questionnaire items, item scaling, domain sampling, item wording and readability, test bias, and item weighting and scoring. Students learn how to evaluate psychometric indicators (e.g., internal consistency, reliability and validity coefficients). Students are required to construct a questionnaire and are guided through all phases of questionnaire development, including item generation, scaling decisions, survey design, pilot testing, data collection, reliability analysis, and calculation of validity coefficients. The practical learning goal is to generate a publication-level questionnaire to evaluate a unique exposure history or health-related construct. By course end, students are able to critically evaluate existing measures and have the skills necessary to develop psychometrically valid tools for research. Prerequisites: CDE/EMD 508a and BIS 505b (may be taken concurrently). M. White

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Environmental Health Sciences

EHS 502b/CDE 502b, Physiology for Public Health The objective of this course is to provide a comprehensive working knowledge of the primary physiologic and metabolic systems that respond to environmental stressors. A major emphasis of the course is to analyze potential health consequences of these stressors: examining vulnerabilities affected by age, chronic disease, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as protection afforded by healthy lifestyle factors. C. Yeckel

EHS 503b/F&ES 896b, Introduction to Toxicology This course examines factors that affect the toxicity of foreign substances. The absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of foreign compounds are discussed. Introductory lectures in cell biology, teratology, chemical carcinogenesis, dose-response relationship, and behavioral toxicology are included. J. Borak, C. Fields

EHS 505a, Fundamentals of Occupational Hygiene, Safety, and Ergonomics This course offers an introduction to methods used to protect the health and safety of workers. Topics include exposure assessment for identifying and evaluating chemical and physical hazards; ergonomics; health and safety standards; personal protective devices; management programs to control hazards; injury and illness record-keeping; and worker’s compensation programs. Case studies complement traditional lectures. H. Cohen

[EHS 507a, Environmental Epidemiology Environmental epidemiology can provide insight about the association between environmental exposures of a population and adverse health outcomes. The potentials and the limitations of environmental epidemiology are explored as they are inherent in the design of suitable studies and as they manifest themselves in actual studies that have been conducted. The analysis and interpretation of such studies, as well as the consequences for the design and conduct of proposed studies, are examined. Prerequisite: CDE/EMD 508a or permission of the instructor. Not offered in 2013–2014]

EHS 508b/F&ES 897b, Assessing Exposures to Environmental Stressors This course examines human exposure to environmental stressors as it applies to environmental epidemiology and risk assessment. Indirect and direct methods of assessing exposures are reviewed and case studies are presented. B. Leaderer

EHS 510a, Contemporary Issues in Environmental Health This course is an overview of environmental health from local to global, focusing on contemporary issues. The course prepares students to more fully understand and address environmental health issues by integrating necessary skills from exposure assessment, epidemiology, chemistry, physics, toxicology, and risk assessment. Students use these tools to study current topics, including air and water pollution, climate change, energy and biofuels, occupational health, children’s health, environmental justice, and pesticide use, among other topics. Students actively engage with the course materials through class participation, debate, review of environment-related current events, and critical-thinking assignments. This course provides an introductory foundation in environmental health for all professional master’s degree candidates, whether or not specializing in environmental health. M. Stowe, C. Yeckel

EHS 511a/F&ES 893a, Applied Risk Assessment Applied environmental risk assessment consists of the effective integration in a specific situation of what is known about pollution sources and their characteristics, about human exposures, about the entry and absorption of pollutants, and about the adverse health effects associated with dosage exposure. In any actual situation there are uncertainties in all of the elements to be integrated. This course emphasizes methodologies in use and the limitations that inevitably constrain the process. A number of applied risk assessments are analyzed. J. Borak

EHS 520b/CDE 520b, Case-Based Learning for Genetic and Environmental Diseases This course covers the basic concepts, methodology, and up-to-date research approaches central to understanding genetic and environmental causes of human diseases. Lectures are based on comprehensive illustrations with several historical landmark studies; real-life stories, cartoons, and videos are used throughout. Students leave the class with an appreciation of genetics and an understanding of how to appropriately use the study designs, analyses, and interpretations to discover disease susceptibility genes. In addition, students learn how epigenetics affects disease presentation. Critically, students are expected to equip themselves to tackle the causes of the disease of their own interest. Participation in in-class as well as out-of-class discussions, take-home quiz sets, hands-on exercises with real data, and a presentation are the criteria for the final grade. No prerequisites. J. Hoh

EHS 525a, Seminar in Environmental Health Students are introduced to a wide variety of research topics, policy topics, and applications in environmental health. Faculty members, public health professionals, and students make brief oral presentations and engage in related dialogues. The seminar is designed to help students develop topics for their M.P.H. theses. Second-year students have the opportunity to receive feedback on their developing research. Y. Zhu

EHS 545b, Molecular Epidemiology This course aims at understanding the role of interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures in human disease development. The molecular basis of human genetics and genetic variations are described. Biological responses to environmental exposures are also discussed, as well as biomarkers for detecting environmental exposures, biological effects, and genetic susceptibility. Human cancer and asthma are used as two examples to illustrate genetic approaches to environmental disease. Finally, the role of gene environment interaction in human disease is addressed in the context of human evolutionary history. The course includes formal lectures, article discussions, and short research essay. Y. Zhu

EHS 573b, Epidemiological Issues in Occupational and Environmental Medicine This course explores issues around the detection and characterization of health outcomes from environmental and occupational exposures. Case studies include infectious disease outbreaks, cancer clusters in the general environment and within industrial settings, groundwater contaminations and birth defects, lung diseases and cancers following the World Trade Center attacks, health sequelae in military populations, radon exposures and lung cancers in miners and in the general population, and the implications of sentinel events among wildlife populations for human health. The course is taught in discussion format by occupational and environmental medicine faculty. There is a take-home final examination. M. Russi, M. Slade

EHS 575a, Introduction to Occupational and Environmental Medicine This course presents a broad overview of the principles of occupational and environmental medicine. The major diseases of environmental origin and the major hazards—chemical, physical, and biologic—and settings in which they occur are examined. C. Redlich

[EHS 580b, Environmental Hormones and Human Health This course provides students a scientific orientation of environmental hormones and human health. The course introduces the basic concepts of four different types of hormones, including endogenous hormones, natural environmental hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and environmental endocrine disruptors. The course discusses the current understanding of the relationship between hormones and human health, with emphasis on the methodology of studying the relationship between environmental hormones and environmental endocrine disruptors and human cancer risk. Prerequisites: CDE/EMD 508a and BIS 505a. Not offered in 2013–2014]

EHS 581a, Medical and Public Health Emergency Planning and Operations This course focuses on the Emergency Support Functions #8 (ESF #8), which are the planning and response functions related to public health and health care. It encompasses the seventeen functional content areas comprising the health and medical response to disasters. ESF #8 places the critical health and medical functions in the context of a large-scale event that includes other social, economic, and civil aspects. This is the magnitude of incident targeted by the National Health Security Strategy, in which public health consequences can destabilize national security. In major disasters and public health emergencies, much of the responsibility for incident management resides in the emergency management community, while leadership of the health and medical response is assigned by law and policy to public health as the lead agency for ESF #8. This course focuses on the requirements for planning and response that will be generated by specific public health threats; how to develop plans that include both procurement and deployment of the required resources; and how to execute those plans within the complex, interagency, operational environment. A unique component of the course is participation in the Yale-Tulane VMOC (virtual medical operations center), which assists with a common operating picture and briefing materials for decision makers in a public health emergency. S. Bogucki

EHS 582b, Advanced Medical and Public Health Emergency Planning and Operations This course focuses on operational and strategic aspects of response to domestic and international public health and medical emergencies. It emphasizes theory, strategies, ethics, and practical applications in preparation for response to disasters, outbreaks, and acts of terrorism. The course examines specific events such as 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and H1N1, and studies how these events impacted federal and state laws, policies, strategies, and institutions. Additionally, the course looks at the practical aspects of preparing future leaders in the public health profession by teaching students how to design training programs for the workforce, prepare and conduct exercises and drills, and examine the challenges that arise during preparation and response. This course also offers two unique venues for service learning: participation in the Yale-Tulane VMOC, which assists with a common operating picture and briefing materials for decision makers in a public health emergency, and working with the City of New Haven’s Department of Health’s Office of Emergency Response. S. Bogucki, J. McGovern

EHS 585a/FE&S 898a, The Environment and Human Health This course provides an overview of the critical relationships between the environment and human health. The class explores the interaction between health and different parts of the environmental system, including water, indoor and outdoor air, agriculture, and food. Other topics include environmental justice, case studies of environmental health disasters, risk, urbanization, health in the workplace, and links between climate change and health. M. Bell

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Epidemiology and Public Health

EPH 100a, Professional Skills Seminar The Professional Skills Seminar is intended to prepare M.P.H. students for leadership positions as public health professionals. Material covered includes public speaking, presentation skills, professional writing, negotiation and conflict resolution, and networking and social media. Attendance at all sessions is required, and some homework is a part of the program. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. Offered October 23–25, 2013. W. Vance

EPH 500b, Public Health Practicum The Public Health Practicum course is one of the options available to students to fulfill the practicum requirement for the M.P.H. degree. The course design combines experiential learning and guided classroom discussion. Students are assigned to a field placement in an appropriate setting that affords the opportunity to apply public health concepts and competencies learned in the classroom through a practice experience that is relevant to the student’s areas of specialization. Emphasis is placed on situating students in community-based organizations and other public health service settings such as local or state health departments, where they can work on authentic public health problems and issues. This course provides a means for students to gain exposure to the mission and activities of diverse public health organizations and thus may help to inform their decisions about professional work pursuits upon completion of the M.P.H. degree. This course is open to second-year M.P.H. students only. E. O’Keefe

EPH 515b, Introduction to Research and Professional Ethics Seminar This two- session seminar introduces students to historical roots of human subjects research and to U.S. and international regulations and guidelines for conducting ethical human subjects research. Case studies are used to demonstrate some of the ethical challenges in public health research. Students are also introduced to the functions and procedures of the Yale School of Medicine Human Investigation Committee. Finally, students complete Web-based trainings on the responsible conduct of research. B. Jennings

EPH 520c, Summer Internship The Internship is a degree requirement that is completed in the summer between the first and second academic years. Students work with their faculty advisers and the Office of Career Services to identify suitable placements, which include medical care facilities, community agencies, research projects, laboratories, and other sites engaged in public health activities. The internship experience often serves as a basis for the M.P.H. thesis. The internship is displayed on the transcript with a grade of “S” (Satisfactory) upon completion. A course unit is not given for the summer internship.

All students must complete a Summer Internship with the exception of those in the Advanced Professional M.P.H. Program. The Summer Internship may be used to complete the Public Health Practice requirement with prior approval from the Office of Community Health.

EPH 525b, Thesis The thesis (2 course units) is typically a yearlong project that is completed in the second academic year and is the culmination of the student’s educational experience at YSPH. It is frequently a report of a small research project performed independently by the student. Students work with faculty advisers in designing their project and in writing the thesis. Detailed guidelines for the thesis are outlined in Appendix II.

The thesis is not a requirement for students in the Health Care Management, Health Policy, or Advanced Professional M.P.H. programs (except for those in the Occupational and Environmental Medicine track).

EPH 542b, Community Health Program Planning This course is one of the options available to students to fulfill the practice requirement for the M.P.H. degree. The course develops students’ skills in conducting community assessments and planning and designing public health programs. The course content is based on an ecological framework, principles of public health ethics, and a philosophy of problem-based learning. Using case studies, students examine both U.S. and developing country projects and assessments and critique them for relevance and future application. Students write individual program plans for a specific public health problem. Through this exercise and related assignments throughout the term, students develop skills in strategic planning; developing project work plans, logic models, and logical frameworks; and writing budgets. In addition, students work on a practicum assignment or community project with three to five other students at a local agency and work on a project as described in the agency proposal. D. Humphries

EPH 591a and b, Global Health Seminar This course provides a space for discussion and critical thought about current topics in global health. Invited speakers come together with faculty, staff, and students (from YSPH and beyond) during each session to analyze current global health challenges, existing initiatives to address them, and potential alternative approaches. Topics range from sharing lessons learned from specific programs to broader issues such as the interrelation of globalization and health. The seminar represents an opportunity for students to reflect on the hard questions of global health practice. Through these types of discussions, we hope to encourage students to understand health and their role as public health practitioners more holistically, and to begin the difficult work of developing their professional values. M. Skonieczny

EPH 600b, Research Ethics and Responsibility This course seeks to introduce major concepts in the ethical conduct of research and some of the personal and professional issues that researchers encounter in their work. Sessions are run in a seminar/discussion format. Prerequisite: doctoral student or postdoctoral status only. C. Tschudi

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Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases

EMD 508a/CDE 508a, Principles of Epidemiology I This course presents an introduction to epidemiologic definitions, concepts, and methods. Topics include history of epidemiology, descriptive epidemiology, measurement of disease occurrence and association, study design (ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control studies, cohort, and intervention), surveillance, measurement validity and screening, random variation and precision, bias, confounding, effect modification, and causality. The course also teaches skills for quantitative problem solving, and the understanding of epidemiologic concepts in the published literature. L. Niccolai

EMD 512b, Immunology for Epidemiologists This course is designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of immunology including antigens, antibodies, methods for detecting antibodies, cells of the immune system, products of such cells, and immune mechanisms. Experience is gained in the analysis of primary research papers with relevance to immunologic aspects of epidemiologic studies. Prerequisite: two terms of college biology. P. Krause

EMD 518a, Principles of Infectious Diseases I This course explores the epidemiology and biology of infectious agents and the diseases they cause. Through a theme-based, integrated approach, students learn about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and control of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites of public health importance. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological methods, routes of transmission, host-pathogen interactions, and mechanisms of virulence. The course also teaches skills for understanding and evaluating the published literature, specifically through class discussions and oral presentations of assigned readings by students. Topics covered include gastrointestinal, respiratory, and sexually transmitted pathogens. M. Pettigrew

EMD 518b, Principles of Infectious Diseases II This course explores the epidemiology and biology of infectious agents and the diseases they cause. Through a theme-based, integrated approach, students learn about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and control of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites of public health importance. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological methods, routes of transmission, host-pathogen interactions, and mechanisms of virulence. The course also teaches skills for understanding and evaluating the published literature, specifically through class discussions and oral presentations of assigned readings by students. The course builds upon concepts covered in EMD 518a and introduces new topics such as infectious causes of chronic diseases; and vector-borne, zoonotic, and emerging pathogens. J. Childs

EMD 525a and b, Seminar in Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases This is a weekly seminar series offered by EMD faculty. The presentations describe the ongoing research activities in faculty laboratories as well as in EMD-affiliated centers. The talks introduce the department’s research activities as well as associated resources in the area. Attendance is required for first-year students. V. Pitzer, M. Diuk-Wasser

EMD 530b, Hospital Epidemiology The history, descriptive epidemiology, surveillance methods, risk analysis methods, and economics of nosocomial infections are outlined in this introductory course. In-depth explorations of host, agent, and environmental factors influencing typical nosocomial illnesses in pediatric and adult services are reviewed by clinical faculty. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods are emphasized. L. Dembry

EMD 535b/E&EB 335b, Probabilistic Modeling in Ecology, Evolution, and Disease This course is designed for students to develop an understanding of the ways probabilistic, mathematical, and computational modeling can be used to explore questions about ecology, evolution, and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Students learn the basics of probabilistic mathematics, introducing probability distributions, how they arise, and where they arise in ecological, evolutionary, and epidemiological modeling. Students practice alternative techniques for formulating and evaluating a model that are appropriate for different research questions. In-class workshops increase student fluency with the techniques. We also read relevant papers to observe how probabilistic modeling is performed in the context of modern research. A. Galvani, J. Townsend

EMD 536b, Investigation of Disease Outbreaks This course provides students with the basic skills and perspectives necessary to investigate acute disease outbreaks. The emphasis is on the use of epidemiology to investigate outbreaks of infectious diseases, although the methods are not limited and can be applied to outbreaks of noninfectious diseases as well. Through this course, it is hoped that students will gain a better appreciation of epidemiology as the science of public health, and the use of epidemiology to guide public health interventions and the development of public health policy. Offered every other year. M. Cartter

EMD 538a, Quantitative Methods for Infectious Disease Epidemiology This course provides an overview of statistical and analytical methods that apply specifically to infectious diseases. The assumption of independent outcomes among individuals that underlies most traditional statistical methods often does not apply to infections that can be transmitted from person to person. Therefore, novel methods are often needed to address the unique challenges posed by infectious disease data. Topics include analysis of outbreak data, estimation of vaccine efficacy, time series methods, and Markov models. The course consists of lectures and computer labs in which students gain experience analyzing example problems using a flexible computer programming language (MATLAB). V. Pitzer

EMD 543a/CDE 543a, Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status. D. Humphries

[EMD 547b/MBIO 547b, Vaccines: Concepts in Biology Vaccines are one of the major public health prevention approaches for disease control. Historically, “vaccination” has been employed since the Middle Ages; however, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to prevention of disease are still being explored, with the purpose of the design of better and more efficacious vaccines. Vaccine-preventable diseases now include many infectious diseases as well as cancer. This course briefly reviews the immunological basis of immunity to infection and disease. Topics then explore the biological basis for vaccine development. Current vaccine-preventable diseases as well as approaches/challenges of vaccines under development are considered. Prerequisites: immunology (either EMD 512a or IBIO 532) and microbiology (either EMD 542b or MBIO 685a or comparable microbiology course) or permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Not offered in 2013–2014]

EMD 548b/ARCG 762bU/F&ES 726b/G&G 562bU, Observing Earth from Space Topics include the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation; satellite-borne radiometers; data transmission and storage; computer image analysis; and GIS analysis of satellite imagery with applications to weather and climate, oceanography, surficial geology, snow and ice, forestry, agriculture, and watershed management. Preference to students in F&ES, Geology and Geophysics, Archaeology, Anthropology, and Studies in the Environment. Prerequisites: college-level physics or chemistry, two courses in geology and natural science of the environment or equivalents, and computer literacy. R. Smith and staff

EMD 550b/682b, Biology of Insect Disease Vectors Insects transmit pathogens that cause many emerging and re-emerging human and agriculture-related diseases. Many of these diseases, which are referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), have a dramatically negative impact on human health in the developing world. Furthermore, they cause indirect devastation by significantly reducing agricultural productivity and nutrient availability, exacerbating poverty and deepening disparities. This course introduces students to the biological interactions that occur between major groups of important disease vectors and the pathogens they transmit. Lectures cover current research trends that relate to the ecology and physiology of insect vectors. Course content focuses on how these aspects of vector biology relate to the development and implementation of innovative and effective disease-control strategies. Prerequisite: full year of college/university-level biology, or permission of the instructor(s). S. Aksoy, B. Weiss

[EMD 557a/NURS 713a, Global HIV/AIDS: Challenges and Response This course provides an overview of the critical issues in the global epidemiology and prevention of HIV/AIDS among vulnerable populations. The course emphasizes the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to the comprehension of and response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The course is designed to go beyond the mere provision of information by encouraging students to develop the ability to critically access and analyze research, programmatic, policy, and ethical challenges raised by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Not offered in 2013–2014]

EMD 563a or b, Laboratory and Field Studies in Infectious Diseases The student gains hands-on training in laboratory or epidemiologic research techniques. The term is spent working with EMD faculty in a single laboratory or epidemiology research group. Students choosing to work in the laboratory gain experience in molecular biology, basic immunology, parasitology, virology, bacteriology, or vector biology. Students may also choose to work on a non-laboratory-based epidemiology research project. These students gain experience in epidemiologic methods including study design, field data collection including human cases, vectors, and environmental parameters, data analysis, and epidemiological modeling. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. M. Pettigrew

EMD 572a/F&ES 891a, Ecoepidemiology Diseases transmitted to humans by arthropods (vector-borne) or animal reservoirs (zoonotic) constitute the majority of globally (re)emerging infectious diseases. The purpose of this course is to explore factors underlying the risk to humans of acquiring vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZD) like malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, rabies, hantavirus, etc. Students learn how human risk for these diseases can be described and predicted by understanding the ecology of vectors and reservoirs and the factors allowing for maintenance and transmission of pathogens. The course utilizes a combination of lectures, discussion of primary literature, practical exercises on risk mapping, and guest speakers. M. Diuk-Wasser

[EMD 588a/EAST 525a/HIST 902a/HSHM 707a, Impact of Epidemic Disease in Context: Focus on Asia The course brings historical, geopolitical, medical, and public health perspectives to bear on the study of specific epidemics, with a focus on Asia. Case studies include major epidemics such as cholera in the Philippines and plague in Manchuria in the early twentieth century, the story of Japan’s biological warfare Unit 731 in World War II, recurrent influenza pandemics, and more recently, Nipah virus outbreaks in Malaysia, SARS in China, and pneumonic plague in Gujarat, India. Not offered in 2013–2014]

EMD 670a and b, Advanced Research Laboratories This course is required for all EMD Ph.D. students and is taken for three terms. The course offers experience in directed research and reading in selected research laboratories. The first two terms must be taken in the first year of the doctoral program, and the third term is normally taken in the summer after the first year. Prerequisite: doctoral status. C. Tschudi

EMD 680a/MBIO 680a, Molecular and Cellular Processes of Parasitic Eukaryotes An introductory topic-based course in modern parasitology. For each topic there is an introductory lecture followed by a journal club-like discussion session of relevant papers selected from the literature. The course provides an introduction to basic biological concepts of parasitic eukaryotes causing diseases in humans. Topics include strategies used by parasitic eukaryotes to establish infections in the host and approaches to disease control, through either chemotherapy, vaccines, or genomics. In addition, emphasis is placed on evaluating the quality and limitation of scientific publications and developing skills in scientific communication. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. D. McMahon-Pratt

EMD 695a,b/E&EB 961a/960b, Studies in Evolutionary Medicine I and II This two-term course begins in January. Students learn the major principles of evolutionary biology and apply them to issues in medical research and practice by presenting and discussing original papers from the current research literature. Such issues include lactose and alcohol tolerance; the hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune disease; human genetic variation in drug response and pathogen resistance; spontaneous abortions, immune genes, and mate choice; parental conflicts over reproductive investment mediated by genetic imprinting; life history tradeoffs and the evolution of aging; the evolution of virulence and drug resistance in pathogens; the evolutionary genetics of humans and their pathogens; the ecology and evolution of disease; the evolutionary origin of diseases; and the emergence of new diseases. Students develop a research proposal based on one of their own questions in spring term, spend the summer on a research project related to their research proposal, and write a paper based on the results of their research in fall term. Credit and grades are awarded for each term. Only students who have engaged in summer research projects may enroll in the fall term. Admission is by competitive application only. Forms are available on the E&EB department Web site. S. Stearns, D. Fish, A. Galvani, P. Turner

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Health Policy and Management

HPM 510a, Introduction to Health Policy and Health Systems This course provides an introduction to the making and understanding of health policy. The various goals of policy making and the alternative means of achieving those goals are examined. Health issues are placed in the context of broader social goals and values. The current performance of the health care system is assessed, with particular emphasis on shifting needs, rising costs, and changing institutional arrangements. The course provides an overview of the important actors in the health care and political systems and introduces students to methods for understanding their behavior. Students apply these methods to a set of concrete policy issues. M. Gusmano

HPM 514b, Health Politics, Governance, and Policy This course is designed to familiarize students with the various processes by which governmental health policy is made in the United States, and with current policy debates. One focus of the course is to understand the politics underlying the successes and failures of health policy making during the course of the twentieth century. This includes a discussion of the relevant governmental institutions, political actors, the major national programs that have been established, and how political actors use resources and set their strategies. M. Schlesinger

[HPM 515c, Accelerated Health Politics and Policy This summer course is designed to provide an understanding of the key political dimensions of the health-policy-making process in the United States. We examine the role of government institutions and political actors in developing and implementing health policy. Past and present health care debates are used to illustrate concepts discussed in class. Students acquire an understanding of the process in which health policies are considered, and gain practical experience developing political strategies and conducting policy analyses to influence public policy debates. Not open to students in the traditional two-year M.P.H. program. Not offered in 2013–2014]

HPM 542b, Health of Women and Children The focus of this course is women’s and children’s health and health care in the United States. Emerging health issues and related health policy are presented and discussed in terms of epidemiology, including racial/ethnic disparities and effects of poverty; utilization and financing of children’s health care; and existing programs and public policies that facilitate access to care. Data sources and data needs are identified. Topics may include history of MCH programs and policy, Medicaid and SCHIP, low birth weight and infant mortality, maternal mortality, reproductive health, breast and cervical cancer screening, pediatric oral health, pediatric asthma, childhood obesity, adolescent health care and teen pregnancy, children with special health care needs, childhood injuries and injury prevention. Students are expected to critically evaluate the public health implications of selected conditions and the effect of public policy on availability, accessibility, acceptability of services, and accountability in health care for women and children. M. A. Lee

HPM 545a, Health Disparities This course explores what constitutes and helps explain disparities in health and health care, and the strategies being tested to address these disparities. Readings, drawn from multiple disciplines, examine the history of and trends in a range of disparities in health and health care in the United States, including by race, ethnicity, gender, and income. Emphasis is placed not only on disparities in access to and delivery of health care, but also on understanding the role and contribution of diverse social determinants of health. The course also examines and critiques current efforts to address health disparities, including through changes in national, state, and local law and policy. Prerequisites: HPM 510a and HPM 514b, or permission of the instructor. S. Geballe

HPM 546a, Ethical Issues in Public Health This course is a study of ethical and social dimensions of public health policy and practice both within the United States and globally. Public health always has a normative as well as a scientific aspect. Social legitimacy and public trust are always essential to effective public health. Ideals of human rights, individual liberty, social justice and equality, community, solidarity, and the common good are central to public health policy and practice. At the same time, however, existing structures of power, coercion, discrimination, and stigma also shape those policies and practices.

Important frameworks of ethical and political theory are explained and compared, including utilitarianism, rights theory, theories of social and global justice, and democratic and elitist theories of governance. These frameworks are then applied to selected public health issues. Topics include global health justice, the ethical implications of studies of the social determinants of health, the cultural framing of health and illness, ethical issues in infectious disease control, and ethical conflicts arising in health promotion and behavior modification interventions in cases such as smoking and obesity. Environmental health and the global health effects of climate change are also explored. B. Jennings

HPM 555a and b, Health Policy and Health Care Management Practicum This course is one of the options available to HPM students to fulfill the practice requirement for the M.P.H. degree. The practicum is a project-based learning experience. Students work 8–10 hours per week for one or two terms. The Health Policy Practicum allows students to work on current state and/or local health policy issues while placed with state and/or local legislative or executive agency policymakers, or with senior staff at a nonprofit health policy or advocacy group. The Health Management Practicum allows students to focus on current issues confronting a hospital department while working under the guidance of a departmental administrator. Students are required to attend the first week of class to enroll. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. S. Busch (HCMP), S. Geballe (HPP)

HPM 560b, Health Economics and U.S. Health Policy This course introduces students to the organization and operation of the American health care system. The course examines systems of health care delivery and finance and recent trends in their organization, including the growth of managed care. The course seeks to provide students with an understanding of the existing structure of the system and with conceptual frameworks. Z. Cooper

HPM 561b/MGT 630b, Managing Health Care Organizations This course is designed to integrate previous course work in management and in public health to further participants’ understanding of organizational, managerial, and strategic issues facing health care organizations (HCOs) and the health care workforce. The course provides participants with a foundation for developing, implementing, and analyzing efforts to improve HCOs’ performance. A major objective of the course is to sharpen the leadership, problem solving, and presentation skills of those who aim to hold operational and strategic positions in health care organizations. Through case studies, readings, in-class exercises, and class discussions, participants learn analytic frameworks, concepts, tools, and skills necessary for leading and managing organizational learning, quality improvement, innovation, and overall performance in health care organizations. I. Nembhard

HPM 564b, The Role of Evidence for Strategic Thinking in Global Health This course builds on Strategic Thinking in Global Health (HPM 592a) and seeks to prepare students to be exceptional problem solvers in global health through focusing on the concepts and tools of producing, analyzing, and applying evidence. Students learn to obtain and apply data in order to inform and evaluate strategic responses to global health problems; identify gaps in evidence and design a research or monitoring/learning/evaluation project protocol to address a defined gap; and deliver a research proposal or monitoring, learning, and evaluation project protocol for global health audiences. L. Curry

HPM 566b, Critical Issues in Global Health The course focuses on critical challenges to the health of the poor in low- and middle-income countries and pays particular attention to how these health gaps can be addressed in low-cost and highly effective ways. The course covers the architecture of global health, key trends in approaches to meeting the health needs of the poor in low- and middle-income countries, and how science and technology can be harnessed for this purpose. It examines the burden of disease and the determinants of this burden. It covers the leading causes of illness, disability, and premature death from communicable and noncommunicable diseases, with special attention to women and children. It focuses particular attention on key health systems problems and recent efforts to overcome them, even in low-income settings. The course is conducted largely through interactive discussions. R. Skolnik

HPM 570a, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Decision Making This course introduces students to the methods of decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis in health-related technology assessment, resource allocation, and clinical decision making. The course aims to develop the following: (1) technical competence in the methods used; (2) practical skills in applying these tools to case-based studies of medical decisions and public health choices; and (3) an appreciation of the uses and limitations of these methods at the levels of national policy, health care organizations, and individual patient care. D. Paltiel

HPM 583b, Methods in Health Services Research This course introduces students to both quantitative and qualitative methods for research in health services. Topics include research objectives and hypotheses formulation, study design, sampling techniques, measurement, data analysis, results presentation, and discussion. Students synthesize these skills in the final paper. Prerequisite: BIS 505a. X. Chen

HPM 586a, Microeconomics for Health Policy and Health Management This course introduces students to microeconomics. Emphasis is placed on topics in microeconomics of particular relevance to the health care sector. Attention is paid to issues of equity and distribution, uncertainty and attitudes toward risk, and alternatives to price competition. This course is designed for students with minimal previous exposure to economics. M. Moore

HPM 587a, Advanced Health Economics This course applies the principles learned in Microeconomics for Health Policy and Health Management (HPM 586a) to the health of individuals, to health care institutions and markets, as well as to health care policy. The economic aspects of health behaviors, hospital markets, cost-benefit analysis, regulation, and the market for physician services are covered. Prerequisite: microeconomics or permission of the instructor. S. Kumar

HPM 589a, Leadership and Public Health This course examines in depth several key conceptual frameworks related to leadership, with application to a variety of public health and medical topics. The class focuses on four interrelated challenges: (1) working across boundaries defined by roles, power, and race; (2) managing common resources to maximize social welfare; (3) anticipating and responding to change at social, organizational, and individual levels; and (4) understanding paradoxes in leadership in a complex world. Assignments include active participation and attendance in class sessions; a midterm reflection paper; a group experience resulting in a short paper; and a final paper that uses concepts developed in the class and readings to analyze the leadership landscape associated with a public health or medical problem chosen by the student, and to determine whether the leadership is addressing the problem effectively and why. E. Bradley

HPM 590b, Addiction, Economics, and Public Policy Smoking, alcoholism, and use of illicit drugs are addictions that are increasingly studied by economists. Overeating resulting in obesity can also be viewed as an addiction. This class studies economic and policy issues relating to these four addictions. Specifically, the class covers (1) models of substance use including rational addiction and behavioral economics, (2) alternative views on whether, why, and how to intervene in personal decisions, (3) facts and findings from the literature on each addiction, and (4) policies related to each. Policy issues include supply and demand sides of illicit drugs; how to prevent drug-related crime; taxes on alcohol, cigarettes, and soda; treatment effectiveness; legal interventions such as the case against the tobacco companies; the role of public information and private marketing; and paying people for good habits. Prerequisite: microeconomics. J. Sindelar

HPM 592a/GLBL 322a/HLTH 450a/PLSC 121a, Strategic Thinking in Global Health This course defines and applies a set of core principles regarding development and implementation of grand strategy and problem solving in global health. Students come to understand and apply principles of grand strategy and strategic problem solving, which are taught at both a conceptual and a practical level as applied to common problems in global health. Students develop expertise in political and policy analysis as well as organizational theory and leadership skills that are central to addressing global health issues in low- and middle-income countries. E. Bradley, L. Curry, M. Skonieczny

[HPM 594a, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Qualitative and mixed methods offer unique contributions to health and health services research, and there has been an exponential increase in publication of studies using these methods in peer-reviewed scientific journals. However, the quality and credibility of this research are highly variable. This course seeks to enhance the student’s capacity to design, conduct, and publish scientifically sound qualitative and mixed-methods health and health services research. Students examine ways to choose methods best suited for a particular research question, strategies for design and analysis, issues of validity and credibility, and effective writing for scientific journals and policy makers. Not offered in 2013–2014]

HPM 597b, Capstone Course in Health Policy This course is designed as the capstone educational experience for students concentrating in health policy. It integrates previous course work in health policy and public health and facilitates students’ transition from the academic setting into the world of professional policy analysis. Students practice different approaches to policy formulation, policy analysis, and policy implementation. As part of their course assignments, students use various strategies to frame policy debates to promote desired outcomes. There is extensive work on improving oral and written presentation skills pertinent to current, applied policy dilemmas. Prerequisite: HPM 510a or equivalent. M. Schlesinger

HPM 610a, Readings in Health Services Research In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health services research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. This course is graded Sat/Unsat. By arrangement with faculty

HPM 617a,b, Colloquium in Health Services Research This seminar focuses on the analysis of current issues in health policy and on state-of-the-art methodological issues in health services research. The format includes guest speakers and presentations by YSPH as well as other faculty and graduate students of ongoing research projects. Students participate in critical discussions of the issues that arise in both types of sessions. Prerequisite: doctoral status or permission of the instructor.

HPM 620a/b, Readings in Health Services Research In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health policy research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. This course is graded Sat/Unsat. By arrangement with faculty

HPM 630b, Advanced Readings in Health Services Research In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health services research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. This course is graded Sat/Unsat. By arrangement with faculty

HPM 640b, Directed Readings in Health Services Research Required for HPM Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings in area of depth arranged with specific faculty in related research area. This course is graded Sat/Unsat. By arrangement with faculty

HPM 698b/MGT 698b, Health Care Policy, Finance, and Economics This course teaches students the critical skills in analyzing and working within the health care industry. The first portion of the course focuses on the economic and financial drivers of the domestic health care system, including private and public financing and delivery models. In the latter portion of the course, students learn about current issues of importance to this $3 trillion dollar industry. The course is part didactic/part seminar in style, with team projects and presentations as a major component of the grade. Open to M.P.H. students in Health Care Management, SOM students, and others with permission of the instructor. H. Forman

HPM 699a,b/MGT 699a,b, Colloquium in Health Care Leadership This seminar series, meeting on the medical school campus, introduces the students to leading figures in health care: public sector, private sector, and third sector executives and leaders discuss their career paths and current insights into the evolution and revolution in health care delivery and services. The course provides credit in the spring term for a full year of attendance. Only students that have been attending fall sessions can enroll in the spring. H. Forman

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