Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Courses of Instruction

Key to course list A schedule of the hours and places at which various classes are to meet will be posted online at www.yale.edu/oci.

Courses designated “a” meet in the fall term only.

Courses designated “b” meet in the spring term only.

Courses designated “a,b” are offered in both the fall and spring terms.

Courses designated “a–b” are yearlong courses. Credit for these courses is granted only after completion of two terms of work.

Courses designated NP are nonperformance courses.

Courses designated P/F will be graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

Courses designated Group A, B, or C qualify as distribution requirements in these groups.

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Musicianship and Theory

MUS 500a–b and 501a–b, Introductory Hearing and Analysis 2 credits in the fall; 4 credits in the spring. Group A. See MUS 502a, 503a, for description. Both sections must be completed to fulfill the degree requirement. Does not count as a nonperformance elective. Enrollment by placement exam. Richard Gard

MUS 502a, 503a, Hearing and Analysis 4 credits. Group A. This course develops aural and analytic skills through the exploration of a variety of musical styles, with and without score. The overall goal is to hear and articulate the effect of compositional choices and then to directly connect this understanding to performance. A short, significant composition is a requirement, and these compositions are performed. One of the sections is a degree requirement. Does not count as a nonperformance elective. Enrollment by placement exam. Joan Panetti, chair

MUS 610a–b, 710a–b, Score Reading and Analysis 4 credits per term. NP. Group A. An examination of repertoire from the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. Appropriate analytic points of view are used to discover inherent stylistic similarities and differences in orchestration and texture. Class work includes a substantial term paper, as well as playing scores at the piano. Permission of the instructor required; enrollment limited to eight. Shinik Hahm

MUS 655a, Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint 4 credits. NP. Group A. This is a class on the practice of sixteenth-century counterpoint. Students learn the conventions of the style through the study of existing repertoire from such composers as Morales, Byrd, de Lassus, and Palestrina. Weekly exercises cover the study of species counterpoint and look specifically at such matters as melodic writing, two- and three-voice counterpoint, cadences and handling of dissonances, imitation and canon, and finally four-voice textures up to eight-voice textures in polychoral style. Although we touch upon several texts including Fux’s treatise, we use as a basic guide Robert Gauldin’s A Practical Approach to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint. Texts, however, only offer a summing up of the conventions that exist in the repertoire. So while such manuals are helpful, the most valuable way to learn these conventions is by study of the repertoire itself. Therefore a large component of the course focuses on familiarizing students with the music of the great masters of sixteenth-century polyphonic writing and using that music as the jumping-off point for the student’s own practice of counterpoint. Hannah Lash

MUS 660a, Analysis from a Schenkerian Perspective 4 credits. NP. Group A. This class is both an analysis and a history class, focusing on Schenker’s theory of harmony and the possibilities it provided for insight into music of the classical period. Students learn how to graph pieces and are expected to complete weekly analysis assignments. We also discuss the limitations of this theory, both in its exclusion of music in any other style period than that of the classical era, but also in its starkly reductive approach. Conversely, does it offer us tools to understand a more expanded repertoire than Schenker envisioned? Can we apply its principles to music currently or recently written—or to music of the Baroque and earlier? Primary texts are Allen Forte and Steven Gilbert’s Introduction to Schenkerian Analysis and Allen Cadwallader and David Gagne’s Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach. Hannah Lash

MUS 688b, Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 4 credits. NP. Group A. In this class, students learn eighteenth-century counterpoint through intensive study of works mainly by J.S. Bach with the addition of a few other composers. The goal of the class is to become proficient with the techniques of contrapuntal composition in an eighteenth-century style and also to gain fluency in realizing and elaborating a figured bass. We begin composition assignments by using Bach chorales as a model for harmonic structure, elaborating from there to the two-voice chorale prelude, the three-voice prelude, and so forth with the ultimate goal of writing a fugue. Hannah Lash

MUS 692b, Advanced Hearing and Analysis 4 credits. NP. Group A. For musicians who are passionate about integrating aural, analytic, and performance skills. Students, in consultation with the instructor, choose repertoire to perform, present, and discuss in class. There are short papers as well. Permission of the instructor required. Joan Panetti

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MUS 515a,b, 615a,b, 715a,b, 815a,b, Improvisation at the Organ 2 credits. Development of improvisatory skills at the keyboard. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 529a, Introduction to Conducting 4 credits. A study of the art of conducting through analysis of scores, baton technique, and orchestration. Assignments include weekly conducting exercises, study of repertoire, quizzes, and a final examination. The ability to read scores and transpose is assumed. Permission of the instructor required; enrollment limited. Toshiyuki Shimada

MUS 530b, Intermediate Conducting 4 credits. Continuation of the techniques utilized in Conducting 529a. More difficult orchestral pieces are analyzed and conducted, and score reading at the piano is stressed. A playing ensemble is made up of participants in the class. Some piano playing skills required. Prerequisite: MUS 529a; thorough knowledge of theory and analysis. Permission of the instructor required. Enrollment limited to eight, determined by audition. Toshiyuki Shimada

MUS 531a–b, 631a–b, 731a–b, Repertory Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A reading chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. The chorus reads, studies, and sings a wide sampling of choral literature. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 532a–b, 632a–b, 732a–b, Repertory Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Repertory Chorus, preparing and conducting a portion of a public concert each term. Open only to choral conducting majors. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 533a–b, 633a–b, 733a–b, Seminar in Piano Literature and Interpretation 4 credits per term. For piano majors. Piano faculty and guests

MUS 534b, Collaborative Piano: Instrumental 2 credits. A course for piano majors, intended to broaden their experience and to provide them with the skills necessary to prepare sonatas and accompaniments. A number of selected instrumental sonatas are covered, as well as the problems involved in dealing with orchestral reductions and piano parts to virtuoso pieces. Sight reading and difficulties related to performing with specific instruments are also addressed. Students are encouraged to bring works to class that they are preparing for recitals. Elizabeth Sawyer Parisot

MUS 535a–b, 635a–b, 735a–b, Recital Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. It serves as the choral ensemble for four to five degree recitals per year. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 536a–b, 636a–b, 736a–b, Recital Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Second- and third-year students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Recital Chorus, preparing and conducting their degree recitals. Open to choral conducting majors only. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 537b, Collaborative Piano: Voice 2 credits. A course designed for pianists, focusing on the skills required for vocal accompanying and coaching. The standard song and operatic repertoire is emphasized. Sight-reading, techniques of transposition, figured bass, and effective reduction of operatic materials for the recreation of orchestral sounds at the piano are included in the curriculum. Ted Taylor

MUS 538a–b, 638a–b, 738a–b, Cello Ensemble 2 credits per term. An exploration of the growing literature for cello ensemble emphasizing chamber music and orchestral skills as well as stylistic differences. Performances planned during the year. Required of all cello majors. Aldo Parisot

MUS 540a–b, 640a–b, 740a–b, Individual Instruction in the Major 4 credits per term. Individual instruction of one hour per week throughout the academic year, for majors in performance, conducting, and composition. Faculty

MUS 541a,b, 641a,b, 741a,b, Secondary Instrumental, Compositional, Conducting, and Vocal Study 2 credits per term. P/F. All students enrolled in secondary lessons can receive instruction in either voice or piano. In addition, YSM keyboard majors may take secondary organ or harpsichord, and YSM violinists may take secondary viola. Secondary Instruction in Choral Conducting and Orchestral Conducting is only available with permission of the instructor and requires as prerequisites MUS 565a for secondary instruction in Choral Conducting, and both MUS 529a and 530b for secondary instruction in Orchestral Conducting. Any other students who wish to take secondary lessons in any other instruments must petition Sarita Kwok by e-mail (sarita.kwok@yale.edu) by the date that schedules are due for each term. Non-YSM students in the graduate or professional schools will be charged $100 per term for secondary lessons.

MUS 542a–b, 642a–b, 742a–b, The Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale and New Music New Haven 2 credits per term. Participation, as assigned by the faculty, is required of all orchestral students. In addition to regular participation in Philharmonia, students are assigned to New Music New Haven, to groups performing music by Yale composers, and to other ensembles as required. Shinik Hahm

MUS 543a–b, 643a–b, 743a–b, Chamber Music 2 credits per term. Required of instrumental majors (except organ) in each term of enrollment. Enrollment includes participation in an assigned chamber music ensemble as well as performance and attendance in master classes and chamber music concerts. Faculty and guests

MUS 544a–b, 644a–b, 744a–b, Seminar in the Departmental Major 2 credits per term. An examination of a wide range of problems relating to the area of the major. Specific requirements may differ by department. At the discretion of each department, seminar requirements can be met partially through off-campus field trips and/or off-campus fieldwork, e.g., performance or teaching. Required of all School of Music students except pianists who take 533, 633, 733. Faculty

MUS 546a–b, 646a–b, 746a–b, Yale Camerata 2 credits per term. Open to all members of the University community by audition, the Yale Camerata presents several performances throughout the year that explore choral literature from all musical periods. Members of the ensemble should have previous choral experience and be willing to devote time to the preparation of music commensurate with the Camerata’s vigorous rehearsal and concert schedule. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 571a–b, 671a–b, 771a–b, Yale Schola Cantorum 1 credit per term. Specialist chamber choir for the development of advanced ensemble skills and expertise in demanding solo roles (in music before 1750 and from the last one hundred years). Enrollment required for voice majors enrolled through the Institute of Sacred Music. David Hill

MUS 656a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills I 2 credits. In this course, students gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for musical genres, both those familiar to them and those different from their own, and learn basic techniques for their application in church service playing. Students learn to play hymns, congregational songs, service music, and anthems from a variety of sources, including music from the liturgical and free church traditions, including the Black Church experience. Hymn playing, with an emphasis on methods of encouraging congregational singing, is the principal focus of the organ instruction, but there is also instruction in chant and anthem accompaniment, including adapting a piano reduction to the organ. In the gospel style, beginning with the piano, students are encouraged to play by ear, using their aural skills in learning gospel music. This training extends to the organ, in the form of improvised introductions and varied accompaniments to hymns of all types. We seek to accomplish these goals by active participation and discussion in class. When not actually playing in class, students are encouraged to sing to the accompaniment of the person at the keyboard, to further their experience of singing with accompaniment, and to give practical encouragement to the person playing. Prerequisite: graduate-level organ and piano proficiency. Walden Moore

MUS 657a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills II 2 credits. The subject matter is the same as for MUS 656, but some variety is offered in the syllabus on a two-year cycle to allow second-year students to take the course without duplicating all of the means by which the playing techniques are taught. Walden Moore

MUS 677a, Continuo Realization and Performance 4 credits. Acquisition of practical skills necessary for a competent and expressive performance from thorough-bass. Learning of figures, honing of voice-leading skills, and investigation of various historical and national styles of continuo playing as well as relevant performance practice issues. Regular class performances with an instrumentalist or singer. Open to pianists, harpsichordists, organists, and conductors. Arthur Haas

MUS 678b, Advanced Continuo Realization and Performance 4 credits. Practical and theoretical application of national and period styles from the entire Baroque era, 1600–1750. Students prepare and perform both unrealized and unfigured basses of vocal and instrumental sacred and secular literature from early Italian music through to the late Baroque and the empfindsamer style. Musical examples are supplemented with primary and secondary source readings. Prerequisite: MUS 677a or permission of the instructor. Arthur Haas

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MUS 555a, Composition for Performers II 4 credits. NP. Group A. Discussion and production of various compositional procedures, styles, types of notation, and composer-performer collaborations with an in-depth understanding of the sonata form. Group performance and evaluation of works produced. Individual consultation and guidance as needed. Ezra Laderman

MUS 620b, Orchestration for Performers and Conductors 4 credits. NP. Group A. This course on the basics of orchestration is meant to introduce the performer and conductor to both the knowledge of instrumentation (the mechanics and use of individual orchestral instruments) and the general techniques of classical orchestration (through score study). We use Samuel Adler’s The Study of Orchestration as a primary text for the study of instrumentation, supplemented by having live players come in weekly to talk about the specifics of their instruments. In addition, we look at several traditional works from the repertory, including Mahler’s Symphony No. 5, Debussy’s La Mer, and Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring. There are weekly quizzes on the instruments and a final exam on the orchestrational techniques studied. Christopher Theofanidis

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MUS 504a–b, 604a–b, 704a–b, Dramatic Movement for Singers 1 credit per term. Stage movement tailored specifically for singers. Physical preparation of the body through exercises that develop strength, control, and flow of movement while releasing tensions and extending the range of movement possibilities. Emphasis is placed on stage presence and movement problems as applied to specific roles, and on transferring the class experience to the stage. Required. Marc Verzatt

MUS 506a–b, 606a–b, 706a–b, Lyric Diction for Singers 2 credits per term. A language course designed specifically for the needs of singers. Intensive work on pronunciation, grammar, and literature throughout the term. French, German, English, Italian, Russian, and Latin are offered in alternating terms. Required. Faculty

MUS 507a–b, 607a–b, 707a–b, Vocal Repertoire for Singers 2 credits per term. A performance-oriented course that in successive terms surveys the French mélodie, German Lied, and Italian, American, and English art song. Elements of style, language, text, and presentation are emphasized. Required. Faculty

MUS 508a–b, 608a–b, 708a–b, Opera Workshop 3 credits per term. Encompasses musical preparation, coaching (musical and language), staging, and performance of selected scenes as well as complete roles from a wide range of operatic repertoire. Required. Doris Yarick-Cross, coaching staff, and guest music and stage directors

MUS 509a–b, 609a–b, 709a–b, Art Song Coaching for Singers 1 credit per term. Individual private coaching in the art song repertoire, in preparation for required recitals. Students are coached on such elements of musical style as phrasing, rubato, and articulation, and in English, French, Italian, German, and Spanish diction. Students are expected to bring their recital accompaniments to coaching sessions as their recital times approach. Faculty

MUS 522a–b, 622a–b, 722a–b, Acting for Singers 1 credit per term. Designed to address the specialized needs of the singing actor. Studies include technique in character analysis, together with studies in poetry as it applies to art song literature. Class work is extended in regular private coaching. Marc Verzatt

MUS 549a, Early Music Repertoire for Singers 2 credits. A survey of solo and chamber repertoire (song, madrigal, cantata, opera, oratorio, motet) from the early seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth century. Related topics include performance practice, ornamentation, national styles, related instrumental music, research, and original sources and their modern transcriptions. Assignments emphasize practical applications such as composing ornaments, finding repertoire, and creating new editions. Avi Stein

MUS 594a,b, Vocal Chamber Music 1 credit. This performance-based class requires a high level of individual participation each week. Grades are based on participation in and preparation for class, and two performances of the repertoire learned. Attendance is mandatory. Occasional weekend sessions and extra rehearsals during production weeks can be expected. Students are expected to learn quickly and must be prepared to tackle a sizeable amount of repertoire. James Taylor

MUS 595a/b, 695b, Performance Practice for Singers 1 credit per term. Fall term: An introduction to the major issues of historically informed performance, including notation, use of modern editions, and performance styles. Spring term: Advanced exploration of notation, performance styles, and ornamentation in specific repertoire. Open to conductors and instrumentalists with permission of the instructor. Judith Malafronte

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History and Analysis

MUS 510b, Music before 1700 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of music before 1700 within its cultural and social contexts. The goal of the course is knowledge of the repertoire representing the major styles, genres, and composers of the period. Course requirements include a midterm exam, two short papers, and a final exam. Markus Rathey

MUS 511b, Music of the Eighteenth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. A survey of the principal forms and styles of the eighteenth century from Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel to the early music of Beethoven. Major works from the operatic, liturgical, orchestral, keyboard, and chamber music repertoires illustrate the stylistic transformation from the high Baroque to the Classical period. Participants consider the music in the context of contemporary social and artistic thought. Course requirements include weekly readings and six short analytical papers. Paul Hawkshaw

MUS 512a, Music in the Nineteenth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. An analytic and cultural survey of music in nineteenth-century Europe. The primary goal is intimate knowledge of repertoire representing the major styles, genres, and composers of the period, from Beethoven and Rossini to Strauss, Debussy, and Rimsky-Korsakov. Readings from primary documents (both critical and literary) provide grounding in historical events, aesthetic trends, and social contexts of nineteenth-century music making. Course requirements include weekly listening and reading, regular quizzes, two short music-analytic papers (2–3 pages), a midterm examination, and a final examination. Paul Berry

MUS 513a, Music since 1900 4 credits. NP. Group B. A detailed investigation of the history of musical style from ca. 1900 to the present. Issues to be considered include modernist innovations around 1910; serialism and neoclassicism in the interwar period; the avant-gardes of the 1950s and 1960s; postmodernism, neo-romanticism, and multiculturalism of the 1970s and beyond. Robert Holzer

MUS 517b/REL 954b, Mary in the Middle Ages 4 credits. NP. Group B. During the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, Mary, mother of Christ, acquired several powerful, multifaceted identities: protector, intercessor, mediator, Theotokos (“God-bearer”), Queen of Heaven, unsurpassed model for both mothers and virgins. Throughout Europe the cult of Mary inspired a torrent of liturgical feasts, songs and motets, buildings and artifacts. The course explores the intimate interconnections among the music, texts, and materialities of the Virgin’s cult in Byzantine and Western Christianity. In a dialogue between music history and art history, students have the opportunity to study the cultural artifacts of their own discipline and to understand them in the context of their religious and cultural environment. Markus Rathey, Vasileios Marinis

MUS 524b, Schubert: Songs and Song Cycles 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of Franz Schubert’s small-scale vocal music, the collections in which it was published, and the contexts in which it was first performed. The course charts a path through Schubert’s prolific and influential career as a composer of songs, partsongs, and song cycles, focusing on his relationship to previous traditions of song composition, his responses to the music of his contemporaries (including Beethoven), and the radical formal, harmonic, and temporal innovations characteristic of his own works. Parallel concerns include the performance practices that Schubert expected and the relevance of his biography to his music. Songs are chosen in part according to students’ interests and current performance projects. Course requirements include weekly listening and short readings (primarily of song texts in English translation), four brief response papers (1–3 pages), occasional oral presentations, and a final examination on topics chosen by the student. Paul Berry

MUS 527b, Schumann Chamber Music: Performance and Analysis 4 credits. NP. Group B. A study of selected chamber works by Schumann, coupling analytical research with practical performance issues. Advanced violinists, violists, cellists, oboists, clarinetists, hornists, and pianists admitted by audition. Weekly analysis assignments, readings, and chamber music rehearsals. Michael Friedmann

MUS 547a, Text, Form, and Narrative in Program Music, 1650–1900 4 credits. NP. Group B. A study of programmatic texts, musical forms, and implied narrative in program music from its origins through the end of the nineteenth century. Beginning from the late seventeenth century and proceeding through the fruition and collapse of functional tonality, the course considers various modes of interaction between instrumental music and the titles and texts that accompanied it. The goal is a fluid and stylistically sensitive approach to storytelling through harmony, affect, and form in both symphonic and chamber repertoire. Among composers addressed are Biber, Vivaldi, Handel, Haydn, Beethoven, Berlioz, Schumann, Liszt, Brahms, Strauss, Dukas, Dvorák, and Debussy. Course requirements include weekly listening and short readings (primarily of programmatic texts in English translation), four brief response papers (1–3 pages), occasional oral presentations, and a final examination on topics chosen by the student. Paul Berry

MUS 558a, Introduction to the Analysis of Nontonal Music 4 credits. NP. Group B. This course consists of the examination of various analytic techniques and their use in the analysis of music by Berg, Boulez, Dallapiccola, Ligeti, Lutoslawski, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Varèse, Webern, and others. Helpful, but not a prerequisite, is some prior exposure to Schenker analysis and a knowledge of the fundamentals of set theory. Thomas C. Duffy

MUS 560a, Research and Editions 4 credits. NP. Group B. A course in music bibliography and research methods that emphasizes important printed and electronic reference tools in music and how to use them. The course also presents an overview of the issues involved in editing a musical work, for which students compare various editions of the same work. Kendall Crilly

MUS 569b, Choral Music in the Twentieth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. An examination of the widely varied directions taken by composers of choral music during the last century, beginning with transitional figures of the late nineteenth century and continuing to the year 2000. Examples of topics for exploration include the early-twentieth-century English choral renaissance, the recent “neo-medieval” school, the Scandinavian school, the current interest in non-Western choral music, extended vocal techniques, and a cappella repertoire. A tentative list of composers whose music is analyzed includes Ives, Vaughan Williams, Howells, Stravinsky, Poulenc, Barber, Britten, Ligeti, Lindholm, Edlund, Penderecki, Górecki, Tavener, Ramírez, Monk, and Golijov. Jeffrey Douma

MUS 593b, Minimalism as Spiritual Practice 4 credits. NP. Group B. This class not only explores the music of the better-known “holy minimalists” (Pärt, Gorecki, Tavener, Martynov, Silvestrov, etc.) but also considers the religious overtones in music of Glass, Riley, Reich, and many other postminimalist composers. The spiritual and sacred texts in the music of John Adams are central to the repertoire. Suggestions and favorites from students in the class are also taken into account. Class presentations and/or final projects are required, as well as short response papers from time to time. Ingram Marshall

MUS 596b, Music and Patterns 4 credits. NP. Group B. An examination of the relationships between pattern making and Western music, beginning with Pérotin and continuing to the present, with a special emphasis on music being made right now. We find, analyze, and discuss various pattern-based compositional processes, paying attention to what the presence or absence of patterns may mean in a particular time period or style. David Lang

MUS 598b, The Piano Trio, 1785–1945: Form, Texture, Affect 4 credits. NP. Group B. A study of form, texture, and affect in piano trios from the origins of the genre until the end of World War II. Beginning with late-eighteenth-century examples, the course charts a path through some of the most important developments of the next 160 years: chromatic harmony, formal and temporal experimentation, post-tonal idioms, and narrative and programmatic content. A parallel concern is the composer’s response to evolving instruments and changing performance practices. Repertoire is chosen in part according to students’ interests and current performance projects. Among composers addressed are Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Fauré, Ravel, Bartók, and Shostakovich. Course requirements include weekly listening and short readings, four brief response papers (1–3 pages), occasional oral presentations, and a final examination on topics chosen by the student. Paul Berry

MUS 601a/MUSI 805a, Johann Sebastian Bach’s Chorale Cantatas 4 credits. NP. Group B. During the second year of his tenure at St. Thomas’s in Leipzig (1724–25), Johann Sebastian Bach started his so far largest project: a cycle of cantatas for the entire year, each of which was based on hymns of the Protestant church. Even though he broke off the project for unknown reasons in January 1725, the existing forty cantatas are the largest-scale cycle Bach composed, dwarfing by far his oratorios, passions, and organ music. The chorale cantatas are interesting for two reasons: the texts combine paraphrases of congregational hymns with interpretations of the biblical readings for the Sunday. Like a sermon, the cantatas aim to translate the biblical message into the present. Second, Bach experiments with different techniques of chorale settings, making the cycle of chorale cantatas an encyclopedia of his techniques as a composer of hymn settings. The course focuses on these two aspects, exploring how the theological and musical layers intersect and support each other. Markus Rathey

MUS 612b, The Music of Igor Stravinsky 4 credits. NP. Group B. A survey of the life and works of the great Russian composer. Among the issues to be explored are the common elements that persist amidst the great changes in style (“Russian,” “neoclassical,” and “twelve-tone”) that distinguish his output; the relation of these stylistic changes to larger trends in twentieth-century music and culture; and the distance between the facts of the composer’s career and his own account of it. Robert Holzer

MUS 617a/REL 643a, Music and Theology in the Sixteenth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. The Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century was a “media event.” The invention of letterpress printing, the partisanship of famous artists like Dürer and Cranach, and, not least, the support of musicians and composers were responsible for spreading the thoughts of Reformation. But while Luther gave an important place to music, Zwingli and Calvin were much more skeptical. Music—especially sacred music—was not only a chance for Reformation, it was also a problem, because it was tightly connected with Catholic liturgical and aesthetic traditions. Reformers had to think about the place music could have in worship and about the function of music in secular life. But first of all, a theological authorization had to be found, because the authorization of music by any kind of tradition was no longer possible. The course shows how music was viewed by the reformers and which theological decisions formed the basis for their view. But we also consider the effect of these theological matters on musical practice: on liturgical singing and on composers and their compositions. Markus Rathey

MUS 634b, The History and Repertoire of the Wind Orchestra 4 credits. NP. Group B. A study of the history and repertoire of the wind orchestra—an ensemble that includes the wind band, the wind ensemble, and the symphonic wind ensemble. The study begins with a historical overview of wind consorts in the Middle Ages and progresses to the wind band/ensembles of the twenty-first century. Repertoire studies include Mozart’s Gran Partita; Dvorák’s Serenade for Winds; Strauss’s Serenade for Winds; Gounod’s Petite Symphonie; Holst’s First Suite; Grainger’s Lincolnshire Posy; Hindemith’s Symphony in B-flat; Husa’s Music for Prague 1968; and other pieces from the later twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This class has an online component and a pedagogical unit; students have to prepare a teaching unit at the end of the course, focusing on a wind band piece of their choosing. Thomas C. Duffy

MUS 645a, Sketches, Drafts, and Fragments: How Great Composers Worked 4 credits. NP. Group B. Had Mozart really finished all his works in his head before he notated them in flawless manuscripts? How did Schubert compose his melodies? Why did Bruckner revise his symphonies again and again? The creative process of famous composers has fascinated musicians and music lovers for centuries, and music historiography tells manifold stories about how composers worked. In this course, we challenge the myths with the evidence preserved in original manuscripts. We investigate how composers went about composing important works of the classical repertoire. And we explore how knowledge about its genesis can inspire our interpretations of a piece. The course supplies students with the basic set of skills in musical paleography every professional musician should possess. We also make an excursion to the Beinecke Library to examine relevant manuscripts, such as Schubert’s draft of the Fantasy in F minor, D. 940. The workload includes reading and smaller exercises, but the core assignment is a student presentation. In small groups, students work on the sketches and drafts to a selected piece of an important composer. The choice of the example is based on the instruments played by the members of the group (e.g., four string players can work on Haydn’s draft of the String Quartet Hob. III:33; a singer, clarinet player, and pianist on Schubert’s draft of “Der Hirt auf dem Felsen,” D. 965). The presentations include a commented performance of the sketches and the corresponding portions from the finished work. Nonmusicians present on a theoretical project. The creative process is currently a very fashionable field of research in the humanities, and it has attracted much public interest. In today’s concert life, lecture-recitals that allow a peek into the workshops of composers have become a popular format. Consequently, musicians are expected to talk about the repertoire they perform, its genesis and context, in a sophisticated but accessible manner. In this course students not only learn to understand how composers worked based on scholarly research. They also develop their own presentation skills through the combination of lecturing, discussion, teamwork, and group presentation. Mario Aschauer

MUS 647b, Vienna: 1875–1900 4 credits. NP. Group B. An examination of selected works by Brahms, Bruckner, Wolf, Schoenberg, and Mahler in the context of the social, political, and cultural circumstances that prevailed in imperial Vienna at the end of the nineteenth century. Some attention is devoted to the Eduard Hanslick/Wiener Akademische-Wagner Verein conflict and the manner in which it affected the careers of the above-named composers. Paul Hawkshaw

MUS 648a, Edison’s Talking Machine and the American Jazz Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. A term-long series of lecture presentations by Willie Ruff that draws heavily on interviews he recorded in 1974 with Ethel Waters, Eubie Blake, Earl Hines, Benny Carter, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, and others. These interviews, together with an extensive conversation between Ruff and Columbia Records producer John Hammond, subsequently became an annotated Anthology of Classic Jazz on phonograph records. The anthology will be useful in tracing the story of the creation and evolution of the American entertainment scene along with the social, artistic, and technical circumstances that prevailed in the recording industry from the 1880s into the twentieth century and beyond. The brilliance of Edison’s 1877 idea for a “Talking Machine” is matched only by the serendipitous fact that it came into being almost in time to capture the beginnings of jazz. The great news is that it was precisely in time to capture the voices of the iconic jazz masters telling their own stories for the anthology. There are powerful stories behind all their classic masterworks, from “Stormy Weather” to “Saint Louis Blues” to “West End Blues” to “Charleston Rag” to “Grooving High” to “Miles Ahead” and more. Willie Ruff

MUS 674b, Analysis of Western Music (1199–1939) from the Composer’s Perspective 4 credits. NP. Group B. This course is designed to provide composers (and others interested in composition) with the opportunity to evaluate and analyze important musical compositions from a creator’s point of view. Works of music have been analyzed by theorists, musicologists, ethnomusicologists, performers, and audiences for their own purposes. The goal of this course is to explore the decisive musical choices that remain after accounting for the contexts and constraints of theory, history, and sociology. We attempt to address the significance and character of what, given the histories and theories of music, is finally “composed” by a composer. Selected compositions from 1199 to 1939 are discussed and analyzed. Martin Bresnick

MUS 849b, 850a, 851b, Seminar for Master of Musical Arts Candidates NP. Group B. To be elected for a maximum of three terms and 16 credits, normally during the last three terms of residency, for 4 credits, 8 credits, and 4 credits respectively. An introduction to the problems and methodology of musicology and music theory. The course familiarizes the student with the work of current musicological research and provides an opportunity to develop a thesis topic and present the results of the thesis to the seminar. Required of all M.M.A. candidates. Michael Friedmann, Robert Holzer

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Special Studies

MUS 521a, English Language Skills 4 credits. NP. Group C. Classes are designed for students who are at a basic or intermediate level of English and are intended to address specifically writing skills and grammar. Students who have passed the TOEFL and students needing to improve TOEFL scores attend. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, class participation, in-class writing exercises, vocabulary tests, and fluency exercises. Attendance is required at all sessions. Serena Blocker

MUS 550a, Music Technology for the Practicing Musician 2 credits. NP. Group C. An overview of pertinent technological developments and their historical contexts. Designed for students who have had little or no prior experience in this area. The discussion groups for this course are hands-on workshops. These provide an opportunity for students to meet in small groups and gain firsthand experience using the digital systems in the Center for Studies in Music Technology (CSMT). Students are expected to attend one workshop per week. Jack Vees

MUS 553b, Music Technology: Advanced Individual Projects 2 credits. NP. Group C. A course for those who have completed MUS 550a or have displayed proficiency in the genre. An in-depth look at the important influences of technology upon the creation of music in the studio. Topics include sequencing, sampling, notation, and digital signal processing. Various hardware and software packages that make these processes available to the professional musician are examined. Students complete an individual project, the scope and nature of which are determined at the beginning of the term. A project may be the creation of an original piece, or it may also include the construction of sample libraries or a study of digital processing of acoustic instruments, in order to make the course relevant to the needs and interests of performers as well as composers. The discussion groups for this course are hands-on workshops. These provide an opportunity for students to meet in small groups and gain firsthand experience using the digital systems in CSMT. Enrollment limited. Jack Vees

MUS 578a, Music and Service 2 credits. NP. Group C. What is the role of musicians in public life, both on and off the concert stage? How can institutions of music play new roles in forming civil society and vibrant communities? Can music change the life conditions of people living in political or social oppression? And, what expectations can musicians today have of themselves and the public impact of their art form? As many large arts institutions in the United States struggle to redefine their connection with public life, these questions are at the core of how we will define musicians’ careers in the coming decade. This course examines these questions through readings and discussions on philosophy, aesthetics, urban planning, historical views of music, and memoirs by musicians. Assignments include several short response papers and a final paper or demonstration project. A one-day trip to visit several arts initiatives is planned. Enrollment limited to twelve. Sebastian Ruth

MUS 621a, Careers in Music 2 credits. NP. Group C. This course teaches the entrepreneurial skills required to create financially sustainable careers in the arts, including career planning, financial and project planning, branding, marketing, and public speaking. Students apply these skills by working on a project throughout the term. The class combines instruction with group discussions and coaching on the project. Course requirements include weekly readings, interviews, press kit and career portfolio, the final project, and a final paper. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Preference given to second-year students. Attendance is mandatory, and absences impact the final grade. Permission of the instructor required. Astrid Baumgardner

MUS 680a–b, The Art of Recording for Music 2 credits per term. NP. Group C. A workshop dealing with state-of-the-art digital recording techniques, equipment, studio acoustics, and compact disc production, with special emphasis placed on preparing students to use recording facilities as a musician on both sides of the microphone. The first term is devoted to a general survey of digital recording techniques through experimental recording of various student and professional musical ensembles. The second term is devoted exclusively to compact disc production. As a final project, each student produces a recording session using classmates or professional ensembles and works through the postrecording process to provide a digital tape suitable for compact disc production. Enrollment limited. Permission of the instructor required. Counts as one NP for the year. Eugene Kimball

MUS 690a,b, Independent Study Project 2 credits per term. NP. Second- or third-year students with the consent of the deputy dean may elect, for one term only, to pursue individual study in specialized areas of interest, under the supervision of faculty members. An outline for proposed individual study must be completed and approved prior to the beginning of the term in which the student expects to pursue the special study. Forms are available in the Office of the Registrar. Faculty

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Yale Institute of Sacred Music

MUS 519a–b, 619a–b, 719a–b, Colloquium 1 credit per term. NP. P/F. Participation in seminars led by faculty and guest lecturers on topics concerning theology, music, worship, and related arts. Required of all Institute of Sacred Music students. Martin Jean

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Graduate-Level Courses in the Department of Music

Permission for admission to graduate courses offered by the Department of Music must be obtained from the director of graduate studies of the department. The following courses are available in the graduate department in 2013–2014 (4 credits each term).

MUSI 625a, Sonata Theory Group A. James Hepokoski

MUSI 699a, Proseminar in Music History Group B. Gary Tomlinson

MUSI 810a, The Visionary Impulse in Jazz Group B. Michael Veal

MUSI 813a, Verdi at 200 Group B. Gundula Kreuzer

MUSI 835b, Sustainability and Music Cultures Group C. Sarah Weiss

MUSI 850a, Analytical Issues in Russian Music: Glinka to Early Stravinsky Group A. Patrick McCreless

MUSI 865b, Baroque Travels Group A. Rebekah Ahrendt

MUSI 905a, Cognition of Musical Rhythm Group C. Ève Poudrier

MUSI 915b, Jazz and Musical Ontology Group C. Brian Kane

MUSI 930b, Tonality in Seventeenth-Century Music Group A. Ian Quinn

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