Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Departments and Sections

This section provides information for all departments and some sections in the School of Medicine.

Courses designated a meet in the fall term only. Courses designated b meet in the spring term only. Courses enclosed in brackets are not offered in the current academic year.

Faculty listings reflect approved appointments effective April 5, 2013.

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Anesthesiology

Office: TMP 3, 203.785.2802

http://medicine.yale.edu/anesthesiology

Professors P.G. Barash, F.R. Braveman, J.G. Collins, J. Ehrenwerth, R.L. Hines (Chair), L.M. Kitahata (Emeritus), C.J. Kopriva (Emeritus), R. Lagasse, R.H. LaMotte, J. Lichtor, P.L. Miller (Medical Informatics), L.E. Niklason, T.H. Oh (Emeritus), A.C. Perrino, T.D. Rafferty (Emeritus), S.H. Rosenbaum, W. Rosenblatt, K.J. Ruskin, K.H. Shelley, R.N. Shiffman (Pediatrics), D.G. Silverman, R.S. Sinatra (Emeritus)

Associate Professors S. Akhtar, C.A. Brandt (Emergency Medicine), K. Cheung (Medical Informatics), S. Garwood, T.M. Halaszynski, V. Kurup, L.N. Marenco (Medical Informatics), G.F. McCloskey, W.M. Popescu, R. Ramani, J.J. Schwartz, N. Vadivelu

Assistant Professors A.A. Alian, R.T. Aouad, J. Arthur, S.I. Assaad, T. Banack, M.E. Blessing, C. Cantemir, S. Dabu-Bondoc, J. Feinleib, D.J. Gaal, T.J. Golembeski, G.W. Grass, L. Grecu, A.S. Haddadin, L.E. Helgeson, K. Hernandez, A. Herrera, M.J. Higgins, N.F. Holt, B. Horvath, M.G. Hrycelak, J.S. Kersh, J.P. Kim, M. Leonova, T. Levy, A.M. Lobo, S.M. Luczycki, K.E. Marschall, V. Matei, H. Mikhael, R.K. Modak, T. Myslajek, L. Oliver, A.D. Opera, M. Pollock, M. Punjala, R.M. Romero, M.J. Rose, H. Saadat, R.C. Schoenfelder, J. Sherman, D. Snegovskikh, J.L. Sramcik, L. Stephenson, R.G. Stout, H.E. Tantawy, I. Vaitkeviciute, D.W. Vaughn, R. Wardhan, X. Xu, M. Zhang (Adjunct), G.X. Zhou, Q. Zhu, J. Zickmann

Instructors E.A. Jakab, A. Ruskis, N. Saidi

Senior Research Scientist T.D. Rafferty

Research Scientist F.G. Sayward

Associate Research Scientists S.J. Frawley, L. Gui, S.J. Jarad, P.G. Mutalik, H. Qian, L. Qu, N. Rajeevan, M.A. Shifman (Medical Informatics), R. Wang

Clinical Professor J.D. Katz

Associate Clinical Professors K.S. Chung, L.P. Kirschenbaum, B. Kosarussavadi, A.L. Mandel, E.K. Prokop, S.B. Stone, A.D. Weinstock

Assistant Clinical Professors C. Ayoub, M.K. Ghori, J. Kim, L.H. Kwan, M. Lomanto, Y.F. Shaheen, L. Wang, J.C. Weinberg, T. Wong

Clinical Instructors M.M. Abreu, M. Dudley

Lecturers A.M. Deshpande (Medical Informatics), V.N. Garla, B. Kaplan, N. Kashyap, S. LaCoursiere, P. Nadkarni, P.G. Thomas

ANES 103, Clinical Clerkship Full-time clinical clerkship for students. Students are assigned throughout the year to Yale-New Haven Hospital for introduction to clinical anesthesiology, including preoperative evaluation of patients, selection of anesthetic technique, and administration of anesthetics under supervision. Perioperative medicine, airway management, monitoring techniques, clinical pharmacology, and physiology are emphasized. J.J. Schwartz, S. Akhtar, V. Kurup

ANES 104, Anesthesiology Advanced Clinical Elective Individualized program of instruction in anesthesia subspecialties, including cardiovascular, neurosurgical, obstetrical, and pediatric anesthesia. One or two students every four weeks. Director: S. Akhtar; V. Kurup, J.J. Schwartz

ANES 141, Anesthesiology Clinical Research Elective Participation in ongoing research by departmental faculty involving clinical responses to drugs affecting cardiopulmonary, central nervous and autonomic nervous system, noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring, perioperative coagulation, and other topics. The development of individual research projects is also encouraged. Students interested in complementary approaches to pain management, such as acupuncture, should contact S.-M. Wang. One student every four weeks; additional time recommended. Director: D.G. Silverman

ANES 142, Anesthesiology Basic Research Elective Laboratory research projects focused on the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the sensations of pain and itch, and on vascular biology. One or two students every four weeks. Director: L.E. Niklason; R.H. LaMotte, C. Ma, K.H. Shelley, D.G. Silverman, S.-M. Wang

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Cell Biology

Office: SHM C207, 203.737.5603

www.cellbiology.yale.edu

Professors M.J. Caplan (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), L. Cooley (Genetics), P. Cresswell (Immunobiology), P. De Camilli, J.E. Galán (Microbial Pathogenesis), F. Gorelick (Medicine), C. Hashimoto, J.D. Jamieson, D.S. Krause (Laboratory Medicine), T.L. Lentz (Emeritus), H. Lin, V.T. Marchesi (Pathology), M.S. Mooseker (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), M.H. Nathanson (Medicine), T.D. Pollard (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), J.E. Rothman (Chair), M.A. Schwartz (Medicine), M. Simons (Medicine), E. Ullu (Medicine), S.L. Wolin

Associate Professors J.S. Bogan (Medicine), C.G. Burd, D.A. Calderwood (Pharmacology), E.R. Dufresne (Engineering & Applied Science), K.M. Reinisch, D.K. Toomre, T. Walther

Assistant Professors D. Baddeley, J. Bewersdorf, C. Carroll, D. Colón-Ramos, S.M. Ferguson, M. King, C. Lin, C.P. Lusk, M. Mariappan, T. Melia, P.A. Takizawa, J. Yao, Y. Zhang

Senior Research Scientist A.M. Vignery (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation)

Research Scientists X.N. Liu, C. Qiu

Associate Research Scientists S.J. An, Y. Cai, X. Chen, R.J. Chi, J. Dancourt, A.R. Ferguson, V.K. Gangaraju, Y. Gao, L. Geng, S.S. Krishnakumar, G. Lavieu, I. Lee, F. Li, F. Nakatsu, J. Peng, F. Pincet, H. Qi, S. Sim, N. Tiwari, Z. Xi, Z. Zhang, M. Zhong

CBIO 502a/b, Molecules to Systems This full-year course is designed to provide medical students with a current and comprehensive review of biologic structure and function at the cellular, tissue, and organ system levels. Areas covered in the first term include replication and transcription of the genome; regulation of the cell cycle and mitosis; protein biosynthesis and membrane targeting; cell motility and the cytoskeleton; signal transduction; nerve and muscle function. The second term covers cell and tissue organization of organ systems including respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Clinical correlation sessions, which illustrate the contributions of cell biology to specific medical problems, are interspersed in the lecture schedule. Histophysiology laboratories provide practical experience with an understanding of exploring cell and tissue structure. The course is offered only to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students. It runs from September to mid-May and is equivalent to three graduate credits. P.A. Takizawa, F. Gorelick, J.D. Jamieson, T.L. Lentz, and faculty

CBIO 601a/b, Molecular and Cellular Basis of Human Disease The course emphasizes the connections between diseases and basic science using a lecture and seminar format. It is designed for students who are committed to a career in medical research, those who are considering such a career, or students who wish to explore scientific topics in depth. The first half of the course is organized in four- to five-week blocks that topically parallel CBIO 502a/b. Examples of blocks from past years include “Diseases of protein folding” and “Diseases of ion channels.” Each topic is introduced with a lecture given by the faculty. The lecture is followed by sessions in which students review relevant manuscripts under the supervision of a faculty mentor. The second half of the course focuses on the relationship of basic science to disease processes while emphasizing translational and clinical research. In addition, sessions are devoted to academic careers and cover subjects such as obtaining an academic position, promotions, and grant writing. The course is open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students who are taking or have taken CBIO 502a/b. Student evaluations are based on attendance, participation in group discussions, formal presentations, and a written review of an NIH proposal. The course runs from September to mid-May and is equivalent to three graduate credits. F. Gorelick, J.D. Jamieson, and faculty

CBIO 602a/MB&B 602a/MCDB 602a, Molecular Cell Biology A comprehensive introduction to the molecular and mechanistic aspects of cell biology for graduate students in all programs. Emphasizes fundamental issues of cellular organization, regulation, biogenesis, and function at the molecular level. S.L. Wolin, M.J. Caplan, C. Crews, P. De Camilli, M. King, T. Melia, I.-H. Park, T.D. Pollard, J.E. Rothman, M. Schwartz

CBIO 603a/MCDB 603a, Seminar in Molecular Cell Biology A graduate-level seminar course in modern cell biology. The class is devoted to the reading and critical evaluation of classical and current papers. The topics are coordinated with the CBIO 602a lecture schedule. Thus, concurrent enrollment in CBIO 602a is required. M. King, M.J. Caplan, C. Crews, P. De Camilli, T. Melia, T.D. Pollard, J.E. Rothman, M. Schwartz, S.L. Wolin

CBIO 604b, Systems Cell Biology Introduction to the organization and function of cells within complex multicellular systems as encountered in the human body. Covers major tissues and organs as well as the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems, with special emphasis on the molecular and cellular bases of developmental processes and human diseases. Lectures supplemented by electronic-based tutorials on the histology of tissues and organs. C. Hashimoto, D. Colón-Ramos, and faculty

CBIO 606b, Advanced Topics in Cell Biology This seminar course, which meets once weekly, covers advanced topics in cell biology. Each topic is spread over two or three sessions, which start with an introductory overview and are followed by a discussion of key papers led by an expert in the field. Special emphasis is given to application of state-of-the-art imaging techniques to topical areas covering a wide range of contemporary cell biology. C.P. Lusk, C.G. Burd, S.M. Ferguson, and faculty

CBIO 611b, Vascular Cell Biology A lecture course that introduces the structure and organ-level physiology of the vascular system, then covers in greater depth the development, regulation, mechanics, and pathology of blood vessels. Focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms. M.A. Schwartz

CBIO 655a/GENE 655a, Stem Cells: Biology and Application This course is designed for first-year or second-year students to learn the fundamentals of stem cell biology and to gain familiarity with current research in the field. The course is presented in a lecture and discussion format based on primary literature. Topics include stem cell concepts, methodologies for stem cell research, embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, cloning and stem cell reprogramming, and clinical applications of stem cell research. Prerequisites: undergraduate-level cell biology, molecular biology, and genetics. I.-H. Park, H. Lin, and faculty

CBIO 701b, Illuminating Cellular Function Introduction to the principles and practical methods of live cell imaging. Covers principles of fluorescent microscopy (including genetically encoded probes and physiological indicators), image formation, image detection, and image analysis. Includes hands-on demonstrations of state-of-the-art instrumentation, such as video-rate confocal and multi-photon microscopes. D.K. Toomre, J. Bewersdorf, and faculty

CBIO 900a/GENE 900a/MCDB 900a, First-Year Introduction to Research—Grant Writing and Scientific Communication Grant writing, scientific communication, and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. F. Slack and faculty

CBIO 901b/GENE 901b/MCDB 901b, First-Year Introduction to Research—Ethics: Scientific Integrity in Biomedical Research Ethics and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. M. King

CBIO 903a or b, Reading Course in Cell Biology Independent study of specific topics in cell biology through directed reading of the literature under faculty supervision. Student may choose any topic and any Yale faculty subject to approval by the Cell Biology DGS. Open to Cell Biology students, and to students in other departments with approval from their respective DGS. Term paper required. C. Hashimoto

CBIO 911a/GENE 911a/MCDB 911a, First Laboratory Rotation First laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. C. Hashimoto and faculty

CBIO 912b/GENE 912b/MCDB 912b, Second Laboratory Rotation Second laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Reinke and faculty

CBIO 913b/GENE 913b/MCDB 913b, Third Laboratory Rotation Third laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. F. Slack and faculty

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Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Office: SHM B147, 203.785.4041

http://medicine.yale.edu/physiology

Professors P.S. Aronson (Medicine), A. Bordey (Neurosurgery), E.L. Boulpaep, T.H. Brown (Psychology), C. Canessa, L.G. Cantley (Medicine), M.J. Caplan (Chair), N. Carrasco, W.K. Chandler (Emeritus), L.B. Cohen, B.E. Ehrlich (Pharmacology), A. Eichmann (Medicine), B. Forbush, J.P. Geibel (Surgery), G.H. Giebisch (Emeritus), J.F. Hoffman (Emeritus), L.K. Kaczmarek (Pharmacology), G. Lister (Pediatrics), P. Mistry (Medicine), P.A. Preisig (Medicine), W. Saltzman (Engineering & Applied Science), J. Santos-Sacchi (Surgery), G.I. Shulman (Medicine), F.J. Sigworth, C.L. Slayman, C.W. Slayman (Genetics), T. Wang, F.S. Wright (Medicine), L.H. Young (Medicine), Z. Zhou (Ophthalmology & Visual Science)

Associate Professors N.A. Ameen (Pediatrics), J.B. Demb (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), M.E. Egan (Pediatrics), M.N. Nitabach, V.A. Pieribone, S. Tomita, D. Zenisek

Assistant Professors N.A. Addy (Psychiatry), S. Bragiantsev, S. Campbell (Biomedical Engineering), E. Gracheva, E. Karatekin, R.G. Kibbey (Medicine), J.J. Rinehart, S.K. Singh, X. Yang (Comparative Medicine)

Instructor J.Q. Leng

Senior Research Scientist D.P. Zecevic

Associate Research Scientists C.X. Bleau, B.A. Davis, Z. Du, Z. Han, M.E. Hughes, L. Jin, M.A. Reyna, A. Rivetta, H. Shigematsu, D. Sitaraman, M.M. Tomita, L. Wan, Y. Yang

C&MP 500, From Molecules to Systems: Medical Physiology This course is open only to first-year medical students. The purpose of the course is to understand complex physiological processes at the level of component molecules, cells, specific tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole body. Lectures cover human medical physiology in eleven modules: Cell Physiology/Membrane Transport, Nerve, Muscle, Metabolism, Blood, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Kidney, Gastrointestinal, Endocrine, and Reproduction. Two major themes emerge during the course: (1) the human body employs a multitude of approaches for regulating the environment around its individual cells, and (2) these individual cells perform tasks necessary for sustaining life in the whole organism. E.L. Boulpaep and staff

C&MP 550aU/ENAS 550aU/MCDB 550aU/PHAR 550a, Physiological Systems The course develops a foundation in human physiology by examining the homeostasis of vital parameters within the body, and the biophysical properties of cells, tissues, and organs. Basic concepts in cell and membrane physiology are synthesized through exploring the function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. The physical basis of blood flow, mechanisms of vascular exchange, cardiac performance, and regulation of overall circulatory function are discussed. Respiratory physiology explores the mechanics of ventilation, gas diffusion, and acid-base balance. Renal physiology examines the formation and composition of urine and the regulation of electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base balance. Organs of the digestive system are discussed from the perspective of substrate metabolism and energy balance. Hormonal regulation is applied to metabolic control and to calcium, water, and electrolyte balance. The biology of nerve cells is addressed with emphasis on synaptic transmission and simple neuronal circuits within the central nervous system. The special senses are considered in the framework of sensory transduction. Weekly discussion sections provide a forum for in-depth exploration of topics. E.L. Boulpaep, W.M. Saltzman

C&MP 560bU/ENAS 570bU/MCDB 560bU/PHAR 560b, Cellular and Molecular Physiology: Molecular Machines in Human Disease This course focuses on understanding the processes that transfer molecules across membranes at the cellular, molecular, biophysical, and physiological levels. Students learn about the different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport, generate electrical currents, or perform mechanical displacement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the molecular structures of membrane proteins and their individual functions. The interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behaviors of cells and tissues are also stressed. Molecular motors are introduced and their mechanical relationship to cell function is explored. Students read papers from the scientific literature that establish the connections between mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins and a wide variety of human genetic diseases. E.L. Boulpaep, F.J. Sigworth

C&MP 570b/NBIO 570b, Sensory Physiology This course provides an overview of the mammalian special sensory systems, including molecular and cellular bases of vision, audition, taste, olfaction, and somatosensation. Faculty with focus in those areas lead presentations and discussions on peripheral and central mechanisms. Psychophysical aspects of sensation are introduced. D. Zenisek, J. Santos-Sacchi, Z. Zhou

C&MP 600, Medical Physiology Case Conferences Two-term course taught in groups of ten to twelve students by the same group leader(s) throughout the year. Workshop format permits students to apply basic concepts of physiology to clinical syndromes and disease processes. Students are expected to participate actively in a weekly discussion of a clinical case that illustrates principles of human physiology and pathophysiology at the whole-body, system, organ, cellular, or molecular level. Prerequisites: C&MP 550a and permission of the instructor. Credit for full year only. E.L. Boulpaep and staff

C&MP 610, Medical Research Scholars Program: Mentored Clinical Experience The goals of this course are to introduce MRSP students to aspects of clinically important human diseases. Students explore each disease over three one-and-one-half-hour sessions led by a clinician-scientist who is an expert in the relevant organ system. Students explore two disease processes per term. The first of the three sessions is devoted to a discussion of the clinical presentation, natural history, pathology, epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of the disease process. During this session students have the opportunity to view gross or microscopic specimens of diseased tissue in association with members of the Pathology faculty. Students are assigned readings in pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical texts to prepare for the first class session. The second session focuses on translational aspects of the disease process. Students read and present papers relevant to the molecular basis of the disease and cutting-edge approaches to its therapy. In the third session students meet with patients who have experienced the disease and/or visit and explore facilities associated with diagnosis and treatment of the disease process. Prior to the third session students receive guidance as to what they will observe and how to approach the experience; and at the end of the session, the group discusses its thoughts and impressions. Students are expected to prepare for sessions, to participate actively, and to be scrupulously respectful of patients and patient facilities. R.R. Russell, M.J. Caplan

C&MP 620b/NBIO 610b, Fundamentals in Neurophysiology The course is designed for students who wish to gain a theoretical and practical knowledge of modern neurophysiology. Graduate students specializing in neurophysiology and non-neurophysiology are encouraged to attend, as the course begins at a very basic level and progresses to more complicated topics. Topics include properties of ion channels, firing properties of neurons, synaptic transmission, and neurophysiology methodology. V.A. Pieribone, F.J. Sigworth

C&MP 630a/PATH 680a/PHAR 502a, Seminar in Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology Readings and discussion on a diverse range of current topics in molecular medicine, pharmacology, and physiology. The class emphasizes analysis of primary research literature and development of presentation and writing skills. Contemporary articles are assigned on a related topic every week, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. The overall goal is to cover a specific topic of medical relevance (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) from the perspective of three primary disciplines (i.e., physiology: normal function; pathology: abnormal function; and pharmacology: intervention). S.-E. Jordt, D. Nguyen, S. Tomita

C&MP 650/PATH 660/PHAR 580, Ethics Organized to foster discussion, the course is taught by faculty in the Pharmacology, Pathology, and Physiology departments and two or three senior graduate students. Each session is based on case studies from primary literature, reviews, and two texts: Francis Macrina’s Scientific Integrity and Kathy Barker’s At the Bench. Each week, students are required to submit a reaction paper discussing the reading assignment. Students take turns leading the class discussion; a final short paper on a hot topic in bioethics is required. B.E. Ehrlich, M. Robek, S.K. Singh

C&MP 710b/MB&B 710b4, Electron Cryo-Microscopy for Protein Structure Determination Understanding cellular function requires structural and biochemical studies at an ever-increasing level of complexity. The course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. This rapidly emerging new technique is the only method that allows biological macromolecules to be studied at all levels of resolution from cellular organization to near atomic detail. F.J. Sigworth, C.V. Sindelar

[C&MP 750b/NSCI 614b/PSYC 750b, Research Topics in the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Discussion and analysis of current work on the neurobiological foundations of learning and memory systems in mammals. Informal weekly discussions span several levels of analysis, including molecular and biophysical studies, cellular and systems neurophysiology and neuro-anatomy, and contemporary behavioral neuroscience.]

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Child Study Center

Office: NIHB 208, 203.785.2513

http://medicine.yale.edu/childstudy

Professors H. Blumberg (Psychiatry), J.P. Comer, V. Gallo (Adjunct), E.L. Grigorenko, S.L. Kagan (Adjunct), Z. Kain (Adjunct), A.E. Kazdin (Psychology), R.A. King, A. Klin (Adjunct), J.F. Leckman, J.M. Leventhal (Pediatrics), P.J. Lombroso, S.S. Luthar (Adjunct), R.W. Makuch (Public Health), S. Marans, A.S. Martin, L.C. Mayes, R. Paul (Adjunct), M.N. Potenza (Psychiatry), L. Sadler (Nursing), J.E. Schowalter (Emeritus), S.E. Shaywitz (Pediatrics), W.K. Silverman, R. Sinha (Psychiatry), D.L. Snow (Psychiatry), P. Snyder (Adjunct), S.M. Southwick (Psychiatry), M.W. State (Adjunct), J.K. Tebes (Psychiatry), F. Vaca (Emergency Medicine), F.M. Vaccarino, F.R. Volkmar (Chair), J. Woolston, H. Zhang (Public Health)

Associate Professors S.J. Berkowitz (Adjunct), K. Chawarska, B.W. Forsyth (Pediatrics), W.S. Gilliam, S.M. Horwitz (Public Health), J. Kaufman (Psychiatry), Y. Kim, T.J. McMahon (Psychiatry), E.C. Miguel (Adjunct), K. Pelphrey, M.E. Schwab-Stone, D. Stubbe, N.E. Suchman (Psychiatry), E. Viding (Adjunct), C.C. Weitzman (Pediatrics)

Assistant Professors M.H. Bloch, D. Bridgett (Adjunct), P.R. Britto, A.L. Close, M.J. Crowley, R. Feldman (Adjunct), E.R. Lebowitz, P. Luyten (Adjunct), J.C. McPartland, C. Pittenger (Psychiatry), Y.B. Poncin, Z. Qayyum (Psychiatry), A. Raefski (Adjunct), B. Reichow (Adjunct), M.C. Rosario-Campos (Adjunct), F. Shic, M.V. Smith (Psychiatry), H.E. Stevens, C.S. Stover, D. Sukhodolsky, J.E. Swain (Adjunct), V. Weersing (Adjunct), M. Yazgan (Adjunct)

Instructors C.F. Califano, T.V. Fernandez, R.J. Jou, G.L. Lopez-Cohen, J. Meyer

Senior Research Scientist G.M. Anderson

Research Scientist V.R. Seitz

Associate Research Scientists M. Akbar, A. Amiri, K.M. Balestracci, B. Barbot, M. Bentley, L.L. Booth, F.E. Brown, L. Cardona, G. Coppola, C. Dauser, C. Emmons, A.G. Ercan-Sencicek, M. Finn-Stevenson, M.A. Goyette-Ewing, A.R. Gupta (Pediatrics), H. Hahn, L. Hart, E.J. Hoffman, K. Koenig, P. Kotapurathu kurup, A. Landeros-Weisenberger, T. Liu, S.L. Macari, C. Marin, M.G. Motlagh, S.S. Nicholls, W. Niu, N. Rakhlin, H.J. Rutherford, N. Salmaso, S.S. Stahl, K.D. Tsatsanis, B. Vander Wyk, P. Ventola, E.M. Warnick, J.M. Wolf, J. Wu, J. Xu

Clinical Professors J. Adnopoz, R. Angoff (Pediatrics), T.W. Downey, P. Fonagy, A.S. Kaufman, N. Laor, S.R. Levy (Pediatrics), K.D. Pruett, D. Reiss, E.R. Shapiro

Associate Clinical Professors M.W. Azeem, S. Boltax-Stern, C. Canny (Pediatrics), L. Combrinck-Graham, K. Dahl, J.B. Ferholt, N.M. Haynes, D. Koenigsberg, J.G. Narad, E.A. Perlswig, M. Target, A.P. Thies, P. Van Wattum

Assistant Clinical Professors H.A. Allen, D.M. Aversa, A.J. Avni-Singer (Pediatrics), E. Becker-Dunn (Psychiatry), M. Best, D. Bober, L.A. Bogen, J.F. Chapman, P.B. Chappell, J. Chilton, J.T. Collins, C. Epstein, G.E. Epstein-Wilf, D. Flanagan, J. Fowler, Y. Fradkin, R.P. Franks, M.G. Fromm, G.D. Gammon, S. Gossart-Walker, R.M. Greenbaum, F.X. Gregory, K.E. Hanson, B.T. Harel, A.G. Hess, W. Hill, I.R. Jennings, H.P. Kahn, M.D. Kaplan, B.A. Keyes, P.K. Leebens, J.W. Loomis, D.I. Lowell, A.S. Lustbader, M. Lustick, J.A. Madigan, N.T. Malberg, J.P. Marachi, R.S. McWilliam, J.C. Meyers, E.S. Millman, C. Mills, Z. Mohiuddin, N. Moss, S. Muralee (Psychiatry), S.F. Nagler, F.J. Ninivaggi, B.F. Nordhaus, J.F. Poll, M.D. Powers, D.R. Rau (Psychiatry), E. Rodriguez-Keyes, R. Salah, D.A. Sasso, L.P. Siegel, A.G. Smaller, R. Sotsky, S. Werblood, M. Wudarsky, L.D. Zimmerman

Clinical Instructors D. Abate, J.M. Ambrosino (Pediatrics), J.E. Arias, A. Aujla, M. Berkman, J.D. Cunningham, T.S. Davila, M.B. de-Naclerio, L.N. Dennehy, D.M. Dodge, L.M. Donovan, J. Eisenberg, A.L. Fulvio, J.A. Gallalee, N.M. Gentili, J. Gereda, K. Gereda, L.C. Hayden, P. Hetherington, E.M. Kimball, B. Kleine, K.H. Kowats, E. Kressley, T. Lewis, M. Lyons, K. Malensek, W. Marans, C. Martins, B.L. Mason, M. Moca, A.J. Myers, S. Peck, S.L. Peshori, H.C. Pizzanello, R. Plant, K.H. Pracitto, R.G. Pugliese, J. Radawich, B. Reddy, B.N. Rickler, R.A. Ritvo, C.T. Rowland, C. Schaefer, C. Schnaitmann, C. Schwartz, V.M. Shiller, M.M. Silva, M. St. Pierre, B. Taggart, E.O. Tongul, L. Urquiza, K. Voccola, G. Weiss, V.J. Zecchini

Lecturers K.F. Bailey, L.G. Barbieri, D.L. Bella, M.A. Ben-Avie, K. Carlson, C.J. Cooper, J. Gillette, M. Gunsalus, D.P. Hauser, S. Heidmann, C.M. Horwitz, N.L. Kaufman, C.H. Olson, J.P. Platner, C. Reberkenny-Frisketti, P. Rhodeen, C. Savo, B.B. Sherman, C.B. Sicher, P.K. Thomas

The Child Study Center is a multidisciplinary academic department of the School of Medicine for the study and care of children from birth through adolescence and their families. Child psychiatrists, psychologists, pediatricians, social workers, psychoanalysts, biomedical scientists, nurses, and other professionals collaboratively engage in research and treatment programs on various aspects of children’s growth and development, both normal and deviant. Research programs include child development, psychiatric disorders, social systems and schools, mental retardation, psychosomatic conditions, crisis and trauma, and treatment. Clinical services are provided in general and specialized outpatient clinics, in the Child Psychiatry Inpatient Service in the Children’s Hospital of Yale-New Haven, and in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Consultation-Liaison Service. The center provides courses and other academic opportunities for undergraduates and graduate students in various disciplines concerned with children and families, as well as specialized training in child psychiatry, psychology, social work, and clinical research.

CHLD 122b, Aspects of Child and Adolescent Development in the Practice of Medicine CAD explicitly deals with normal development, and specifically emphasizes social, cognitive, and emotional aspects of this lifelong process. It seeks to heighten the student’s awareness of how different phases of development intersect with the clinical practice of medicine. It covers different schools of thought and approaches to developmental processes, leading to a better understanding of (among others) cognitive, language, motor, social, sexual, and interpersonal milestones, from birth through senescence. Since it can be challenging to understand the importance of these normative processes in a clinical vacuum, the course complements the lectures given in the first hour (11 a.m. to noon) with clinical applications and extensive videotaped examples of that developmental phase in the second (noon to 1 p.m.). This approach provides the main “formula” for the course. First year, spring term, 16 hours. A.S. Martin and faculty

CHLD 222, Childhood Psychopathology Students are offered lectures, workshops, and videotapes of children with major or common psychiatric disorders usually first evident during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, including autism, mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, school phobia, learning disabilities, Tourette’s Syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and adolescent disorders. Second year. R.A. King and faculty

CHLD 302, Child Study Elective in Clinical Research This elective entails etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of adolescent psychopathology, including eating disorders, depression, suicide, psychosis, delinquency, and the impact of physical and mental disabilities on adolescent development. Reading is supplemented with live and taped clinical material. One student every four weeks. Director: A.S. Martin; R.A. King

CHLD 322, Developmental, Psychiatric, and Psychological Assessment of Infants, Children, and Adolescents A series of lectures on developmental assessment (DA), psychological testing (P), and the Mental Status Examination (MSE) of children is offered to all students on the Pediatric Clerkship. Students may have the opportunity to observe such evaluations while on the Pediatric Clerkship. Further opportunities to observe DA and P, and to perform mental status examinations of children, are provided during the Child Psychiatry track of the Psychiatry Clerkship. L.C. Mayes, N.L. Close, M.D. Kaplan, and faculty

CHLD 323, The Child Psychiatry Track of the Psychiatry Core Requirement This track is offered to four students per six-week rotation (three at the Children’s Psychiatric Inpatient Service [CPIS] of Yale-New Haven Hospital, one at the Consultation-Liaison [CL] track of the pediatrics wards at YNHH). The CPIS and CL rotations meet the requirements for the “patient in crisis” and “interface with medicine” requirements of the core psychiatric clerkship of the third year. Both rotations provide extensive opportunities to observe and practice the process used to evaluate, diagnose, and plan the treatment of the child and his or her family. The rotations additionally provide for interview and write-up tutoring experiences, with both child and adult psychiatric patients. The track has three components: (a) a set of core experiences and lectures, (b) a group of optional selective experiences (such as visits to a therapeutic school), and (c) practica and directed readings. The practicum includes interviewing, working up, and writing reports on inpatients under the supervision of a child psychiatry tutor. In addition, each student prepares a written presentation related to an area of interest in child psychiatry. A.S Martin, D. Stubbe, Y.B. Poncin, L. Cardona, and faculty

CHLD 325/Psychiatry 325, Child Study Psychiatry Elective, Yale Child Study Center The aim of this elective is to provide the student with an intensive experience in infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry. The curriculum includes assessments of normal development and psychopathology in childhood, treatment methods, and research in major disorders of childhood. Students are active team members of the Children’s Psychiatric Inpatient Service and the consultation service to the pediatric wards of Yale-New Haven Hospital and can take advantage of the wide range of ongoing seminars, conferences, and clinical services in place at the Child Study Center. Teaching methods include seminars, conferences, field observations, ward rounds, and practicals selected by the student following consultation with the director of medical studies and the Child Study Center. One student every four weeks. Director: A.S. Martin

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Comparative Medicine

Office: 310 Cedar Street, BML 330, 203.785.2525

http://medicine.yale.edu/compmed

Professors M.A. Cowley (Adjunct), S. Diano (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), L.M. Garcia-Segura (Adjunct), M. Hajos (Adjunct), T.L. Horvath (Chair), R.O. Jacoby (Emeritus), J.D. Macy, M.W. Sleeman (Adjunct), I. Torres Aleman (Adjunct), M. Tschoep (Adjunct), C.J. Zeiss

Associate Professors A.M. Bennett (Pharmacology), J.L. Brandsma (Adjunct), X. Gao, A.K. Sfakianaki (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), P.C. Smith

Assistant Professors C.J. Booth, J.A. Goodrich, M.S. Lawrence (Adjunct), I. Levy, M.S. Rodeheffer, J.A. Scholz, S.R. Wilson, X. Yang

Research Scientists S.R. Compton, J.M. McGrath, T.P. Nottoli, G. Yao

Associate Research Scientists M. Cano-Vinas, M.d. Dietrich, M. Koch, Z. Liu

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Dermatology

Office: LCI 501, 203.785.4092

http://medicine.yale.edu/dermatology

Professors R.J. Antaya, J.L. Bolognia, D.E. Brash (Therapeutic Radiology), I.M. Braverman (Emeritus), L. Chen (Immunobiology), P. Cresswell (Immunobiology), R.L. Edelson (Chair), F.M. Foss (Medicine), M. Girardi, E.J. Glusac (Pathology), P.W. Heald (Emeritus), D.J. Leffell, J.M. McNiff, L.M. Milstone (Emeritus), J.S. Pober (Immunobiology), R.E. Tigelaar, L.D. Wilson (Therapeutic Radiology)

Associate Professors M.W. Bosenberg, S.E. Cowper, C.J. Ko, R. Lazova, A. Subtil

Assistant Professors K.A. Choate, J. Choi, J.N. Choi, O.R. Colegio, A. Galan, V. Greco (Genetics), A.M. Hanlon, S. Imaeda, B.A. King, M.M. Tomayko

Instructors S.R. Christensen, R.Q. Klein, B. Srivastava

Senior Research Scientists I.M. Braverman, R. Halaban, L.M. Milstone

Associate Research Scientists D.J. Hanlon, V. Muthusamy

Clinical Professors I. Dvoretzky, M.T. Johnson, R.C. Savin, K.L. Watsky

Associate Clinical Professors S.H. Bender, A. Bronin, F.M. Castiglione, I.S. Cohen, D.M. Davidson, L.M. Donofrio, J.S. Dover, J.W. Edelglass, R.S. Kahan, T.P. Kugelman, R.C. Langdon, P.I. Schneiderman, P.E. Shapiro, L.A. Sibrack, A. Zalka

Assistant Clinical Professors M.R. Alexiades-Armenakas, J.N. Alter, A.V. Atton, S.H. Barrett, P.M. Bevilacqua, D.L. Bilinski, S.E. Book, C.B. Carroll, T. Chartier, C. Chess, D. Correale, L.A. Daman, K.M. Diette, S.B. Dietz, D.L. Feinberg, M.A. Gohara, B. Goldberg, M.J. Goldstein, D.R. Greene, W.S. Jacoby, M. Kaminer, J.D. Knispel, S.A. Kolenik, L.C. Kugelman, J.C. Lehrman, S.P. Lerner, A.B. Lewis, L.E. Luck, E.A. Markstein, E.R. Marsh, D.R. Miller, E. Mirrer, J. Moss, E. Naidorf, M.P. Noonan, W.A. Notaro, R.G. Oshman, B.J. Richter, J.G. Sansing, N.K. Sherline, N.R. Silverman, J.R. Zirn, B. Zubkov

Clinical Instructors S. Chavel, M.P. Coolidge, T. Futoryan, J.M. Grant-Kels, M.I. Oestreicher, D. Robinson, S.B. Sloan, E. Smith

Lecturer L.K. Friedlaender

DERM 120, Dermatology Elective The goal of this course is to ground students in the fundamentals of dermatologic physical examination, diagnosis, and treatment. Students are expected to acquire the skills needed by a primary care physician or surgeon to evaluate dermatological problems independently. Through outpatient experiences at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, the Adult and Pediatric Yale Primary Care Clinics, and possibly the Yale Health Center, students are exposed to a variety of primary and referral dermatology services that treat inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases. Students are also exposed to dermatologic surgery and dermatopathology. Students participate in departmental Grand Rounds and educational conferences, and read and review assigned materials in preparation for a series of case discussions led by faculty. A formal presentation on a topic of the student’s choice is required in the final week. One student every four weeks. Director: S. Imaeda

DERM 302, Dermatology Consult Elective Working as integral members of the dermatology consult team, comprised of a dermatology resident and attending physician, students are exposed to dermatologic disease requiring inpatient admission, systemic disease with cutaneous manifestations, and skin complications among hospitalized patients. Students learn about initial evaluation, workup, and differential diagnosis building; the role of biopsy and histologic evaluation; and treatment plan design. Under resident supervision, students evaluate a new consult patient each day and follow this patient for the course of his or her stay. Students are expected to read intensively on relevant disease processes and formally present the patient to the attending on rounds. Additionally, students research disease and management-related questions that arise on the service and present a summary of findings to the attending and resident. Students participate in departmental Grand Rounds and educational conferences and in resident rounds of the inpatient service. Each student identifies a patient with a chronic dermatologic condition, conducts an in-depth interview to learn about how the disease and its treatment have affected the patient’s life, and how life considerations have affected disease management, and writes a 3–5-page summary. At the end of the rotation, the student presents a formal case presentation and literature review at Grand Rounds. One student every four weeks. Prerequisite: DERM 120. Directors: M.M. Tomayko, S. Imaeda

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Diagnostic Radiology

Office: TE-2, 203.785.6938

http://medicine.yale.edu/diagnosticradiology

Professors J.J. Abrahams, H. Blumberg (Psychiatry), R.A. Bronen, M.I. Burrell, R.E. Carson, R.T. Constable, E.A. Cornelius (Emeritus), A.M. Curtis, J.S. Duncan, H.P. Forman, M.G. Glickman (Emeritus), R.J. Gusberg (Surgery), D. Hyder, G.M. Israel, L.D. Katz, E. Kier, J.P. Lawson (Emeritus), G.F. Mason, S.M. McCarthy, B.L. McClennan (Emeritus), L.E. Philpotts, J. Pollak, I. Prohovnik (Adjunct), A.T. Rosenfield (Emeritus), D.L. Rothman, R.R. Salem (Surgery), L.M. Scoutt, C. Shaw (Emeritus), A.J. Sinusas (Medicine), B. Sumpio (Surgery), J.H. Sunshine (Adjunct), G. Sze, H.D. Tagare, I. Tocino, F.J. Wackers (Emeritus), J.C. Weinreb, R.I. White (Emeritus), B.L. Zaret (Medicine)

Associate Professors J.E. Aruny, S. Bokhari, D.W. Cheng, D. Cornfeld, R. de Graaf, R.K. Fulbright, T.R. Goodman, A.H. Haims, Y.H. Huang, K.M. Johnson, M.H. Johnson, C.R. Miller, H.R. Mojibian, E.D. Morris, X. Papademetris, D. Pelletier (Neurology), E. Reiner, A.N. Rubinowitz, R.R. Russell (Medicine), L.H. Staib, C.R. Taylor, S.W. Woods (Psychiatry)

Assistant Professors L. Andrejeva, M.H. Arici, R.R. Ayyagari, K.E. Baker, R. Butler, P.A. Cedeno, M. Chen, M.A. Choma, K.P. Cosgrove (Psychiatry), M. Djekidel, I. Doddamane, M.A. Durand, L. Ehrlich, I. Esterlis (Psychiatry), A.R. Gafton, G. Galiana, J. Geisel, G. Gunabushanam, M. Hampson, R.J. Hooley, L.J. Horvath, C. Juchem, R.H. Kent, J.D. Kirsch, A.W. Lischuk, C. Liu, A. Mahajan, A. Malhotra, C.C. Matouk (Neurosurgery), R.D. Messina, F.J. Minja, J. Morgan, J.A. Obando, J.K. Pahade, D.C. Peters, C. Poon (Adjunct), M. Raghu, M.V. Revzin, C.J. Silva, P. Varma

Instructors I. Latich, J.C. Perez Lozada, W.A. Williams

Senior Research Scientists R.G. Shulman (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), R.I. White

Research Scientists D.E. Befroy, F. D’Errico

Associate Research Scientists S.V. Chelikani, D. Coman, H. De Feyter, J. Gallezot, B.S. Ganganna, P. Herman, L. Jiang, D.C. Labaree, K. Lim, S. Lin, N. Nabulsi, M. Naganawa, M. Negishi, V. Neklesa, E. Park, M. Qiu, J.R. Ropchan, X. Shen, M. Zheng

Clinical Professors D.B. Nunez, M.S. Shin, J.D. Slavin

Associate Clinical Professors G.R. Berg, L.W. Hammers, E.A. Hyson, T.R. McCauley, J.P. Seibyl

Assistant Clinical Professors W.E. Allen, R.D. Becker, S.B. Berger, J.K. Crowe, A.R. Daftary, P.A. Dinauer, W.N. Friedman, J. Gagliardi, H.W. Gahbauer, R. Gonzalez, B.D. Griffith, A.I. Jonisch, A. Kalyanpur, J. Kim, R.A. Knobelman, C.T. Kubiak, H. Moukaddam, A.R. Niakosari, G.S. Novick, I. Onyiuke, J.R. Pannese, A. Pathak, Z. Protopapas, R. Sadar, B.D. Simonds, S.J. Sullivan, R.R. Tash, N.W. Tishkoff, J. Wruble, W.B. Zucconi

Clinical Instructor M. Spektor

Lecturers J. Arora, J. Bhawnani, G.J. Conlogue, F. Tokoglu

DIAG 121, Diagnostic Radiology Elective Students are introduced to the basic principles of various types of radiologic interpretation and rotate daily through different sections in the department of diagnostic imaging, including gastrointestinal, genitourinary, chest, musculoskeletal, pediatrics, neuroradiology, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine, ultrasound, interventional, and emergency radiology. In addition to participating in the daily film interpretation with residents and staff, students receive an introduction to the role of each section in the diagnosis and management of disease. Interactive teaching presentations are available on the departmental Web site. Self-teaching materials are available in the radiology library. Students attend the department resident teaching conferences twice daily as well as specific student seminars. No on-call responsibilities. Maximum of six students every four weeks. Director: A.H. Haims

DIAG 134, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Clinical Elective This elective is an introduction to vascular and interventional radiology: the use of radiological imaging to guide procedures in various organ systems of the body and the evaluation and management of patients who are candidates for these. In the vascular system, this includes arterial and venous angiography, angioplasty, stenting, embolization for bleeding, tumors (such as uterine fibroids), vascular malformations, venous reflux management, inferior vena cava filter placement, hemodialysis access management, and placement of a variety of venous access devices. Nonvascular experience includes percutaneous approaches to biliary and urinary track pathology, drainage of abscesses and other fluid collections, and tumor ablation. Students participate in the interventional radiology clinic and admitting service. One student every two weeks. Director: M.H. Arici; J. Pollak, J.E. Aruny

DIAG 135, Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging Clinical Elective This elective serves as an introduction to the clinical management of infants, children, and adolescents through the use of integrated diagnostic imaging. Students participate through a review of imaging studies with residents and attending physicians; observation of fluoroscopic, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT) procedures; and attendance at daily clinical conferences. Students are encouraged to present interesting cases or to participate in research projects during the elective. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: T.R. Goodman

DIAG 137, Neuroradiology Clinical Elective This rotation is designed as an introduction to neuroradiology. The student becomes an integral part of the neuroradiology team, which consists of the resident, fellow, and attending physician. A number of teaching conferences are offered. The student is exposed to the various subsections of neuroradiology including neuro CT, neuro MR, and neuro special procedures. One or two students every four weeks. Director: J.J. Abrahams

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Section of Education

Office of Education: ESH 305, 203.737.4190

Office of Student Research: ESH 308, 203.785.6633

http://medicine.yale.edu/education/curriculum

Sect Ed 101, Intensive Pedagogical Experience in Laboratory Research Techniques Intensive one-week summer course in biomedical research protocols and techniques is open to first-year medical students at Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. Four biomedical research topics are the focus of each course: (1) physiological studies of chloride transport in an intact epithelial organ from Squalus acanthias; (2) ion channel gene expression in a heterologous expression system (Xenopus oocytes); (3) studies in isolated tubule preparations, including immunocytochemistry of phosphorylated vs. non-phosphorylated co-transporters, tissue processing, confocal microscopy, Western blots, and antibody design; (4) molecular biology of membrane proteins and transporters in shark salt gland, including methods in RNA, cDNA, PCR, cloning, and sequencing. J.N. Forrest, B. Forbush, P. Aaronson, R. Frizzell, and staff

Sect Ed 102, Organization and Leadership This course is an introduction to topics in the field of organizational behavior. It is designed to offer participants an opportunity to explore a variety of concepts that relate to the effective and humane management of organizations. Though medicine was once a profession made up primarily of individual practitioners, it is increasingly true that medical professionals, both researchers and clinicians, are now involved in collective endeavors that require coordinated efforts to produce meaningful results. This is the domain of organizational behavior and the subject matter of this course. D.N. Berg

Sect Ed 103, Applied Principles of Clinical Research (First-Year Seminars)—Office of Student Research The purpose of this intensive two-week course is to provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented research. Topics include research designs, how to ask a research question, data collection, how to write a protocol, bias in studies, qualitative methods, etc. Emphasis is placed on applying concepts to students’ actual research projects. Sessions are workshops that combine didactics and use students’ projects to illuminate concepts. Students must have declared interest in conducting patient-oriented research by May of the first year. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks in summer to be announced. Staff

Sect Ed 104, Applied Principles of Clinical Research (Fifth-Year Seminars)—Office of Student Research The purpose of this intensive two-week course is to provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented designs, how to ask a research question, data collection, how to write a protocol, bias in studies, qualitative methods, etc. Emphasis is placed on applying concepts to students’ actual research projects. Sessions are workshops that combine didactics and use students’ projects to illuminate concepts. Students must be funded for one year of research. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks in summer to be announced. Staff

Sect Ed 105, Pre-Clinical Clerkship This course, extending throughout the first two years, is intended to teach medical students skills in communication, medical history taking, and physical examination, as well as end-of-life care. The format of the course involves several large group sessions for the purpose of demonstrating or modeling interview techniques and many small group sessions in which students get a chance to observe and practice specific skills. An integral part of the Pre-Clinical Clerkship is the tutorial program in which groups of four students meet with their tutor(s) weekly over a two-year period to practice their newly learned skills on patients in the hospital or clinic.

In the first year, students learn the basics of interviewing patients in formal sessions and the clinical tutorials. Emphasis is placed on a patient-centered approach utilizing standardized patients. Students also learn how to perform a complete physical examination in structured, supervised sessions in which they examine one another. Other activities include practicing their observation skills in an art museum, understanding the skills needed in the care of children, and understanding how to assess geriatric patients, as well as end-of-life care.

During their second year, students learn more sophisticated skills in obtaining a medical history, the components of a proper patient write-up, and the elements of oral patient presentations. Standardized patients are used again for teaching interviewing skills, but also for breast, pelvic, scrotal, and rectal examinations. At the beginning of their second term, students are evaluated on their ability to perform a complete history and physical examination at the Clinical Skills Assessment Program at UConn utilizing their standardized patients.

Students pass the Pre-Clinical Clerkship by attending all the skill-building sessions; demonstrating the ability to perform a complete history and physical exam from memory (at UConn); and having acquired the skills needed on the wards according to their tutor(s). Limited to medical students. M.J. Bia

Sect Ed 106, Mechanisms of Disease Course: Organs/Systems The purpose of this course is to bridge the preclinical and clinical years and to teach students to use preclinical data in a clinical context. It introduces the pathologic variation of the normal physiologic mechanisms that the students have already learned. This required course is offered in a continuum from September through March for second-year medical students. It consists of thirteen integrated discrete organ-system-based modules that present disease processes from various disciplinary perspectives. The components include pathology, laboratory medicine, diagnostic radiology, preventive medicine, geriatrics, pharmacology, clinical medicine, pediatrics, surgery, and potentially others as indicated by the subject matter.

For each module, representatives from each discipline meet and create a course that presents a comprehensive overview of the organ/system, progressing and building information in a way that allows students to form a basis on which to add knowledge throughout their careers.

Material is taught in a variety of formats including lectures, small group workshops that discuss patient cases, and laboratories. The modules are Hematology; Cardiovascular System; Clinical Neuroscience; Clinical Psychiatry; Endocrine Systems; Reproductive Medicine; Digestive Diseases; Musculo-Skeletal System; Renal/Urology Systems; Respiratory; Ophthalmology; Oncology; and Dermatology. Each module has a module director who is the faculty coordinator. These modules provide excellent preparation for clinical work on the wards as well as preparation for the second-year USMLE Board Exam, the questions of which use a clinical paradigm. Course is limited to second-year medical students. Director: M.P. DiGiovanna

Sect Ed 107b, Professional Responsibility Through a series of lectures and small group case discussions, this course examines physicians’ responsibilities to their patients, their colleagues, their communities, and to society at large. The course examines the nature of the physician-patient relationship and its ethical underpinnings, as well as the legal, social, and economic contexts in which it operates. It focuses on the physician’s obligations in several areas, including care for the underserved and vulnerable, respect for patients’ privacy and confidentiality, obtaining informed consent for treatment, respecting the right to refuse treatment, respecting reproductive choices, and dealing with issues at the end of life. Finally, the course examines the structure, flaws, and strengths of the U.S. health care system, and the personal and social consequences of recent changes in the way health care is organized and financed in this country. J.S. Hughes

Sect Ed 108b, Integrative Clinical Medicine This three-week course is required of fourth-year students in the spring term immediately prior to the internship match. Conceived more than ten years ago as a capstone to four years of medical school training, the ICM course provides a review of some of the knowledge and skills needed for internship and beyond, a forum for a comprehensive and critical evaluation of clinical cases, a chance to review some of the historical and economic factors that inform the practice of medicine, and an opportunity to reflect on the social, ethical, psychological, and even spiritual challenges of a life in medicine. Throughout the three weeks the emphasis is on the interplay among biological, social, and psychological factors that determine the health and illness of our patients and ourselves. Much of the course takes place in small groups of ten to twelve students under the guidance of an experienced clinician facilitator. Several of the small group sessions deal with the management of a clinical case with a view toward preparation for internship, but also including the social context of the case and the impact of economic, family, and societal factors as determinants of illness. In addition there are a number of clinical review sessions, including an ICU “crash course,” several lectures on emergency medicine, a review of empiric antibiotic choices, instruction on how to sign out to colleagues, sessions on how to discuss DNR orders with patients, how to provide adequate pain relief for palliative care, and an intern panel discussion of what life is really like on and off the wards. The course includes a number of optional sessions on “nonbiological” topics throughout the course, including lectures on topics in the history of medicine, how to avoid “burnout,” sessions on leadership and team functioning on the wards, the role of spirituality in medicine, updates on the political economy of the health care system, and the microeconomics of real-world medical practice. Also included are sessions on mistakes in medicine, dealing with difficult patients, end-of-life care, doctor-patient communication, and issues in professionalism and medical ethics. The course concludes with a session on “What you need to know about internship that nobody else will tell you” and finishes just before noon on Match Day. Director: J.S. Hughes

Sect Ed 109, Student Research, Study Design, and Thesis Information–Office of Student Research This course has two overarching goals. The first is to instill in students an understanding of the value of the Yale student research program and thesis and to provide a primer for success in the thesis. Emphasis is placed on how to choose an excellent thesis project and mentor in laboratory or clinical research, as well as in the areas of epidemiology and public health, international medicine, or medicine and the humanities. Students are instructed on the importance of the research environment, the selection of the best possible up-to-date methods, the importance of issues related to human investigation, and the requirements for HIC approval of protocols for medical student research. The second area of emphasis is to provide students with the basics in designing laboratory and clinical studies, including the use of power calculations, proper control groups, practical biostatistical measurements and their applications for research, and methods for efficient searching of the literature and online databases. Limited to medical students. J.N. Forrest, faculty, and staff

Sect Ed 110, The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine (YJBM) The course provides an educational opportunity for students in medicine, public health, nursing, and the biological sciences to gain experience in all aspects of academic publishing. The Journal publishes online four times a year through PubMed Central and receives manuscripts on a wide variety of topics in basic and clinical sciences from authors around the world. Alongside participating faculty members, students review and select articles for publication and have the opportunity to review books and write articles showcasing their research or sharing clinical experiences from Yale and abroad. Student editors are chosen each year from the School of Medicine and the Combined Program in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. The editorial staff meets monthly. J.R. Bender, faculty adviser

Sect Ed 158, Primary Care Clerkship The Primary Care Clerkship provides students with an opportunity to acquire knowledge and develop clinical and interpersonal skills applicable to outpatient primary care practice. Students are assigned to a community-based office or clinic where they care for patients under supervision by a family practitioner, internist, or pediatrician on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays for one month. On Tuesdays and Thursdays students attend a case-based Workshop Program based on common disorders and core skills relevant to primary care practice. Director: P. Ellis; with a faculty made up of physician educators who share a commitment to practice-based teaching

Sect Ed 158-1, Primary Care Wednesday Evening Clinic This one-year weekly out­patient clerkship in the Primary Care Center provides experience in the longitudinal care of adults. Students are directly responsible for care of medical problems and preventive care as well as coordination of specialty care for their own patient panel. There are weekly pre-clinic conferences which include Journal Club and primary care case-centered topics presented by students or specialty attendings. Students also become acquainted with the administration of outpatient clinic medicine. The clinic is held every Wednesday evening, 5–9 p.m., except the day before Thanksgiving and between Christmas and New Year’s. It is open to a limited number of fourth-year students and fulfills the primary care requirement provided that students also complete the Primary Care Clerkship Workshop Program. Students must have completed Hospital Medicine I and II of the Core Medicine Clerkship and Ambulatory Medicine as well as two other third-year Clerkships, preferably Psychiatry and Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences. Director: K.P. White; staffed by rotating attending physicians

Sect Ed 159, Human Anatomy and Development This course, designed specifically for first-year medical students, provides an opportunity to dissect or observe all structures of the human body. Lectures, conferences, models, radiology, and Web-based curriculum materials are included. Four students are assigned to each cadaver; students work collaboratively; interpersonal and group process skills are stressed. L.J. Rizzolo and staff

Sect Ed 160a/b, Special Dissections in Anatomy A laboratory designed to meet the needs of individual students. Any part of the cadaver may be dissected. Alternatively, students may develop anatomical and teaching skills by helping teach Sect Ed 159. Each student is assigned an anatomist and/or clinical specialist to act as consultant(s). Prerequisite: Sect Ed 159. Staff

Sect Ed 501b, Responsible Conduct of Research The Office of Student Research and the M.D./Ph.D. Program have developed a compact ethics course that satisfies the NIH requirements for students supported on training grants, i.e., first- and fifth-year medical students, and M.D./Ph.D. students. Attendance is mandatory by those students. Topics covered include peer review; responsible authorship and publications; policies regarding human subjects; live vertebrate animal subjects in research and safe laboratory practice; collaborative research including collaborations with industry; data acquisition and laboratory tools, management, sharing, and ownership; conflict of interest; mentor-mentee responsibilities and relationships; research misconduct and policies for handling misconduct; the scientist as a responsible member of society, contemporary ethical issues in biomedical research, and the environmental and social impacts of scientific research. Lectures with group discussion and case studies. Six 1.5-hour sessions. S. Alfano, M.J. Caplan, L. Cohen, F. Gorelick, R.J. Levine, D. Lewin, J.D. Macy, M. Picciotto, D.G. Schatz, S.S. Spangler, M. Waxman

Sect Ed 503, Seminars in Pediatrics: Bedside to Bench The purpose of these seminars is to begin to understand how interesting questions derived from patients can help us learn more about biologic and pathologic processes. We specifically engage the group in discussions related to diseases or medical problems that affect infants and children. Students select a topic and faculty preceptor, see a patient with that preceptor, lead a seminar, present the patient briefly to the group, and, most importantly, develop some questions that arise in the course of learning about the patients. C.W. Bogue, M. Brueckner, M.K. Khokha, J.D. Jamieson

Sect Ed 505, Family Medicine Elective, Oneonta, New York This is a unique opportunity to experience the full spectrum of family practice in a small-town environment. In this elective students (1) learn how to approach the practice of family medicine in a small town with limited access to specialists and how to use available resources to provide high-quality care, (2) learn about care coordination with larger health care systems in this practice setting, (3) learn about the practice of medicine in a small community and how physicians are integrated into that community, and (4) develop a family systems-based approach to providing care. The preceptor is a Yale graduate who provides primary care for a diverse population in both the hospital and clinic setting. One student every two or four weeks. Director: P. Rabinowitz

Sect Ed 510, Medical Education Elective The word “doctor” is derived from the Latin docere, which means “to teach.” Indeed, the role of physicians as care providers is deeply intertwined with their role as teachers—of patients, of students, and of peers. The goal of this rotation is to introduce medical students to their role as teachers and better prepare them for this role before they begin residency. It makes use of didactic lectures, observations, group exercises, and teaching activities to facilitate the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to help students develop their experience and identity as teachers as they transition from medical school into residency. The objectives are (1) to develop specific skills that will allow students to teach more effectively in the various clinical and classroom scenarios (work rounds, grand rounds, physical diagnosis rounds, operating room, morning report, noon conference) that they will experience during residency; (2) to observe and learn from role models in the field of medical education and describe the characteristics of effective teachers; (3) to describe the current state of medical education, with a focus on educational theory and evidence derived from the medical education literation; (4) to explore how students can integrate their roles as clinician and educator regardless of career goals; and (5) to develop the attitudes that place a strong emphasis on the value of medical education. Assessment is built into the elective through self-reflection and verbal and written feedback from peers and faculty. These include homework assignments or feedback in group exercises and teaching activities. Students are also asked to self-assess their previous knowledge of and exposure to each of the topics described in the course. All students complete a set of objective structured teaching encounters (OSTEs) at the end of the course, directly observed by faculty facilitators. Maximum of twelve students for two weeks. Directors: J. Hafler, G. Connors

Sect Ed 600, Family Medicine Elective, Middlesex Hospital This elective exposes students to the wide variety of clinical situations encountered in a national model, community-based family medicine residency program. In offices in Middletown, Portland, and East Hampton, students see and examine patients, present their findings and differential diagnosis, develop a plan of investigation and management with their supervisor, and explain the plan to their patients. Students manage and document care using electronic health records. In Middlesex Hospital, students are members of the team on the family medicine inpatient service, which provides medical, pediatric, newborn, maternity, and consultative care. Formal teaching activities include both didactic and interactive sessions, daily bedside teaching rounds, several weekly conference series, and weekly three-hour hands-on seminars. All three offices are equipped with facilities for minor surgery, casting, colposcopy, spirometry, audiometry, complete vision screening, electrocardiograms, various cultures, and rapid, enzyme-based diagnostic tests. Patients are from all walks of life and all ages and seek medical care for a wide variety of acute and chronic conditions. The emphasis is on continuity in ambulatory, nursing home, and hospital care. One student every four weeks. Director: S.E. Rosener

Sect Ed 601, Subinternship in Family Medicine, Middlesex Hospital This advanced elective provides an opportunity for motivated students to challenge themselves with an in-depth experience in inpatient family medicine. The goal is to help prepare future family physicians to provide high-quality inpatient management of common problems, including procedures and medical emergencies. Students function at the intern level as a member of the teaching service team, which consists of two upper-year residents and two other interns. Responsibilities include performing admission histories and physicals, making daily work rounds and progress notes, entering orders electronically, dictating discharge summaries, and responding to hospital emergencies. Students are on call two weekend days during the rotation. Students also participate in multiple daily teaching opportunities—including morning report, hospitalist teaching rounds, and subspecialty conferences—and attend the weekly half-day Family Medicine Seminar. Open to fourth-year students only. Prerequisites: completion of Inpatient Medicine and Inpatient Pediatrics. One student every four weeks. Director: S.E. Rosener

Sect Ed 610, Palliative/Hospice Medicine Elective, Branford, Connecticut This fifty-two-bed inpatient program at the nation’s first hospice provides intensive palliative care for patients with terminal illness. The medical, psychological, and spiritual needs of these patients and their families are met through the coordinated efforts of an interdisciplinary team (IDT) of physicians, nurses, social workers, pharmacists, clergy, art therapists, and volunteers. Students work one-one-one with an attending physician caring for patients approaching the end of life and their families. They participate fully in admissions, morning rounds, family conferences, and IDT conferences. This elective offers students an opportunity to acquire advanced knowledge and skills in the management of symptoms (pain, anxiety, insomnia, etc.), which will benefit them in their future care of all patients, both those approaching the end of life as well as those who are acutely or chronically ill. It is the only elective in which symptom management receives a major focus. The goal of this elective is to learn to provide optimal symptom management and, as members of the IDT, to learn to care for patients approaching the end of life and to give support to their families. A four-week rotation, which allows for optimal time spent with allied services and/or home care, is recommended, although a two-week rotation is available. One or two students every two or four weeks. Codirectors: J. Andrews, W.S. Long

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Emergency Medicine

Office: 464 Congress Avenue, Suite 360, 203.785.4404

http://medicine.yale.edu/emergencymed

Associate Professors S.L. Bernstein, M.S. Bogucki, J.D. Dziura, A.L. Hsiao (Pediatrics), L. Jagminas, L. Marenco, C. Moore, L.A. Post, M. Shapiro

Assistant Professors K.L. Dodge, L.V. Evans, A.R. French, K.J. Jubanyik, B.M. Kirrane, S. Kotlyar, E.G. Marcolini, E.P. Monico, H.C. Moscovitz, M. Murphy, B. Safdar, J.E. Sather, I. Schwartz, A.F. Tarabar, A. Tomassoni, C.R. Wira

Instructors C.L. Barsky, R. Carter, S. Gadiraju, K. Goldflam, R. Jermyn, C.H. Lee, R. Liu, M.W. Mossey, M.A. Passo, B. Rice, R.A. Taylor

Research Scientist M.V. Pantalon

Associate Research Scientist F. Abujarad

Associate Clinical Professors J. Maisel, M.J. Werdmann

Assistant Clinical Professor C. Rambus

Clinical Instructors P. Agrawal, A. Aydin, S. Battistich, J.W. Bonz, S.A. Chekijian, A. Coppola, E. Melnick, S. Thomas, A. Tsyrulnik

Lecturers R.D. Austin, K. Baker, M.L. Blundon, C. Bogan, J. Borsotti, K.J. Burns, R.E. Chen, T.E. Cohen, M. Czako, C. Dill, G.M. Faherty, D. Garland, A.L. Glick, K. Haskins, A. Hirschman, J. Kagan, E.W. Kelleher, T. Kimberly, K. Koncewicz, J. Lockel, L. Long, D.S. MacMillan, A. Meiman, T.A. Morris, M.C. Persinger, H. Puciata, M.T. Strong, D.E. Tichy, A. Uhuad, C.D. Walker, M. Wegman, H.B. White

EMER 103, Clerkship in Emergency Medicine A mandatory two-week rotation taken during the third year, with the emphasis on learning to care for patients who present to the emergency department with potentially life-threatening chief complaints. Students work shifts in the critical care area, where principles of stabilization and resuscitation are taught under close supervision of an attending Emergency Medicine physician and senior resident. Students are given the opportunity to perform a number of procedures as well, including bedside ultrasound, peripheral line placement, arterial blood gas sampling, and lumbar puncture. Goals of the rotation are to teach students to utilize a range of communication and interpersonal skills to elicit a focused biomedical and psychosocial history, to become competent in the full range of commonly used examination techniques essential to the practice of Emergency Medicine, and to formulate reasonable hypotheses and implement management strategies consistent with the acuity of the illness as well as patient’s preferences. Didactic teaching from Emergency Medicine faculty is done in small groups and includes interactive case conferences, workshops on palliative care and injury prevention, and one-on-one computerized microsimulation sessions with faculty to strengthen Advanced Cardiac Life Support skills. K.J. Jubanyik

EMER 105, Subinternship in Emergency Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital Students participating in this four-week elective are immersed in the acute care setting, working under direct faculty supervision in the Yale-New Haven Hospital emergency department. Students work approximately thirty-six clinical hours per week and participate in both the weekly didactic sessions as well as specialized student case conferences and procedure workshops. Interested students can also do some ultrasound scanning shifts and/or attend ultrasound tape review sessions. Students also have the option to do the elective in a longitudinal fashion, completing at least sixteen shifts over a six-month period. This is an ideal opportunity for students in the lab or completing a combined degree program to maintain clinical skills while away from the wards. Prerequisites: Internal Medicine and General Surgery Clerkships. Maximum of eight students every four weeks. Director: K.J. Jubanyik

EMER 107, Integrative Clinical Medicine ICM is a month-long course offered for graduating students. The emphasis is on preparing the student for internship, and the course offers a practical approach to common complaints. Chief complaints such as chest pain and shortness of breath as well as dysrhythmias are discussed. Presentations, differentials, and efficient, evidence-based work-ups and emergent/urgent treatment are outlined. K.J. Jubanyik

EMER 109, Physician Associate Emergency Medicine Rotation A four-week introduction to emergency medicine, with emphasis on teaching the importance of creating an appropriate differential diagnosis in patients who present to the ED with routine as well as potentially life-threatening chief complaints. The students work shifts in the main ED as well as in Urgent Care, where they learn the skills necessary to assess and treat patients with undifferentiated complaints and are given the opportunity to perform a number of procedures. Emphasis is on teaching the students to take a history, perform a physical examination, formulate differentials, and implement treatment in the acute, fast-paced setting of the emergency department. Students attend morning report as well as the Emergency Medicine resident didactics for five hours each week. J.E. Sather

EMER 112, Emergency Point-of-Care Ultrasound Elective A two- or four-week experience that introduces the student to the use of diagnostic and procedural ultrasound at the bedside. Educational ultrasounds are performed by the student on emergency department patients using ultrasound equipment in the ED. Attention is paid to image acquisition, machine optimization, and image interpretation. Diagnostic pelvic, vascular, cardiac, pulmonary, biliary, trauma, and soft-tissue sonography are introduced. In addition, there are opportunities for the student to participate in supervised ultrasound-guided procedures (central and peripheral vascular access, abscess drainage, paracentesis). The bulk of time is spent performing ultrasounds in the emergency department, with one half-day a week spent reviewing recorded examinations. Educational materials are provided. While the focus of this rotation is the sonographic evaluation of the emergency patient, students considering almost any specialty may benefit as clinician-performed ultrasound continues to expand. May be taken as a four-week half-time elective. One student every two or four weeks. R. Liu

EMER 115, Medical Simulation Course The medical student clinical simulation course is a mandatory twelve-week course taken during the third year. Each week, students have the opportunity to manage acute emergency medicine and surgical scenarios using a high-fidelity mannequin simulator, the Laerdal SimMan 3-G. Sample scenarios include acute myocardial infarction, septic shock, and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A group of four students cares for the patient from the arrival in the emergency department to final patient disposition. Students take a history and physical, administer medications, perform procedural interventions to stabilize the patient, consult specialists, discuss plans with the patient, and inform family members of the patient’s status. Procedures include endotracheal intubation, chest tube thoracostomies, and nasogastric tube and urinary catheter insertion. Medical students manage twenty-four scenarios over the twelve-week course, with debriefing sessions led by faculty experts and debriefers from the Departments of Emergency Medicine and Surgery. Team communication, professionalism, and leadership skills are emphasized. The simulation course exposes students to acute emergencies and management strategies not available to them at their level of training on the clinical wards. L.V. Evans

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Genetics

Office: SHM I308, 203.785.2649

http://medicine.yale.edu/genetics

Professors A.E. Bale, S.J. Baserga (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), W.R. Breg (Emeritus), J.H. Cho (Medicine), L. Cooley, D.C. DiMaio, B.G. Forget (Medicine), P.G. Gallagher (Pediatrics), J.E. Gelernter (Psychiatry), P.M. Glazer (Therapeutic Radiology), J.R. Gruen (Pediatrics), M. Gunel (Neurosurgery), A.L. Horwich, K.K. Kidd, R.P. Lifton (Chair), H. Lin (Cell Biology), M.J. Mahoney, C.M. Radding (Emeritus), M.R. Seashore, G.S. Shadel (Pathology), C.W. Slayman, S. Somlo (Medicine), J.B. Sweasy (Therapeutic Radiology), P.J. Tattersall (Laboratory Medicine), S.M. Weissman, T. Xu, H. Zhao (Public Health)

Associate Professors M. Brueckner (Pediatrics), A.J. Giraldez, M.K. Khokha (Pediatrics), P. Li, A. Mani (Medicine), M.N. Nitabach (Cellular and Molecular Physiology), V. Reinke, Z. Sun

Assistant Professors C. Cotsapas (Neurology), V. Greco, M. Hammarlund, N.B. Ivanova, T. Kim, J. Lim, J. Lu, J. Noonan, I. Park, S.D. Weatherbee, A. Xiao, H.Z. Zhang

Senior Research Scientist S.M. Mane

Research Scientists W.A. Fenton, E.C. Goodwin, A.M. Hudson, E.T. Matloff, J.M. McGrath (Comparative Medicine), A.J. Pakstis

Associate Research Scientists L.M. Boyden, A. Canaan, J. Cheng, D. Cifuentes Buira, R. El Bejjani, S. Guo, W. Ji, S. Landrette, D. Li, J. Lian, J.F. Lopez-Giraldez, J. Lu, Y. Lu, D.N. Nguyen, J. Overton, X. Pan, L.M. Petti, F. Qian, M.D. Seay, S. Shibata, A.M. Szekely, Z. Wang, J. Zhang

GENE 500b, Principles of Human Genetics A genetics course taught jointly for graduate students and medical students, covering current knowledge in human genetics as applied to the genetic foundations of health and disease. A.E. Bale

GENE 603b/IBIO 603b, Teaching in the Science Education Outreach Program (SEOP) TAs, along with volunteers, teach three projects in genetics to seventh-graders in two or three New Haven schools. In addition, TAs take a short course on teaching and serve as science judges. Dates and times to be determined. For more details visit www.seop.yale.edu. Contact Professor Kavathas. P.B. Kavathas

GENE 625a/MB&B 625au/MCDB 625au, Basic Concepts of Genetic Analysis The universal principles of genetic analysis in eukaryotes are discussed in lectures. Students also read a small selection of primary papers illustrating the very best of genetic analysis and dissect them in detail in the discussion sections. While other Yale graduate molecular genetics courses emphasize molecular biology, this course focuses on the concepts and logic underlying modern genetic analysis. T. Xu and staff

GENE 645b/BIS 645b/CB&B 647b, Statistical Methods in Human Genetics Probability modeling and statistical methodology for the analysis of human genetics data are presented. Topics include population genetics, single locus and polygenic inheritance, parametric and nonparametric linkage analysis, population-based association studies, family-based association studies, next-generation sequencing data analysis, genome-wide association studies, genetic risk prediction models, and DNA fingerprinting. Prerequisites: genetics; BIS 505a and b, or equivalent; and permission of the instructor. H. Zhao, K.K. Kidd

GENE 655a/CBIO 655a, Stem Cells: Biology and Application This course is designed for first-year or second-year students to learn the fundamentals of stem cell biology and to gain familiarity with current research in the field. The course is presented in a lecture and discussion format based on primary literature. Topics include stem cell concepts, methodologies for stem cell research, embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, cloning and stem cell reprogramming, and clinical applications of stem cell research. Prerequisites: undergraduate-level cell biology, molecular biology, and genetics. I.-H. Park, H. Lin, and staff

GENE 675a and b, Graduate Student Seminar: Critical Analysis and Presentation of Scientific Literature Students gain experience in preparing and delivering seminars and in discussing presentations by other students. A variety of topics in molecular, cellular, developmental, and population genetics are covered. Required for all second-year students in Genetics. Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. V. Greco and staff

GENE 703b, The Mouse in Biomedical Research This course describes aspects of comparative genomics, construction of genetically altered mice, mouse phenotyping, and study design relevant to the use of mice in the study of human disease. Prerequisites: undergraduate-level genetics and mammalian anatomy and physiology. C.J. Zeiss

[GENE 734a/MB&B 734a/MBIO 734a/PATH 634a, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Offered every other year]

GENE 743b/MB&B 743bu/MCDB 743b, Advanced Eukaryotic Molecular Biology Selected topics in transcriptional control, regulation of chromatin structure, mRNA processing, mRNA stability, RNA interference, translation, protein degradation, DNA replication, DNA repair, site-specific DNA recombination, somatic hypermutation. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. M.W. Hochstrasser, K. Neugebauer, P. Sung

GENE 749a/MB&B 749au, Medical Impact of Basic Science Consideration of examples of recent discoveries in basic science that have elucidated the molecular origins of disease or that have suggested new therapies for disease. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles on which these advances rely. Reading is from the primary scientific and medical literature, with emphasis on developing the ability to read this literature critically. Aimed primarily at undergraduates. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. J.A. Steitz, M.W. Hochstrasser, I.G. Miller, A.D. Miranker, D.G. Schatz, T.A. Steitz, P. Sung, and staff

GENE 760b, Genomic Methods for Genetic Analysis Introduction to the analysis and interpretation of genomic datasets. The focus is on next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications including RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and exome and whole genome sequencing. By the end of the course, each student will be able to process and analyze large-scale NGS datasets and interpret the results. This course is intended only for graduate students who are interested in genomic approaches but who have had little prior experience in genomics or bioinformatics. Enrollment limited to twenty. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. J. Noonan

GENE 777b/MCDB 677b, Mechanisms of Development An advanced course on mechanisms of animal and plant development focusing on the genetic specification of cell organization and identity during embryogenesis and somatic differentiation. The use of evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways to carry out developmental decisions in a range of animals is highlighted. Course work includes student participation in critical analysis of primary literature and a research proposal term paper. V. Reinke and staff

GENE 840a and b, Medical Genetics Clinical rotation offering medical and graduate students the opportunity to participate in the Genetic Consultation Clinic, genetic rounds, consultation rounds, and genetic analysis of clinical diagnostic problems. M.R. Seashore

GENE 900a/CBIO 900a/MCDB 900a, First-Year Introduction to Research—Grant Writing and Scientific Communication Grant writing, scientific communication, and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. F. Slack and faculty

GENE 901b/CBIO 901b/MCDB 901b, First-Year Introduction to Research—Ethics: Scientific Integrity in Biomedical Research Ethics and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. M. King

GENE 911a/CBIO 911a/MCDB 911a, First Laboratory Rotation First laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. C. Hashimoto and faculty

GENE 912b/CBIO 912b/MCDB 912b, Second Laboratory Rotation Second laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Reinke and faculty

GENE 913b/CBIO 913b/MCDB 913b, Third Laboratory Rotation Third laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. F. Slack and faculty

GENE 921a and b, Reading Course in Genetics and Molecular Biology Directed reading with faculty. Term paper required. Prerequisite: permission of Genetics DGS.

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Global Health

Office of International Medical Student Education: ESH 214, 203.785.5937

http://medicine.yale.edu/globalhealth

GH 700/EPH 591, Global Health Seminar The Global Health Seminar is a yearlong, weekly elective intended for students in the health professions to develop an understanding of key aspects of global health research and practice. The objective is for students to attain a good understanding of key issues upon which they may base future research, service, and clinical pursuits in the field of global health. As the course involves students and faculty from all of the health professions, its participatory and collaborative nature provides a rich environment for interdisciplinary dialogue. Thematic lectures focus on the social and biological determinants of health and global health practice in the field, and the modules in 2013–2014 focus on noncommunicable diseases. Readings and class discussion. Each module concludes with student projects. Required for students in the Global Health Concentration at YSPH and for students in the Certificate in the Science and Practice of Medicine in the Global Context at YSM. Faculty advisers: G. Friedland, T. Rabin, S. Shenoi (YSM); P. Ryan-Krause (YSN); M. Skonieczny (YSPH); R. Gonzalez-Colaso (PA)

GH 701, Topics in Global Medicine Topics in Global Medicine (formerly the Tropical Medicine course) is a case-based seminar designed for students in all of the health profession programs as well as residents and other members of the Yale community interested in global health. The goal is to provide participants with a broad knowledge base in current globally important health issues. Each session is case-based and clinically relevant, though medical diagnosis and management are not the priority. The course provides a forum for interactive discussions of the health issues that pose unique challenges in resource-limited settings. Most sessions are collaborative—the faculty speaker is paired with one or two students, and the team works together to research and present the topic. This course considers student involvement to be vital to its success. A student leadership team, typically comprised of students from each program who took the course in the previous year, works closely with the course director to oversee academic content and assist in running the course. Upon completion of this course, students are able to (1) appreciate the spectrum of clinical diseases, both communicable and noncommunicable, affecting persons in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); (2) identify the major principles and challenges of providing medical care in LMIC; (3) broadly outline methods of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for diseases encountered in resource-limited settings; (4) appreciate the importance of public health interventions in dealing with these diseases; and (5) have the opportunity to collaborate with a faculty member on the presentation of a topic of interest. Participation in this class is highly encouraged for students and residents interested in applying for an international rotation. Director: J. Schwartz

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History of Medicine

Office: SHM L132, 203.785.4338

http://medicine.yale.edu/histmed

Professors D. Kevles (History), S.E. Lederer (Adjunct), F. Snowden (History), B.J. Strasser (Adjunct), W.C. Summers (Therapeutic Radiology), J.H. Warner (Chair)

Associate Professor N. Rogers

Assistant Professors P. Bertucci (History), J. Radin

Yale College and Graduate School courses open to medical students:

HSHM 206b/AMST 176b/EVST 206b/HIST 144b/HUMS 323b, Science and Technology in the United States The development of science and technology in American society from the colonial period through the late twentieth century. The rise of the United States to a world-class scientific and technological power; the American scientific community and the tensions it has faced in a democratic society; the role of science and technology in exploration, agriculture, industry, national defense, religion, culture, and social change. D. Kevles

HSHM 212b/HIST 146b/HLTH 280b, Historical Perspectives on Global Health The broader historical context of contemporary practices, policies, and values associated with the concept of global health. Historical formations around ideas about disease, colonialism, race, gender, science, diplomacy, security, economy, and humanitarianism; ways in which these formations have shaped and been shaped by attempts to negotiate problems of health and well-being that transcend geopolitical borders. J. Radin

HSHM 215a/HIST 140a, Public Health in America, 1793–2000 A survey of public health in America from the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 to AIDS and breast cancer activism at the end of the past century. Focusing on medicine and the state, topics include quarantines, failures and successes of medical and social welfare, the experiences of healers and patients, and organized medicine and its critics. N. Rogers

HSHM 235a/HIST 234a, Epidemics and Society in the West since 1600 A study of the impact of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, and AIDS on society, public health, and the medical profession in comparative and international perspective. Topics include popular culture and mass hysteria, the mortality revolution, urban renewal and rebuilding, sanitation, the germ theory of disease, the emergence of scientific medicine, and debates over the biomedical model of disease. F. Snowden

HSHM 242b/HIST 193b, Molecules, Life, and Disease: Twentieth Century The emergence of the molecular vision of life and disease in the twentieth century. Topics include the role of technology and research practices, intellectual and political migrations, science policy and philanthropic foundations, constructions of risks and patenting of life, big science and biotechnology, politics of memory, and popular representation of science. Relationships to broad intellectual, social, cultural, and political changes. W. Summers

HSHM 424b/HIST 155Jb, Science, Invention, and the Visual Arts since Darwin The influence of scientific theories and technologies on the visual arts from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Understandings and misunderstandings of scientific concepts and inventions as they appear in artistic works. Topics include relativity, quantum mechanics, medical images inside the human body, and images from space. Focus on American and European artists and art movements. B. Kevles

HSHM 437b/HIST 435Jb, The Global Crisis of Malaria The global crisis of malaria examined in comparative and historical context. The mosquito theory of transmission and other developments in scientific understanding of the disease; World Health Organization strategies to eradicate malaria since 1955; the development of tools such as insecticides, medication, and bed nets; the attempt to create an effective vaccine. F. Snowden

HSHM 459a/HIST 159Ja/HUMS 317a, Spies, Secrets, and Science The relationship between secrecy, intellectual property, and science from the Middle Ages to the Cold War. Topics include alchemy and esoteric knowledge; the Manhattan Project and other secret scientific projects run by the state; the history of patents and copyright laws; and scientists as spies. P. Bertucci

HSHM 460b/HIST 257Jb/HUMS 356b, Art, Technology, and Science from Antiquity to 1800 Changes in the notions of art and science in the West through 1800. The association of the term “art” with the fine arts as a legacy of the Enlightenment; implications of this semantic shift for early modern European culture. Visual and material cultures of science, including anatomical and natural history illustrations, curiosity cabinets and Wunderkammern, microscopy and astronomy, Greek and Roman military technology and warfare, and Leonardo and the engineers of the Renaissance. Use of rare books, manuscripts, and historical scientific instruments from library and museum collections at Yale. P. Bertucci

HSHM 464a/HIST 142Ja, The Cultural History of Mental Illness The construction of madness and mental illness in Western thought and culture. The rise and fall of the asylum system; the development of psychoanalytic theory; twentieth-century medical practices such as psychopharmaceutical treatments and lobotomy; the antipsychiatry movement; patients’ rights and contested diagnoses; portrayals of the mentally ill in society and popular culture; issues surrounding gender and sexuality. C. Thompson

HSHM 470a and 471b, Directed Reading Readings directed by members of the faculty on topics in the history of science, medicine, or public health not covered by regular course offerings. Subjects depend on the interests of students and faculty. Weekly conferences; required papers. J. Radin

HSHM 634aU/AMST 879aU/HIST 914aU, Media and Medicine in Modern America Relationships among medicine, health, and the media in the United States from 1880 to the present. The changing role of the media in shaping conceptions of the body, creating new diseases, influencing health and health policy, crafting the image of the medical profession, informing expectations of medicine and constructions of citizenship, and the medicalization of American life. J.H. Warner, G. Berland

HSHM 676b/HIST 938b/LAW 21441, The Engineering and Ownership of Life The seminar explores the historical development of intellectual property protection in living matter. Focusing on the United States in world context, it examines arrangements outside the patent system as well as within it. Topics include agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, and law. May be taken as a reading or research course. D. Kevles

HSHM 680aU/HIST 911aU, History of Chinese Science A study of the major themes in Chinese scientific thinking from antiquity to the twentieth century. Emphasis on non-Western concepts of nature and the development of science in China, East-West scientific exchanges, and China’s role in modern science. W. Summers

HSHM 701a/AMST 878a/HIST 930a, Problems in the History of Medicine and Public Health An examination of the variety of approaches to the social and cultural history of medicine and public health. Readings are drawn from recent literature in the field, sampling writing on health care, illness experiences, and medical cultures in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Africa from antiquity to the twentieth century. Topics include the role of gender, class, ethnicity, race, religion, and region in the experience of health care and sickness; the intersection of lay and professional understandings of the body; and the role of the marketplace in shaping professional identities and patient expectations. J.H. Warner

HSHM 702b/HIST 931b, Problems in the History of Science Close study of recent secondary literature in the history of the physical and life sciences. An inclusive overview of the emergence and diversity of scientific ways of knowing, major scientific theories and methods, and the role of science in politics, capitalism, war, and everyday life. Discussions focus on historians’ different analytic and interpretive approaches. P. Bertucci

HSHM 710a/HIST 921a, Methods for the Social Studies of Science, Technology, and Medicine Exploration of the methods and debates in the social studies of science, technology, and medicine. This course covers the history of the field and its current intellectual, social, and political positioning. It emphasizes the debates on constructivism and relativism and provides critical tools to address the relationships among science, technology, medicine, and society. J. Radin

HSHM 716a/HIST 936a, Early Modern Science and Medicine The course focuses on recent works in the history of science and medicine in the early modern world. We discuss how interdisciplinary approaches—including economic and urban history, sociology and anthropology of science, gender studies, art and colonial history—have challenged the classic historiographical category of “the Scientific Revolution.” We also discuss the avenues for research that new approaches to early modern science and medicine have opened up, placing special emphasis on the circulation of knowledge, practices of collecting, and visual and material culture. P. Bertucci

HSHM 914a or b, Research Tutorial I By arrangement with faculty.

HSHM 915a or b, Research Tutorial II By arrangement with faculty.

HSHM 920a or b, Independent Reading By arrangement with faculty.

HSHM 930a or b, Independent Research By arrangement with faculty.

In addition to formal course offerings and tutorials offered in the School of Medicine, Yale College, and the Graduate School, activities in the Section of History of Medicine are supplemented by a number of related historical medical programs. Colloquia in the History of Science and Medicine are held fortnightly and are open to the School of Medicine community. The section sponsors an annual Frederic L. Holmes Lecture, and the Department of Surgery sponsors the annual Samuel Clark Harvey Memorial Lecture. The Nathan Smith Club is composed of medical students interested in medical history. The Beaumont Medical Club, founded at Yale in 1920, sponsors six lectures in the History of Medicine during the academic year and annually selects a Beaumont Lecturer and a George Rosen Lecturer in the History of Medicine.

Section faculty are available for M.D. thesis supervision. Information about the History of Medicine M.D. thesis, and a list of recent titles, can be found at http://medicine.yale.edu/humanities/research/theses.aspx.

The section faculty work with the Department of History to offer a Ph.D. program in the History of Science and Medicine. In addition, there is an M.A. program designed particularly for those who plan to combine teaching or scholarship in these fields with a professional career in medicine or the life sciences. For further information concerning admissions and the program itself, consult the Graduate School bulletin.

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Immunobiology

Office: TAC S625, 203.785.3857

http://medicine.yale.edu/immuno

Professors J.R. Bender (Medicine), A.L. Bothwell, H. Bottomly (Emeritus), L. Chen, J.E. Craft (Medicine), P. Cresswell, M.V. Dhodapkar (Medicine), J.A. Elias (Medicine), R.A. Flavell (Chair), D. Hafler (Neurology), K. Herold, A. Iwasaki, P.B. Kavathas (Laboratory Medicine), R.M. Medzhitov, J.S. Pober, D.G. Schatz, M.J. Shlomchik (Laboratory Medicine)

Associate Professors T.H. Chi, Tarek Fahmy (Biomedical Engineering), D.R. Goldstein (Medicine), S. Kaech, E.R. Meffre, W.D. Shlomchik (Medicine), B. Su

Assistant Professors S.C. Eisenbarth (Laboratory Medicine), M.A. Kriegel, J.P. Pereira, C.V. Rothlin

Senior Research Scientist H. Bottomly

Research Scientists E.E. Eynon, M.S. Kluger

Associate Research Scientists T.O. Bondar, W. Chae, P.R. Clark, T. Ghazi, N. Iijima, W. Ip, H. Kanda, N.C. Kirkiles-Smith, E.B. Kopp, Y. Kumamoto, A.S. Lazorchak, T.D. Manes, Y. Okabe, A. Rongvaux, D. Schenten, R.B. Seth, A.J. Williams, T. Willinger, G. Zhu

For a complete listing of immunology-related courses, see http://info.med.yale.edu/bbs.

IBIO 530a/MCDB 530au, Biology of the Immune System The development of the immune system. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune recognition. Effector responses against pathogens. Immunologic memory and vaccines. Human diseases including allergy, autoimmunity, cancer, immunodeficiency, HIV/AIDS. C.V. Rothlin, P. Cresswell, K. Herold, A. Iwasaki, S. Kaech, R.M. Medzhitov, E.R. Meffre, J.P. Pereira, D.G. Schatz, M.J. Shlomchik

IBIO 531b, Advanced Immunology The historical development and central paradigms of key areas in immunology. The course attempts to develop a clear understanding of how these paradigms were established experimentally. Landmark studies are discussed to determine how the conclusions were obtained and why they were important at the time they were done. Lecture and discussion format; readings of primary research papers and review articles. Prerequisite: IBIO 530a or equivalent. Enrollment limited to fifteen. J.P. Pereira and faculty

IBIO 532b, Inflammation This course covers fundamentals of inflammation from a broad biological perspective. Both physiological and pathological aspects of inflammation are the focus. R.M. Medzhitov

IBIO 536a, Advanced Immunology Seminar: Mucosal Immunity and Microbiome This seminar course covers key concepts in immune responses against pathogens in mucosal tissues. We cover seminal studies that probe how microbiota and virobiota regulate the immune system and vice versa in health and disease states, and how dysbiosis impacts human health. A. Iwasaki, R.M. Medzhitov, M.A. Kriegel

IBIO 600a, Introduction to Research: Faculty Research Presentations Introduction to the research interests of the faculty. Required for all first-year Immunology/BBS students. Pass/Fail. A.L. Bothwell and faculty

IBIO 601b/CB&B 601b, Fundamentals of Research: Responsible Conduct of Research A weekly seminar presented by faculty trainers on topics relating to proper conduct of research. Required for first-year Immunobiology students, first-year CB&B students, and training grant-funded postdocs. Pass/Fail. A.L. Bothwell and faculty

IBIO 603b/GENE 603b, Teaching in the Science Education Outreach Program (SEOP) TAs, along with volunteers, teach three projects in genetics to seventh-graders in two or three New Haven schools. In addition, TAs take a short course on teaching and serve as science judges. Dates and times to be determined. For more details visit www.seop.yale.edu. For teaching credit. In Immunobiology, this TA position must follow a TA position in a regular course. Contact Paula Kavathas. P.B. Kavathas

IBIO 611a, Research Rotation 1 Intensive experience in the design and execution of experiments in immunology or other areas of biology. Students design a focused research project in consultation with a faculty mentor and execute the designed experiments in the mentor’s laboratory. Students are expected to read relevant background papers from the literature, design and perform experiments, interpret the resulting data, and propose follow-up experiments. Students are also expected to attend the mentor’s weekly lab meeting(s) as well as weekly Immunobiology departmental seminars and Research in Progress seminars. The course concludes with the student giving a brief presentation of the work performed at Rotation Talks, attended by other first-year immunology-track graduate students. Evaluation is by the mentor; students also evaluate the rotation experience. Students must turn in a prioritized list of four possible mentors to Barbara Giamattei in the office of the director of graduate studies at least one week prior to the beginning of the course. Mentors are assigned by the DGS. Graded Pass/Fail. Course dates are Sept. 16–Dec 6. (1 course credit; minimum of 20 hours/week). Required for all first-year Immunology/BBS students. A.L. Bothwell and faculty

IBIO 612b, Research Rotation 2 See description under IBIO 611a. Course dates are Jan. 6–March 14. A.L. Bothwell and faculty

IBIO 613b, Research Rotation 3 See description under IBIO 611a. Course dates are March 17–May 23. A.L. Bothwell and faculty

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Internal Medicine

Office: Boardman 110, 203.785.4119

http://medicine.yale.edu/intmed

Professors J.I. Allen, R.J. Alpern, F. Altice, V.A. Andriole (Emeritus), P.S. Aronson, P.W. Askenase, W.P. Batsford (Emeritus), J.R. Bender, F.J. Bia (Emeritus), M.J. Bia, H.J. Binder (Emeritus), L.K. Bockenstedt, P.K. Bondy (Emeritus), J.L. Boyer, A.E. Broadus, R. Bucala, L.M. Buckley, G.N. Burrow (Emeritus), H.S. Cabin, C. Canessa (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), L.G. Cantley, L. Chen (Immunobiology), J.H. Cho, M.W. Cleman, L.S. Cohen (Emeritus), D.L. Coleman (Emeritus), J.P. Concato, L.M. Cooney, D.L. Cooper, J. Costa (Pathology), P.V. Coveney (Adjunct), J.E. Craft, J.E. Deanfield (Adjunct), L. Dembry, G.V. Desir, V.T. DeVita, M.V. Dhodapkar, M.A. Drickamer, T.P. Duffy, A. Eichmann, J.A. Elias (Chair), D.G. Federman, D.A. Fiellin, E. Fikrig, R.L. Fisher, B.G. Forget (Emeritus), J.N. Forrest, F.M. Foss, T.R. Fried, G. Friedland, L. Friedman, G. Garcia-Tsao, J.B. Gee (Emeritus), R.H. Gifford (Emeritus), T M. Gill, J.A. Goffinet (Emeritus), F. Gorelick, M.L. Green, R.J. Groszmann (Emeritus), R. Herbst, K. Herold (Immunobiology), W.J. Hierholzer (Emeritus), K.K. Hirschi, H.S. Hochster, E.S. Holmboe (Adjunct), R.J. Homer (Pathology), R.I. Horwitz (Emeritus), J.S. Hughes, S.J. Huot, S. Inouye (Adjunct), K.L. Insogna, S.E. Inzucchi, C. Jaffe (Emeritus), P.A. Jamidar, A.C. Justice, F.S. Kantor, C.R. Kapadia, W.N. Kernan, A.I. Ko (Epidemiology), M.J. Kozal, H.M. Krumholz, M. Kryger, L. Laine, M. Landry (Laboratory Medicine), F.A. Lee, R.J. Levine, R.P. Lifton (Genetics), T.J. Lynch (Chair), R.L. Mahnensmith, S.E. Malawista, M.J. Mamula, J.C. Marsh (Emeritus), J.F. Martin (Adjunct), R.A. Matthay (Emeritus), W.J. McKenna (Adjunct), P.K. Mistry (Pediatrics), V. Mohsenin, M.H. Nathanson, P.G. O’Connor, M.A. Perazella, K.F. Petersen, P.A. Preisig, D.D. Proctor, V.J. Quagliarello, A. Rastegar, C. Redlich, H.M. Rinder (Laboratory Medicine), M.E. Robert (Pathology), S.H. Rosenbaum (Anesthesiology), M.B. Russi, R. Safirstein, M.A. Schwartz, W.C. Sessa (Pharmacology), R.S. Sherwin, G.I. Shulman, M.D. Siegel, M. Simons, A.J. Sinusas, B.R. Smith (Laboratory Medicine), S. Somlo, R. Soufer, R.L. Steinbrook (Adjunct), M. Strazzabosco (Adjunct), M. Sznol, L. Tanoue, M.E. Tinetti, E. Ullu, R.J. Vender, F.S. Wright, J.J. Wysolmerski, L.H. Young, B.L. Zaret (Emeritus)

Associate Professors C. Abraham, M.M. Abu-Khalaf, J.G. Akar, N.R. H.G. Allore, Angoff, H.R. Aslanian, J.M. Baehring (Neurology), C. Ben Mamoun, G.K. Berland, J.S. Bogan, J. Brennan, U.C. Brewster, H. Cain, H.H. Chao, S.I. Chaudhry, C. Chung, G.L. Chupp, G.W. Cline, H. Cohen (Adjunct), L.E. Cohn, J.M. Coviello (Nursing), S.T. Crowley, J.P. Curtis, M.P. DiGiovanna, B.R. Doolittle, D.L. Dries, J.D. Dziura (Emergency Medicine), M.S. Ellman, J. Evans, L.E. Fiellin, R.N. Formica, A.H. Fortin, L. Fraenkel, I. Genao, S.N. Gettinger, F.J. Giordano, D.R. Goldstein, C.P. Gross, B.I. Gulanski, S.G. Haskell, J.B. Henrich, J. Hwa, Y. Iwakiri, D. Jain (Pathology), E.A. Jonas, M. Juthani-Mehta, A. Kamarulzaman (Adjunct), I. Kang, J.M. Kapo, B.I. Kazmierczak, J.E. Kerstetter (Adjunct), H. Kluger, J. Koo, J.D. Kravetz, S. Kulkarni (Surgery), J. Lacy, R.J. Lampert, A.J. Lansky, C. Lee, P. Lee, J.K. Lim, Y. Liu, A. Mani, M.A. Marieb, S. Mark (Adjunct), P. Marks, R.A. Marottoli, K.A. Martin, R.A. Martinello, R.L. McNamara, T.P. Meehan (Adjunct), E.R. Meffre (Immunobiology), W.Z. Mehal, R.R. Montgomery, J.P. Moriarty, A.B. Nagar, C.R. Parikh, A.J. Peixoto, S.E. Pfau, M.A. Pisani, P. Protiva, P.M. Rabinowitz, A.B. Reisman, M.S. Remetz, C. Rochester, M.G. Rose, J.R. Rosenbaum, L.E. Rosenfeld, F.J. Roux, C.B. Ruser, K.S. Russell, R.R. Russell, M.M. Sadeghi, V.T. Samuel, M. Schilsky, S.E. Seropian, J.F. Setaro, A.C. Shaw, W.D. Shlomchik, A.N. Sofair, L. Solomon, L. Sugeng, R. Sutton, O.A. Taiwo, C.A. Thompson, T.K. Trow, M.S. Villanueva, L.M. Walke, D.M. Windish, H.K. Yaggi

Assistant Professors A.K. Abu-Alfa (Adjunct), A.M. Ahasic, K.M. Akgun, A. Annamalai (Psychiatry), D.E. Antin-Ozerkis, W.S. Asch, D.B. Banach, L.A. Barakat, M.R. Basso (Adjunct), W.C. Becker, L. Bellumkonda, P.S. Bhatt, I.M. Birnbaum (Adjunct), G.R. Brescia, R.S. Brienza, D. Brissette, R.D. Bruce, C.M. Brunet, B.C. Cambi, O. Chan, H. Chao, L. Chaptini, S. Chatterjee, A. Chiang, H.J. Chun, G.G. Chung, J.F. Clancy, S. Coca, S. Cole, G. Connors, D.J. Curran, N.K. Dahl, C.S. Dela Cruz, H.A. Deshpande, L. Dugdale, D.W. Dunne, E.J. Edelman, S.C. Eisenbarth (Laboratory Medicine), P.J. Ellis, B. Emu, L. Fabris (Adjunct), W.H. Fares, M.K. Fikrig, R. Fogerty, B.E. Fortune, C.A. Fragoso, J.S. Francis, R.L. Garcia, A. Garino, D.S. Geller, G. Giannopoulos (Adjunct), S.B. Goldberg, R. Gonzalez-Colaso, B.E. Gould Rothberg, M. Grant, D. Greif, M. Gulati, C.G. Gunderson, S. Halene, F. Hasan, S.F. Hay, J. Herrin (Adjunct), R.I. Herzog, E.L. Herzog, B.L. Hiatt, E.W. Hofstatter, E.H. Holt, S.R. Holt, S. Honiden, R. Hoque, L.I. Horwitz, C.J. Howes, M.E. Hurwitz, A. Hyson, A.B. Imaeda, S. Ishibe, I. Isufi, D.L. Jacoby, F. Jadbabaie, S.S. Jakab, S. Jeffery (Adjunct), G.Y. Jenq, S. Jin, M. Kang, A.K. Karihaloo, S.S. Kashaf, R.G. Kibbey, N. Kim, J. Koff, R. Koski (Adjunct), N. Krishnan, C. Kumar, P. Kumar, R.E. Laff, A.I. Lee, J. Li, A.H. Liapakis, B.C. Lupsa, U. Makris (Adjunct), M. Malinis, B.J. Malm, P. Mannam, P.S. Marshall, J. Mathur, R.J. McCrimmon (Adjunct), K.C. McKenzie, E.C. McNay (Adjunct), J.L. Meadows, P. Meier (Adjunct), C.I. Mena, G.C. Michaud, T.A. Molisse, D. Morgensztern, V.A. Morris, M. Murakami (Adjunct), T.E. Murphy, S. Nicoli, M. Nunez-Smith, O.E. Ogbuagu, I. Oikonomou, P. Oray-Schrom, J.C. Paeng (Adjunct), S. Parikh (Epidemiology), T.L. Parker, D.O. Persky, N.A. Podoltsev, J.D. Possick, J.T. Puchalski, Y. Qyang, A.M. Reed, R.A. Rienzo, J.S. Ross, C. Ruhrberg (Adjunct), C.J. Sakr (Adjunct), M.J. Sanchez, L. Sanders, T. Sanft, C.B. Sankey, J.R. Satchell-Jones, R. Scandrett, S.M. Schnittman (Adjunct), A.R. Schwartz, S. Shenoi, A.C. Shirali, J.M. Siner, J.F. Spelman, C. Spirli, S.A. Springer, S.M. Stein, S. Steinberg (Adjunct), M.P. Strout, L.G. Suter, E.S. Swenson, T.H. Taddei, S. Takyar, J. Talwalkar, J.M. Testani, J.M. Tetrault, D.G. Tobin, J. Turner, J.N. Van Houten, L.S. Vasquez, E. Wang, Y. Wang (Adjunct), L.M. Whitman, C. Won, E.Y. Wong, R. Worthington (Adjunct), X. Yao

Instructors H. Amjad, A. Arwady, R. Belfort-Deaguiar, J. Canterino, F. Chan, W. Chang, E. Cristea, J.K. Forrest, J.L. Gomez Villalobos, A.M. Jastreboff, J. Joseph, G. Kayingo, F. Knauf, C.S. Kournioti, K.J. Lipska, E.P. Marin, J.P. Meyer, B. Miner, A. Panda, C.C. Price, L. Puglisi, T. Rabin, M. Rastegar, P. Reddy, C. Ritsema, D.I. Rosenthal, A. Sahakian, R. Scatena, J. Schwartz, S. Soares, J. Yu

Senior Research Scientists M. Ananthanarayanan, H.J. Binder, L.S. Cohen (Emeritus), R.J. Groszmann (Emeritus), R.A. Matthay, W.M. Philbrick, C.J. Soroka, L. Wen, A.V. Wisnewski, B.L. Zaret

Research Scientists S. Alfano, D.I. Baker, D.E. Befroy (Diagnostic Radiology), A.A. Belperron, C.Y. Cai, S. Cai, A.K. Chakraborty, J. Choi, L. Han, A.A. Lanahan, L. Leng, S. Narasimhan, E.C. Thrower, D. Tirziu, P.H. Van Ness, H. Velazquez, C.M. Viscoli, Z. Zhuang

Associate Research Scientists F. Ahangari, M. Ahsan, K.N. Alavian, M. Aslan, R.L. Barnes, S.N. Brown, M. Budatha, S.S. Chang, W. Cho, M.D. Corral, J.C. Costa, C.J. Cutter, Y. Dai, N. De Rekeneire, Y. Deng, K. Dong, H.A. Doyle, X. Du, M. Duggal, X. Fan, R. Fiorotto, V.A. Fortuna, A. Gallagher, N. Gotoh, K. Granic, M.T. Guerra, W.K. Gurr, M. Haslip, C.H. He, M. Hedl, K. Hieftje, Y. Hu, C. Hu, Y. Huang, I.M. Jaba, S.K. Jeong, Z. Jiang, L.B. Jilaveanu, R. Ju, M.J. Jurczak, K. Kim, S. Koduru, A.S. Kunte, T.C. Kyriakides, S. Lal, B.B. Larrivee, D.M. Lazar, Y.A. Lazebnik, S.H. Lee, M. Li, L. Liu, Q. Liu, B. Ma, M. Ma, R. Mamillapalli, A. Marlier, G.J. McAvay, S. Mohanty, L. Nie, C.R. Oladele, X. Ouyang, M. Ouyang, H. Park, D. Qi, F. Qian, L. Qin (Public Health), V.S. Ramgolam, M. Razavian, Y. Ren, J.M. Rhodes, H. Shen, W. Shi, M. Shin, A. Silver, R. Singh, M.H. Stowe, B. Sun, S. Sutton, B. Szepietowska, N. Tai, J.P. Tate, T.M. Thompson, R.B. Thomson, X. Tian, X. Tian, V. Wali, W.E. Walker, P. Wang, Y. Wang, P. Wang, F. Wei, J. Wickersham, B. Xu, M. Yang, T. Yarovinsky, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, P. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, P. Zhang, Y. Zhou

Clinical Professors J. Belsky, J.M. Borak (Epidemiology), J.M. Boyce, M.H. Brand, E. Citkowitz, K.L. Cohen, N. Dainiak, F.O. Finkelstein, D.S. Fischer, L. Friedman, P.N. Herbert, A.S. Kliger, N.J. Marieb, C.A. McPherson, M. Moser, D.N. Podell, R.T. Schoen, M.H. Schoenfeld, C.B. Seelig, C.B. Sherter, S.M. Winter, B.J. Wu

Associate Clinical Professors G.G. Abdelsayed, S. Aronin, S.A. Atlas, T.J. Balcezak, M.C. Bennick, S.T. Bogardus, S.D. Brenner, G.K. Buller, J.P. Cleary, W.B. Crede, C.A. Disabatino, K.J. Dobuler, A.B. Douglass, S.M. Epstein, E.L. Etkind, D.I. Geisser, R.A. Gelfand, J. Gerber, M.P. Golden, A.V. Granata, L.E. Grauer, H.L. Haronian, G.J. Hutchinson, K.A. Hutchinson, S.G. Jones, G.J. Kerins, S.J. Kra, G.I. Lancaster, J.D. Lawrason, A. Lebowitz, W.S. Long, R.W. Lyons, E.P. Mardh, A.M. Marino, B.A. Martell, A.B. Mayerson, E.M. Mazur, R.M. McLean, D.J. Miller, E.D. Moritz, S.J. Moses, R.J. Nardino, P.B. Nussbaum, J.M. Perlotto, J.L. Renda, J.H. Revkin, J.R. Sabetta, M.L. Schwartz, M.F. Simms, D.S. Smith, J.D. Smith, J.F. Sullivan, H.L. Taubin, R. Torres, E. Vosburgh, S.B. Weissman, S. Wolfson, K.H. Yang, S.W. Zarich

Assistant Clinical Professors R.M. Aaronson, A.J. Accomando, E.D. Agin, O.T. Akande, J. Alexander, R. Alfano-Kostenka, Y. Amoateng-Adjepong, C.A. Arnold, S. Asefaw, P. Asiedu, P. Bahuguna, J.M. Banatoski, G.V. Bedarida, A. Bedford, A.M. Bekui, L. Berman, M.L. Blitzer, J.M. Blumberg, N.A. Bonheim, B. Boyd, T. Braverman, J.A. Brier, D. Brock, A.R. Cadariu, C.A. Caldwell, L.L. Calo, E.M. Carlson, B.J. Chan, J.J. Chang, V.A. Chang, D.M. Chess, J.L. Cho, L.M. Chou, J.J. Chuong, M.I. Chustecki, M.A. Ciampi, P.R. Cimino, G.M. Cohen, M. Cohen, R.B. Cooper, J.A. Cosgriff, A.J. Cusano, S.B. D’Cunha, M.A. Demetrius, D. Desir, A.J. Dhond, P. Dogbey, T.A. Doherty, J.T. Dreznick, M.H. Driesman, D.J. Edwards, D.J. Eilbott, T.D. Eisen, R. Elias, J.M. Elser, J.J. Ernstoff, N. Fahmi, E. Fan, I. Feintzeig, D. Fine, A.F. Fisher, F.A. Flatow, J.F. Flint, M.H. Floch, R.S. Folman, M.J. Franco, J.H. Fullerton, T.M. Fynan, J.E. Gage, L.S. Galante, P.N. Geimer, S. Geller, P. Genecin, R.S. Generoso, B.J. Gerstenhaber, A.E. Ghantous, P. Gibbs, R.D. Gibbs, P.A. Goldberg, G. Goldenberg, S.M. Gordon-Dole, D.I. Grayer, M.S. Grogan, E.M. Grubman, M.S. Guoth, S. Gupta, T.K. Gupta, K.A. Haedicke, S.S. Hahn, L.W. Hammers (Diagnostic Radiology), J.H. Hansson, D.J. Hass, J.K. Henchel, G. Henry, D.G. Hill, C.F. Hollander, D. Hollister, X. Hong, L.J. Huang, K.J. Hunt, R.G. Huntley, J. Iannarone, C.D. Illick, O.T. Imevbore, S.S. Jacoby, P.E. Jaffe, P.M. Jenei, L. Jung, S.V. Kanade, H.P. Kaplan, A. Karne, D. Kaufman, R.E. Kaufman, M.A. Kazakoff, G. Kelley, J. Kleinstein, H. Knight, C.R. Kramer, H.M. Kramer, M.L. Kraus, S.H. Kunkes, S.P. Lagarde, J.M. Lai, S. Lam, R.A. Lanzi, M. Lataillade, U. Latif, R.E. Lebson, M. Lee, R.J. Lewis, E. Liben, H.M. Likier, L.S. Lim, M. Litchman, R.I. Lovins, M.A. Mankus, M.E. Mann, V. Martin, U. Masiukiewicz, S.W. McCalley, R.J. McDonald, C.C. McNair, C.F. McNamara, S.G. Menon, J.A. Merritt, K. Michels-Ashwood, S.P. Mickley, D.T. Miller, E.A. Mirabile-Levens, A. Mohammad, J. Morris, M.M. Munteanu, J.I. Nadelmann, H. Nawaz, A.M. Nelson, K.K. Nelson, E.A. Nolfo, R. Nudel, C. Nwangwu, J.W. O’Brien, S.P. O’Mahony, G. Oliver, B.R. Olson, K. Olson, J.A. Orell, J.R. Ouellette, W.T. Panullo, W.N. Pearson, B. Peck, M. Perrotti, L. Pham, D. Phanumas, S.E. Possick, B.M. Priest, E. Prior, P.H. Pronovost, T.E. Quan, H.L. Quentzel, D.C. Ranani, H.H. Reinhart, C.R. Rethy, M. Rho, N.I. Riegler, B. Ringstad, D. Rocklin, D. Roer, P.R. Rogol, S.E. Rosener, S.D. Rossner, M.C. Rubinstein, L. Saberski, D.M. Sack, R.T. Sadock, O.V. Sakharova, J.A. Salvana, S.L. Saunders, A. Schaffner, J.A. Schmierer, H.M. Schwartz, J. Seltzer, N. Shah, J.C. Shepherd, J.M. Shi, W.Y. Shih, R.S. Silverman, K.S. Sinusas, M.L. Skluth, D.N. Smith, M.J. Smith, M.L. Smith, M.A. Stehney, J. Stepczynski, B.S. Thomas, P. Tietjen, M.K. Tighe, J. Toksoy, J. Tomanelli, J.E. Topal, P.C. Tortora, K.J. Twohig, J.G. Uberti, H.D. Uderman, A.S. Ulku, R. Umashanker, S. Urciuoli, S. Varano, M.D. Virata, H. Ward, W.S. Warren, K.E. Webb, R.B. Wein, K.P. White, D.M. Wolfsohn, A. Wormser, J. Yu, M. Zain, C.S. Zalis, F. Zarcu-Power, J.S. Zaretzky, J.S. Zesk, J.J. Zumpano, F.R. Zwas

Clinical Instructors L. Alaparthi, S.K. Alavi, D. Alcantara-Cadillo, S.A. Alston, L. Ameti, S.J. Angelo, V.S. Argento, H.H. Atkins, L. Bakkali, S. Banerjee, K.M. Baran, J.M. Belcher, S.M. Bernheim, D.J. Berube, R.M. Brammer, J. Breen, R. Breier, C. Brown, J.A. Brunetti, R.M. Bryan, N.C. Bunawan, K.E. Calia, A.W. Camp, H. Carey, D. Casablanca (Nursing), J.P. Chandler, E.H. Chanko, C. Chen, D. Chia, J.M. Chua-Reyes, T.M. Clarke, D.L. Copen, M.B. Courtney, W.L. Cushing, L.J. Cuzzone, S.A. D’Souza, M.L. Dam, A.R. Datunashvili, A. DeLisle, J.D. Demayo, M. Derosa, S. Dey, P. Dhawan, D.H. Dumont, A.M. Dunn, C.M. Edelmann, C.M. Elrington, D.E. Evans, S.J. Farber, R. Flores, M. Franco Vega, E.H. Francois, E. Frawley, G. Gangu, M.W. Garber, H.B. Garfinkel, V. Gassman, T. Genese, C.E. Glass, O.J. Green, M. Gupta, W.B. Hale, I.E. Hall, C.M. Hamill, J. Hauser, D.G. Heacock, J.C. Hlawitschka, S.M. Hoq, J. Huang, S.C. Huen, R. Johnson, S.R. Joshi, K.A. Kaplove, D.L. Katz, J.D. Kenkare, R. Khodzinsky, L. Knoll, A. Kohli-Pamnani, A.A. Kramer, E.D. Kulaga, M.E. Kulaga, C. Kurlander, C. Ligon, S.R. Lin, F.A. Loria, L. Magras, N.T. Manickam, A. Margaryan, A.J. McCabe, R. McLeod-Labissiere, C.J. Michos, J.D. Miller, R.L. Miller, D. Moll, E. Montesino, A.R. Morrison, R.F. Morrison, T. Muniraj, A.S. Murray, K.G. Nair, K. Nakashima, G.J. Napolitano, E.R. Nash, S. Nawaz, S.N. Novack, J. Oen-Hsiao, E. Ofori-Mante, R. Ohene-Adjei, M. Orias, J.R. Orlinick, O.I. Otolorin, J.K. Pacini, L.A. Panzini, W.W. Paramanathan, B. Patel, T.E. Pellechi, A.E. Petersen, J.F. Pezzimenti, K.C. Pham, L.J. Phillips, M. Plavec, P.T. Porello, H.R. Pun, N.G. Ragovis, S. Raissi, R.F. Ramos, N. Rizk, A.J. Rodriguez, R.R. Rohatsch, M. Rosenthal, S.T. Rottinghaus, S. Samarany, L.S. Samson, J. Samuel, S.M. Santana, R.R. Savino, K.V. Schwartz, M.B. Schwartz, A.E. Selkin, D.L. Sewell, I. Shalom, S. Sharma, R.K. Shaw, J.F. Shea, N. Sheikh, B.V. Sheynberg, G.P. Shields, C.M. Signore, B.A. Skudlarska, A. Smith, G. Spivack, D.C. Stair, A.J. Stannard, R.H. Stember, R.P. Streeter, K.P. Swan, R. Tafuri, S. Tandon, A. Taneja, A. Tarabar, J.N. Thompson, G.E. Tratt, J.S. Urbanetti, A. Uzunpinar, D.J. Van Rhijn, I. Vashist, L.Q. Vo, J.S. Waldman, O.G. Weis, S.C. Widman, D.H. Witt, B. Yeboah, A. Yee, M. Yoo, R.A. Zlotoff

Lecturers O. Abreu-Lanfranco, D. Acampora, B. Adelsberg, A. Alfirii, M. Amuchastegui, S.K. Apgar, A. Apoltan, M. Barnes, T. Boron, J. Carroll, M. Chomiak, P.C. Cremer, O.M. Deshpande, R. Desouza, P.B. Dieffenbach, D.L. Dobkin, M. Evans, G.E. Ferrucci, C.L. Giordano, J. Gobin, J. Goetz (Nursing), M.O. Guzman, R. Hao, K.T. Hartmann, R. Henry, J. Honig, P.R. Huvelle, C.N. Ionescu, S. Ionescu, D. Kearney, K.G. Kett, M. Kyrger, J.A. Leach, R. Leventhal, P.G. Levinson, R. Linden, G. Lucas, P. Maher, K.T. Maloney, V. Marer, J. Marino, S. McGarvey, D. McGowan, D. McKee (Economics), N. Merchant, R. Nadkarni, M. Oen-Hsiao, O.O. Olusesi, J.M. Oshlick, S. Pasha, A.E. Perrin, F. Petruzziello, J.L. Quaranta, A. Radebold, E. Rippel, R.T. Rozett, S.R. Rubenstein, V. Sawicki, R. Schane, W. Shaib, M.D. Slade, J. Sokhn, J.A. Sparer, L. Street, L. Sussman, Y. Titko, L.M. Toledo-Franco, R.N. Tuktamyshov, Y. Wang, R. Weissberger, B. Wilkinson, S. Williams, J. Yerzak

Internal Medicine 103, Core Medicine Clerkship The Internal Medicine Clerkship comprises three one-month rotations: Hospital Medicine I, Hospital Medicine II, and Ambulatory Medicine. Students are assigned to complete these rotations in a specific order determined by the clerkship directors. During the Hospital Medicine clerkships, students serve as clinical clerks at participating hospitals. Students interview and examine patients, write admission and progress notes, and work with medical teams in the care of patients. Between Hospital Medicine I and Hospital Medicine II, students receive graduated responsibility for patient care. Conferences and teaching rounds are held daily. During the Ambulatory Medicine component of the clerkship, students complete a curriculum including general medicine practice, subspecialty practice, and classroom instruction. Clinical preceptors enable students to have an active part in patient evaluation and treatment commensurate with each student’s experience and capability. Students interview and examine patients, develop differential diagnoses, present to preceptors, discuss treatment with patients, and write visit notes. At all clinical sites, students routinely telephone patients in follow-up. The overall course director is D.W. Dunne. The director for the ambulatory component is W.N. Kernan. Clinical precepting and classroom teaching involves over 100 physicians in the Department of Medicine.

Internal Medicine 122, Endocrinology Elective, Yale-New Haven Hospital The student participates as an active member of the endocrine training program, making daily rounds with the endocrine fellows, residents, and attending physicians. The student works primarily on the inpatient consult service and has the opportunity to attend selected endocrine clinics. The student also participates in the regularly scheduled metabolism-endocrine conferences. Full-time. One student every four weeks. Director: S.E. Inzucchi

Internal Medicine 123, Inpatient Nephrology Elective This elective in clinical nephrology offers the student an opportunity for in-depth learning regarding problems in fluid and electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, and hypertension. Emphasis is placed on problem recognition, pathophysiologic diagnosis, evidence-based clinical judgment, and management based on pathophysiologic principles. The primary activity involves the inpatient consultation service in which the student works up and follows several patients per week, and participates in daily rounds with the attending physicians, postdoctoral fellows, and residents on service. An introduction to hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation, and renal biopsy histology is also provided. This elective, which requires full-time participation, is offered at Yale-New Haven Hospital and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven. One student every two or four weeks. Director: J. Turner

Internal Medicine 136, Digestive Disease Conference Each Friday afternoon from 2 to 3:30 p.m., current patients with gastrointestinal and liver problems of medical, surgical, pediatric, pathologic, or radiologic interest are presented and discussed. This is a practical series of discussions intended to interest anyone from a second-year student to a practitioner. Active participation by all who come is encouraged. Meets in Fitkin. A.B. Nagar and Digestive Disease faculty

Internal Medicine 137, Clinical Gastroenterology (Digestive Diseases) Elective The student is an integral part of the inpatient GI consult service, working primarily in an inpatient setting. This is an opportunity to see a wide variety of gastrointestinal problems and patients, with discussion and review. Students should plan to attend this rotation on a full-time basis. Open to fourth-year students only. One or two students every two or four weeks. Codirectors: I. Oikonomou, S.S. Jakab

Internal Medicine 141, Cardiology Elective The student participates in the daily activities of the cardiology service, including rounds, consultations, conferences, and special procedures such as cardiac catheterization, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear imaging, and electrocardiography. The training experience emphasizes the physiologic basis for clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases, and their therapy. Limited to one student at Yale-New Haven Hospital every four weeks and one student at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, every two or four weeks. Directors: M.S. Remetz (Yale-New Haven Hospital); B.J. Malm (VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven)

Internal Medicine 142, Infectious Diseases Elective Students participate as active members of the consultative service and training program in infectious diseases at Yale-New Haven Hospital and VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven. Activities include daily work rounds, daily attending rounds, microbiology rounds four times a week, two weekly clinical conferences, and one didactic conference. One student every four weeks. Director: O. Ogbuagu

Internal Medicine 146, Hematology Elective This elective provides intensive exposure to clinical hematology by direct participation in the activities of a regular clinical hematology service. Students work up new patients and consults in rotation with the fellows and residents, and attend outpatient clinics. Students participate in daily hematology ward rounds and bone marrow readings, and in weekly inpatient and outpatient clinical reviews, and clinical research conferences. One student every two weeks. Director: T.P. Duffy

Internal Medicine 151/EHS 575a, Introduction to Occupational and Environmental Medicine This course presents a broad overview of the principles of occupational and environmental medicine. The major diseases of environmental origin and the major hazards—chemical, physical, and biologic—and settings in which they occur are examined. O.A. Taiwo

Internal Medicine 152, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Elective This rotation is designed to provide senior medical students (and PA and nursing students) with an introduction to the principles and practice of occupational and environmental medicine, including exposure, assessment, and evaluation of disease causality. Students learn how to evaluate workplace and environmental exposures and assess the contribution of such exposures to patients’ diseases. In addition, students participate in ongoing didactic and research conferences and workplace surveillance programs, and they visit workplaces and other environmental sites that are being evaluated for their role in disease causation. Students are exposed to the varied opportunities for careers in this discipline. One student every two or four weeks. Director: P.M. Rabinowitz; M. Gulati, A. Mohammad, C. Redlich, M.B. Russi, J.A. Sparer, O.A. Taiwo

Internal Medicine 155, Subinternship in Internal Medicine The subinternship offers students the opportunity to function in the role of an intern on an Internal Medicine inpatient team at Yale-New Haven Hospital; VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven; or Waterbury Hospital. Subinterns join a team consisting of an upper-year medical resident and an attending physician and are responsible for admitting patients, writing admission and daily progress notes, presenting cases on rounds, communicating with consultants, ordering medications and tests, and serving as the front-line physician for patients admitted to the hospital. Students are responsible for managing approximately half the number of patients typically managed by an Internal Medicine intern. The subinternship offers an outstanding opportunity to prepare for internship, whether the student intends to pursue a career in Internal Medicine or another specialty. Offered throughout the year for periods of four weeks each, to students who have completed Internal Medicine Clerkships I and II. Codirectors: M.D. Siegel, D.W. Dunne

Internal Medicine 156, Clinical Hepatology Elective, Yale-New Haven Hospital The student is an integral part of the inpatient liver service, working primarily in an inpatient setting. This is an opportunity to see a wide variety of liver problems and patients, with discussion and review. Students should plan to attend this rotation on a full-time basis. Open to fourth-year students only. One or two students every two or four weeks. Codirectors: S.S. Jakab, K. Lawhorn

Internal Medicine 159, Pulmonary Elective This elective is designed to provide medical students with an in-depth knowledge of respiratory diseases through consults on the patient care floors and through didactic sessions and directed reading. Students become an integral part of the pulmonary and critical care (PCCM) section consult service, working with the attending physician and PCCM fellow(s). From two to six new consults on average are seen daily. Students work closely with faculty and staff of the pulmonary group and participate in daily consulting and rounds. Students assist in the examination and treatment of patients with various cardiopulmonary diseases, including tuberculosis, chronic obstructive airway disease, asthma, lung cancer, bacterial and fungal lung infection, and other diagnostic problems. They receive practical instruction in chest images and pulmonary function tests and their interpretation, and in clinical and laboratory methods used for diagnosis and management, including intensive respiratory care and respiratory therapy, and they have an opportunity to observe fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Weekly didactic lectures are given in a number of areas relating to airway pharmacology, lung cell biology, and lung immunology (respiratory cells, immunologic reactions, etc.). Students are expected to learn (1) the differential diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders, (2) how to interpret pulmonary function tests, and (3) how to read a chest radiograph and understand the essentials of a chest CT scan. Maximum of three students every two or four weeks. Director: G. Connors

Internal Medicine 180, Rheumatology Elective Students work closely with the faculty member and fellow assigned to the inpatient consultative service at both Yale-New Haven Hospital and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven. They attend rounds and evaluate patients with rheumatic conditions and other diseases with rheumatic manifestations. In addition, they participate in outpatient clinics, including two arthritis clinics and two general rheumatology clinics, and attend two weekly conferences sponsored by the Section of Rheumatology. One student every two or four weeks. Director: J. Evans

Internal Medicine 181, Oncology Elective This is an advanced elective offered to students who have completed the third-year Internal Medicine Clerkship. It is designed to expose students to all aspects of clinical medical oncology by direct participation in the daily disease-specific outpatient oncology clinics at Yale Cancer Center. Working closely with the medical oncology fellows and attending physicians, students have the opportunity to work up patients with new cancer diagnoses and participate in the ongoing care of patients with diverse cancer diagnoses. Students participate as active members of the medical oncology training program, attending the regularly scheduled daily clinical conferences as well as weekly disease-specific multidisciplinary tumor boards and medical oncology fellow education conferences. Although the emphasis of the elective is on outpatient oncology in disease-specific units, students can also opt to work with the inpatient oncology team at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Rotations at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, can be arranged as well. Maximum of three students every two or four weeks. Director: H.A. Deshpande

Internal Medicine 184, Medical Informatics We explore topics in informatics, such as the definition and scope of the specialty, software engineering, networking and networks, database management systems, information retrieval, the electronic medical record, clinical decision support, and medical decision science. By arrangement with the instructor. R.N. Shiffman

Internal Medicine 195, Medical Intensive Care Unit Advanced Elective This elective provides an opportunity to participate in the acute management of common medical emergencies. Students are on call in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at Yale-New Haven Hospital every fourth day with an intern and resident pair, assisting them in the admission of patients. Students follow patients in the MICU, assist in their care with the intern and resident, and are expected to present during rounds. Prerequisite: Internal Medicine Clerkship. No overnight responsibilities. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: S. Honiden

Internal Medicine 304, Analytical Clinical Cardiology Elective This rotation emphasizes a rigorous history and physical exam to develop a differential diagnosis to guide the care of patients in the hospital and clinic. Supplementary reading on topics arising from the management of the patients is an important component of the experience. Interested students should discuss their goals prior to the rotation. One student every two or four weeks. Director: J.E. Gage

Internal Medicine 306, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Elective Students attend the Allergy & Immunology Clinic for adults at the Yale Physicians Building and the Allergy & Immunology Pediatric Clinic at Long Wharf. It is recommended that they attend Journal Club and the Allergy Seminar, and they may also join in the consultations with the Allergy & Immunology service at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Prerequisite: Immunobiology course. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: F.S. Kantor

Internal Medicine 312, Geriatric Medicine Elective The goals of this elective are (1) to understand care delivery in subacute care, long-term care, assisted living, and home care settings, including both the services available and the role of the physician in all of these settings; (2) to appreciate how goals of care can be met differently in these settings and appreciate the unique opportunity to avoid hospitalization that these settings afford; (3) to understand the role of geriatric syndromes in the quality of life of individuals in these settings and gain skill in approaching the multifactorial nature of the patient’s illness states; (4) to further skills through interface with the hospice and palliative care team and the geropsychiatry team; and (5) to appreciate the need for appropriate information transfer in transitions in care. The two-week rotation is an introduction to sites of care; the student spends two full days on home care, four full days in the nursing home setting doing both subacute admissions and monthly reviews of longer-term residents, two half-days in the consultation clinic, and two days in a setting tailored to the student’s interests. In the four-week rotation, the student is given a more graduated experience of responsibility. In the extended care setting, the student is assigned patients to follow once a week throughout the rotation, including new, complex subacute admissions and hospice patients. The student sees patients in their homes and in assisted living with a physician who is an attending in these settings. The student also spends one full day with the Agency on Aging and a half-day at an adult day care center. Prerequisites: Internal Medicine Clerkships I and II. One student every two or four weeks. Director: M.A. Drickamer

Internal Medicine 349, Spiritual Care in the Hospital Setting Elective The goals of this elective are to convey to the student an awareness of the options for spiritual care and support within an acute care hospital setting and to give the student an opportunity to learn and practice spiritual caregiving skills appropriate to the physician’s role. The Department of Religious Ministries has professionally certified chaplains of many faiths who serve as faculty and spiritual caregiving mentors. Students spend time with at least four different chaplains (of Jewish, Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Pentecostal backgrounds) to observe their chaplaincy practices and discuss with them the implications of both faith-specific and interfaith spiritual care. Students are also instructed in various spiritual assessment models and are invited to conduct a least four assessments (a self-assessment, a colleague assessment, and two patient assessments). In addition to shadowing individual chaplains, students attend departmental morning reports, staff meetings, and at least one worship service. Students prepare a brief essay at the end of the rotation, reflecting upon their experiences. One or two students every four weeks. Director: A.H. Fortin

Internal Medicine 360, General Medicine Consult Service Elective The General Medicine Consult Team provides consultative services to all non-internal medicine services throughout Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital. The team, consisting of one attending physician and one medical resident, performs preoperative evaluations and general medicine recommendations, and evaluates patients for possible transfer to the internal medicine service. Students are responsible for their own patients and perform independent evaluations of all three types of consults. Daily didactic sessions are held with the attending and medical resident. In addition, a general medicine consult syllabus is provided. Prerequisite: Internal Medicine Clerkship. One student every two or four weeks. Director: V.A. Morris

Internal Medicine 500, Methods of Clinical Research This composite course begins with an intensive set of summer classes during July and the first two weeks of August. The course resumes in September and continues throughout the remainder of the academic year, ending in early June. The overall curriculum integrates several distinct components. The summer term contains sessions on statistics, epidemiology, clinical and health services research methods, health economics, and community-based participatory research. The fall term contains more advance statistics and research methods, as well as several sessions on health policy, social and behavioral influences on health, and community-based research. The spring term contains remaining topics in research methods and several sessions on health management. Summer sessions are held four times a week (ten hours); fall sessions are held three times a week (six and one-half hours); spring sessions are held two times a week (five hours). Permission of director required. Director: H.M. Krumholz

Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus Electives

Internal Medicine 203, Subinternship in Internal Medicine This subinternship provides an opportunity for senior students to manage acute medical problems such as chest pain, shortness of breath, acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and GI bleeding. Students are the primary providers under the supervision of a resident and clinician educator. Responsibilities include writing orders; doing procedures; and arranging consults, family meetings, and hospital follow-up of patients with the same clinician educator. Students develop and receive feedback on clinical skills. No overnight call. One or two students every four weeks. Director: B.J. Wu

Internal Medicine 308, Gastroenterology Elective Senior students work up and follow patients with a variety of gastrointestinal problems on the consultative service. Working on a team that includes a Yale GI fellow and attending physician, students follow patients requiring procedures in the GI laboratory, intensive care units, inpatient service, and outpatient clinic. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: B.J. Wu; M. Cohen, M.H. Brand

Internal Medicine 326, Geriatric Medicine Elective This elective provides an opportunity to diagnose and manage geriatric syndromes in a variety of settings, including inpatient consultation service, outpatient geriatric assessment clinic, and nursing homes. Students work up and follow patients and participate in weekly team conferences. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: B.J. Wu; G.J. Kerins

Internal Medicine 327, Critical Care Elective Senior students participate in critical care medicine activities in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). The emphasis is on evaluation and acute management of respiratory failure, shock, and sepsis, and on the use of invasive monitoring. The physiological basis of disease and the rationale for therapeutic interventions are also emphasized. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: B.J. Wu; H. Knight, R. Elias, A. Uzunpinar

Internal Medicine 361, Internal Medicine Elective for M.D./Ph.D. Students The goal of this elective is to reinforce students’ clinical skills following their time away from clinical medicine. The emphasis is on history taking, physical examination skills, interpretation of data, morning presentations, medical terminology, patient communication, and coordination of care. Students are assigned to a team that consists of two interns, one resident, and one attending physician. Students admit their own patients and are responsible, with supervision, for the care of their patients during hospitalization. Students present daily on rounds; and history, physical diagnosis, and laboratory interpretation skills are emphasized. Students attend the daily noon conference and weekly Grand Rounds. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: B.J. Wu

Humanities in Medicine

The courses listed below are offered through the Program for Humanities in Medicine. Further information is available from Dr. Thomas Duffy or Clara Gyorgyey at 203.785.6102. Schedules of courses are flexible. Students who are interested in any (or all) of the following courses, or have other interests that could be addressed through this program, are asked to indicate this on the sign-up sheet. No obligation even if students sign up.

Internal Medicine 505, Poetry and Medicine Hope, courage, devotion, anguish, pain, illness, and death—the substance of all great literature is also fundamental to medicine. Poetry and Medicine, a bimonthly seminar elective, introduces students to works of poetry, illuminating the ethical, moral, and psychological issues continually confronting their profession. The course helps students develop an understanding of the ways in which interpreting literature enhances their interactions with patients and clarifies some dimensions of their work. Course schedule: Bimonthly meetings at a mutually determined time. P.D. Kirwin, T.P. Duffy

Internal Medicine 509b, Pregnancy and Neonatal Loss For first-year students. This elective centers around what a physician feels when his/her patient dies and how he/she can come to a resolution with regard to this loss. In particular, focus on the expression of feelings through letter writing, poetry, and face-to-face encounters with family members. Introduction to “case histories” based upon the lecturer’s experiences. Course schedule: six meetings at a mutually determined time. Please contact the instructor by e-mail: berman@hygeia.org. M.R. Berman

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Investigative Medicine

Office: 2 Church Street South, Suite 115, 203.785.6842

http://medicine.yale.edu/investigativemedicine

Professors T.M. Gill (Medicine), J.R. Gruen (Pediatrics), H.M. Krumholz (Medicine), G. Tellides (Surgery), M.E. Tinetti (Medicine)

IMED 625a, Principles of Clinical Research The purpose of this intensive two-week course is to provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented clinical research. Topics include competing objectives of clinical research, principles of observational studies, principles of clinical trials, principles of meta-analysis, interpretation of diagnostic tests, prognostic studies, causal inference, qualitative research methods, and decision analysis. Sessions generally combine a lecture on the topic with discussion of articles that are distributed in advance of the sessions. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks, July 29–August 9, 2013. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 630a, Ethical and Practical Issues in Clinical Investigation This termlong course addresses topics that are central to the conduct of clinical investigation, including ethics of clinical investigation, scientific fraud, technology transfer, and interfacing with the pharmaceutical industry. Practical sessions include scientific presentations and teaching, NIH peer review process, journal peer review process, and career development models of academia. The course provides guidelines and a framework for the clinical investigator to obtain funding for, conduct, and present a clinical study. Format consists of didactic presentation followed by discussion. Consent of instructor required. H.J. Binder

IMED 645a, Introduction to Biostatistics in Clinical Investigation The course provides an introduction to statistical concepts and techniques commonly encountered in medical research. Previous course work in statistics or experience with statistical packages is not a requirement. Topics to be discussed include study design, probability, comparing sample means and proportions, survival analysis, and sample size/power calculations. The computer lab incorporates lecture content into practical application by introducing the statistical software package SPSS to describe and analyze data. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks, July 15–26, 2013. H.J. Binder

IMED 655b, Writing Your First Big Grant Proposal In this termlong course, students gain intensive, practical experience in evaluating and preparing grant proposals, including introduction to NIH study section format. The course gives new clinical investigators the essential tools to design and to initiate their own proposals for obtaining grants to do research and to develop their own careers. The course is limited to students who plan to submit grant proposals (usually for a K-type mentored career development award, but also for R-type awards). Attendance and active participation are required. Consent of instructor required. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 680b, Topics in Human Investigation The course teaches students about the process through which novel therapeutics are designed, clinically tested, and approved for human use. It is divided into two main components, with the first devoted to moving a chemical agent from the bench to the clinic, and the second to outlining the objectives and methods of conducting clinical trials according to the FDA approval process. The first component describes aspects of structure-based drug design and offers insight into how the drug discovery process is conducted in the pharmaceutical industry. The format includes background lectures with discussions, labs, and computer tutorials. The background lectures include a historical perspective on drug discovery, the current paradigm, and important considerations for future success. The second component of the course provides students with knowledge of the basic tools of clinical investigation and how new drugs are tested in humans. A series of lectures and discussions provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented research, with a focus on design of trials to test therapeutics. Each student is required to participate (as an observer) in an HIC review, in addition to active participation in class. Consent of instructor required. J.E. Craft, K.S. Anderson

Laboratory Medicine

Office: PS 2, 203.688.2286

http://medicine.yale.edu/labmed

Professors A. Baumgarten (Emeritus), F.J. Bia (Medicine), J.R. Bove (Emeritus), Y. Choi (Pathology), R.K. Donabedian (Emeritus), S.C. Edberg (Emeritus), S.D. Hudnall (Pathology), P.I. Jatlow (Emeritus), P.B. Kavathas, D.S. Krause, M. Landry, P. McPhedran (Emeritus), H.M. Rinder, M.R. Seashore (Genetics), M.J. Shlomchik, J.L. Sklar (Pathology), B.R. Smith (Chair), E.L. Snyder, P.J. Tattersall

Associate Professors S.M. Campbell, S. Chang, M.E. Hodsdon, J.G. Howe, G.E. Stack, Y. Wu

Assistant Professors T. Eid, S.C. Eisenbarth A.M. Haberman, J.H. McClaskey, T.S. Murray (Adjunct), C.A. Tormey, R. Torres, M.L. Xu (Pathology)

Instructor D.R. Peaper

Senior Research Scientist S.F. Cotmore

Research Scientist G.M. Anderson (Child Study Center)

Associate Research Scientists M. Coman, A.D. D’Souza, L. Devine, P. Gu, C. Keeler, L. Li, I.S. Mihaylov, R. Rai, Y. Wang, P. Zhang

Clinical Professors B.P. Griffith, R.A. Levine, S.C. Wardlaw

Associate Clinical Professors P.N. Fiedler (Pathology), D.R. Mayo, I. Nash

Assistant Clinical Professors I.V. Kaplan, H. Malkus, C.A. Rauch, H. Sanchez, N. Shafi, M. Velleca

Clinical Instructor B.R. Spencer

Lecturers D.J. Barchi, S.A. Cohen, D. Ferguson, P.E. Marone, R.L. Ross

LMED 102b This lecture, laboratory, and seminar course deals with scientific use of clinical laboratories (hematology, clinical chemistry, immunology, blood banking) as a basis for the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Emphasis is on the selection and interpretation of laboratory tests used in the practice of medicine as well as on acquiring some understanding of the technology used in the clinical laboratories. Lectures and laboratories are integrated into the new organ-based modular system of clinical instruction for second-year medical students. Second-year course. M. Landry and associates

LMED 123a, Medical Microbiology This course focuses on both basic microbial pathophysiology and medical microbiology. The course is divided into four sections, consisting of microbial physiology and genetics, bacteriology and mycology, virology, and parasitology. Microbial pathogenesis is taught as it relates to human infectious disease on the cellular and molecular levels. The unique structures, lifestyles, and roles in producing disease of medically important microbes are taught in lecture, laboratory, and small group settings. Laboratory sessions employ a case-based approach to teach the effective use of laboratory testing in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Microscopy, culture and biochemical, immunological, and molecular techniques are demonstrated and discussed, and simple tests such as Gram stain and rapid antigen tests are performed. Problem-based learning sessions in clinical infectious disease are offered in the last half of the course to provide a bridge from the science of the microbe to the management of infected patients. Second-year course. S.M. Campbell, M. Landry, and associates

LMED 131, Laboratory Medicine Elective This elective offers rotations through the clinical laboratories, including Blood Bank, Therapeutic Apheresis, Clinical Chemistry, Toxicology, Hematology and Coagulation, Flow Cytometry, Immunology, Molecular Diagnostics, Microbiology, and Virology. Students work closely with residents, fellows, attending physicians, and laboratory staff; work up clinical cases under supervision; and attend morning report, case conference, journal club, clinical rounds, and didactic sessions. Students also have the opportunity to work with the resident on call for at least one weekend day during the elective. Students can rotate through all laboratories or focus on specific laboratories of interest. The goals of the elective are to learn appropriate usage and interpretation of laboratory tests, and to gain a better understanding of the theoretical and clinical underpinnings of laboratory medicine. This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in laboratory medicine or combined laboratory medicine and pathology, but also for all students who will use clinical laboratory testing in their careers. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: M. Landry

LMED 619/PATH 619, Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Combined Elective The goals for anatomic pathology are to understand the basic principles of diagnostic anatomic pathology and its role in clinical medicine. The goals for laboratory medicine are to learn appropriate usage and interpretation of laboratory tests and to gain a better understanding of the theoretical, technological, and clinical underpinnings of laboratory medicine. This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in laboratory medicine and/or pathology, and for all students who will use laboratory and pathology tests in their careers. One or two students every four weeks. Directors: M. Landry, G.K. Haines

Laboratory Medicine Teaching Sessions for Third-Year Medical Students The purpose of the Laboratory Medicine Teaching Sessions is to introduce third-year students on their clinical rotations to basic concepts of laboratory diagnosis. On the first afternoon of their Internal Medicine rotations at Yale-New Haven Hospital, students visit four laboratories: Blood Bank, Hematology, Chemistry, and Microbiology/Virology. In each laboratory the faculty use clinical cases together with relevant slides, culture plates, or other test data to illustrate the use and interpretation, as well as pitfalls, of laboratory tests. These teaching sessions should also serve to encourage and facilitate communication with the laboratories after the students return to the wards. Third-year course. M. Landry and associates

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Microbial Pathogenesis

Office: 295 Congress Avenue, BCMM 336E, 203.737.2404

http://medicine.yale.edu/micropath

Professors M. Cappello (Pediatrics), E. Fikrig (Medicine), J.E. Galán (Chair), E. Groisman, C. Jacobs-Wagner (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), C.R. Roy

Associate Professors H.F. Agaisse, C. Ben Mamoun (Medicine), B.I. Kazmierczak (Medicine), B.D. Lindenbach, J.D. MacMicking, W.H. Mothes, R. Sutton (Medicine)

Assistant Professors J.M. Crawford (Chemistry), A. Goodman, P. Kumar (Medicine)

Associate Research Scientists I. Derre, S.S. Ivanov, B. Kim, P. Kumar, M.D. Lara-Tejero, E. Lee, S. Lee, M.D. Lefebre, A. Shenoy, S. Spano, P.D. Uchil

The following courses in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences are open to medical students with permission of the DGS.

MBIO 547b/EMD 547b, Vaccines: Concepts in Biology Vaccines are one of the major public health preventive approaches for disease control. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still being explored, with the purpose of designing better and more efficacious vaccines. Vaccine-preventable diseases now include many infectious diseases as well as cancer. This course briefly reviews the immunological basis of immunity to infection and disease. Topics then include the basic science underlying vaccine development, current vaccine-preventable diseases, as well as vaccines under development. Prerequisites: immunology and microbiology. D. McMahon-Pratt

MBIO 670, 671, 672, Laboratory Rotations Rotation in three laboratories. Required for all first-year graduate students. C.R. Roy

MBIO 680a/EMD 680a, Molecular and Cellular Processes of Parasitic Eukaryotes An introductory topic-based course in modern parasitology. For each topic there is an introductory lecture followed by a journal club-like discussion session of relevant papers selected from the literature. The course provides an introduction to basic biological concepts of parasitic eukaryotes causing diseases in humans. Topics include strategies used by parasitic eukaryotes to establish infections in the host and approaches to disease control, through either chemotherapy, vaccines, or genomics. In addition, emphasis is placed on evaluating the quality and limitation of scientific publications and developing skills in scientific communication. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. D. McMahon-Pratt, C. Tschudi

MBIO 685b, Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis This interdisciplinary course focuses on current topics related to host-pathogen interactions. Each week a lecture is given on the topic, followed by student presentations of seminal papers in the field. All participants are required to present a paper. J.D. MacMicking

MBIO 686a, Bacterial Determinants of Pathogenesis The course provides an introduction to basic principles in bacterial pathogenesis. Topics focus on the bacterial determinants mediating infection and pathogenesis, as well as strategies to prevent and treat diseases. Each week a lecture is given on the topic, followed by student presentations of seminal papers in the field. All participants are required to present a paper. H.F. Agaisse

MBIO 701a,b, Research in Progress All students, beginning in their third year, are required to present their research once a year at the Graduate Student Research in Progress. These presentations are intended to give each student practice in presenting his or her own work before a sympathetic but critical audience and to familiarize the faculty with the research. C.R. Roy

MBIO 702a,b, Microbiology Seminar Series All students are required to attend all Microbiology seminars scheduled throughout the academic year. Microbiologists from around the world are invited to describe their research. C.R. Roy

[MBIO 734a/GENE 734a/MB&B 734a/PATH 634a, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Offered every other year]

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Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry

Offices: JWG 304, 203.432.2077; SHM C106, 203.785.4246

http://medicine.yale.edu/mbb

Professors K.S. Anderson (Pharmacology), S.J. Baserga, R. Breaker (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), G.W. Brudvig (Chemistry), D.M. Crothers (Emeritus), E.M. De La Cruz, D.C. DiMaio (Genetics), D.M. Engelman, A. Garen, M.B. Gerstein, N.D. Grindley (Emeritus), M.W. Hochstrasser, A.J. Koleske, W.H. Konigsberg, P. Lengyel (Emeritus), J.P. Loria (Chemistry), I.G. Miller (Pediatrics), A.D. Miranker, P.B. Moore (Chemistry; Emeritus), N. Moran (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), T.D. Pollard (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), L.J. Regan, D.G. Schatz (Immunobiology), R.G. Shulman (Emeritus), D.G. Söll, M.J. Solomon, J.A. Steitz, T.A. Steitz, S.A. Strobel, W.C. Summers (Therapeutic Radiology), P. Sung (Chair), S.L. Wolin (Cell Biology)

Professor (Adjunct) of Research K.R. Williams

Associate Professors T. Biederer, M.R. Koelle, Y.E. Modis, A.E. Rhoades, Y. Xiong

Assistant Professors R. Baxter (Chemistry), D.S. Greenbaum (Adjunct), C. Schlieker, M. Simon, C.V. Sindelar, C.J. Wilson (Engineering & Applied Science)

Senior Research Scientists N.D. Grindley, J. Howard, C.M. Joyce, K. Neugebauer

Research Scientists J.L. Burton, E.J. Folta-Stogniew, E. Gulcicek, Y. Kong, J.S. Rozowsky, K. Tycowski, J. Wang

Associate Research Scientists A. Abyzov, A. Alexandrov, S. Balasubramanian, M. Behlau, I.C. Berke, C. Bruce, W. Cao, S. Chen, C.M. Colangelo, K. Collins, J. Daley, M. Dessau, J.I. Elliott, M. Englert, R. Fang, J. Graham, D.A. Hiller, M.N. Islam, E. Khurana, J. Ko, Y. Kwon, L. Lai, T.T. Lam, Y. Li, Y. Lin, I. Lomakin, S. Longerich, P. O’Donoghue, D. Ostapenko, R. Park, G. Pimienta-Rosales, D. Saro, S. Seetharaman, K.J. Smith, Y. Sun, G. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Xia, K. Yan, X. Yan, H. Yang, M. Zanic, K. Zhang, Y. Zuo

Lecturers C.A. Bascom-Slack (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), K.T. Kucera, A.B. Pawashe

MB&B 500bu/MCDB 500bu, Biochemistry An introduction to the biochemistry of animals, plants, and microorganisms, emphasizing the relations of chemical principles and structure to the evolution and regulation of living systems. R. Breaker, N. Clay, D.M. Engelman

MB&B 517b3/ENAS 517b/MCDB 517b3/PHYS 517b3, Methods and Logic in Interdisciplinary Research This half-term IGPPEB class is intended to introduce students to integrated approaches to research. Each session is led by faculty with complementary expertise and discusses papers that use different approaches to the same topic (for example, physical and biological or experiment and theory). Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Required for students in IGPPEB. L.J. Regan, E.M. De La Cruz, E. Dufresne, T. Emonet, P. Forscher, M. King, M. Levene, S. Mochrie, C. O’Hern, T.D. Pollard, A.E. Rhoades, C.J. Wilson, and staff

MB&B 520a1, Boot Camp Biology An intensive introduction to biological nomenclature, systems, processes, and techniques for graduate students with previous backgrounds in non-biological fields including physics, engineering, and computer science who wish to perform graduate research in the biological sciences. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Required for students in IGPPEB. L.J. Regan and staff

MB&B 523a/ENAS 541a/PHYS 523a, Biological Physics An introduction to the physics of several important biological phenomena, including molecular motors, protein folding, bacterial locomotion, and allostery. The material and approach are positioned at the interface of the physical and biological sciences. S. Mochrie, E. Dufresne, C. O’Hern, A.E. Rhoades

MB&B 545bu, Methods and Logic in Molecular Biology An examination of fundamental concepts in molecular biology through analysis of landmark papers. Development of skills in reading the primary scientific literature and in critical thinking. Open only to MB&B students pursuing the B.S./M.S. degree. M.W. Hochstrasser, D.M. Engelman, D.G. Söll

MB&B 550a, Molecular Foundations of Medicine This course is part of the Molecules to Systems course, which is open only to first-year medical students. An introduction to the major concepts of biochemistry and molecular biology, with emphasis on the human body. Special attention is devoted to how recent advances in basic science contribute to our understanding and treatment of human disease. S.J. Baserga, M.J. Solomon, D.M. Engelman, and staff

MB&B 591b/ENAS 991b/MCDB 591b/PHYS 991b, Integrated Workshop This required course for students in IGPPEB involves hands-on laboratory modules with students working in pairs. A biology student is paired with a physics or engineering student; a computation/theory student is paired with an experimental student. The modules are devised so that a range of skills are acquired, and students learn from each other. Receives no course credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. With permission of the DGS, can be used by IGPPEB students to replace the third rotation of MB&B 650b but will receive no separate course credit toward MB&B course requirements. L.J. Regan, J. Bewersdorf, S. Mochrie, C. O’Hern

MB&B 600au, Principles of Biochemistry I Discussion of the physical, structural, and functional properties of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, three major classes of molecules in living organisms. Energy metabolism, hormone signaling, and muscle contraction as examples of complex biological processes whose underlying mechanisms can be understood by identifying and analyzing the molecules responsible for these phenomena. M.R. Koelle, M. Simon

MB&B 601bu, Principles of Biochemistry II A continuation of MB&B 600a that considers the chemistry and metabolism of nucleic acids, the mechanism and regulation of protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and selected topics in macromolecular biochemistry. C. Schlieker, J.A. Steitz

MB&B 602a/CBIO 602a/MCDB 602a, Molecular Cell Biology A comprehensive introduction to the molecular and mechanistic aspects of cell biology for graduate students in all programs. Emphasizes fundamental issues of cellular organization, regulation, biogenesis, and function at the molecular level. S.L. Wolin, M.J. Caplan, C. Crews, P. De Camilli, M. King, T. Melia, I.-H. Park, T.D. Pollard, J.E. Rothman, M. Schwartz

MB&B 625au/GENE 625a/MCDB 625au, Basic Concepts of Genetic Analysis The universal principles of genetic analysis in eukaryotes are discussed in lectures. Students also read a small selection of primary papers illustrating the very best of genetic analysis and dissect them in detail in the discussion sections. While other Yale graduate molecular genetics courses emphasize molecular biology, this course focuses on the concepts and logic underlying modern genetic analysis. T. Xu and staff

MB&B 630b/MCDB 630b, Biochemical and Biophysical Approaches in Molecular and Cellular Biology This graduate course introduces the theory and application of biochemical and bio­physical methods to study the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The course considers the basic physical chemistry required in cellular and molecular biology but does not require a previous course in physical chemistry. One class per week is a lecture introducing a topic. The second class is a discussion of one or two research papers utilizing those methods. Does not count for graduate course credit for BBSB graduate students. A. Pyle and staff

MB&B 635au/ENAS 518a, Mathematical Methods in Biophysics Applied mathematical methods relevant to analysis and interpretation of biophysical and biochemical data are covered. Students apply these methods (statistics and error analysis, differential equations, linear algebra, and Fourier transforms) to analyze data from research groups in MB&B. Prerequisites: MATH 120 (or equivalent) and MB&B 600a (or equivalent), or permission of the instructors. Y. Xiong, J. Howard, C. O’Hern, C.V. Sindelar

MB&B 650, Lab Rotation for First-Year Students Required for all first-year BBSB graduate students. Credit for full year only. M.J. Solomon

MB&B 675a, Seminar for First-Year Students Required for all first-year BBSB graduate students. C.V. Sindelar

MB&B 676b, Responsible Conduct of Research Designed for students who are beginning to do scientific research. The course seeks to describe some of the basic features of life in contemporary research and some of the personal and professional issues that researchers encounter in their work. Approximately six sessions, run in a seminar/discussion format. Required for all first-year BBSB graduate students. S.J. Baserga and staff

MB&B 710b4/C&MP 710b, Electron Cryo-Microscopy for Protein Structure Determination Understanding cellular function requires structural and biochemical studies at an ever-increasing level of complexity. The course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. This rapidly emerging new technique is the only method that allows biological macromolecules to be studied at all levels of resolution from cellular organization to near atomic detail. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. F.J. Sigworth, C.V. Sindelar

MB&B 715b/ENAS 705b/PHYS 705b, Numerical Simulations of Liquids An in-depth introduction to numerical simulations including molecular dynamics, discrete element modeling, Monte Carlo methods, and Markov chains. These techniques are applied to simulate liquids, granular media, polymers, and proteins. Experience with C++, Fortran, or Matlab is required. C. O’Hern

MB&B 720au, Macromolecular Structure and Biophysical Analysis An in-depth analysis of macromolecular structure and its elucidation using modern methods of structural biology and biochemistry. Topics include architectural arrangements of proteins, RNA, and DNA; practical methods in structural analysis; and an introduction to diffraction and NMR. Prerequisites: physical chemistry (may be taken concurrently) and biochemistry. Y. Xiong, D.M. Engelman, A.D. Miranker, T.A. Steitz

MB&B 722b3, Optical Spectroscopy of Biomolecules The course covers optical spectroscopy and microscopy ranging from basic UV, visible, and IR approaches, as well as cutting-edge single molecule and high-resolution imaging techniques. Prerequisites: introductory biochemistry, biophysics, and physical chemistry. A.E. Rhoades

MB&B 723b4, Macromolecular Interactions: Atoms to Networks This course examines the nature of the intricate networks of macromolecular interactions that underlie the functioning of every cell and the modern biophysical methods available for their study across multiple length, time, and energy scales. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. L.J. Regan

MB&B 730a, Methods and Logic in Molecular Biology The course examines fundamental concepts in molecular biology through intense critical analysis of the primary literature. The objective is to develop primary literature reading and critical thinking skills. Required of and open only to first-year graduate students in BBSB. M.J. Solomon, E.M. De La Cruz, A.J. Koleske, L.J. Regan, M. Simon, and staff

[MB&B 734a/GENE 734a/MBIO 734a/PATH 734a, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Offered every other year]

MB&B 743bu/GENE 743b/MCDB 743b, Advanced Eukaryotic Molecular Biology Selected topics in transcriptional control, regulation of chromatin structure, mRNA processing, mRNA stability, RNA interference, translation, protein degradation, DNA replication, DNA repair, site-specific DNA recombination, somatic hypermutation. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. M.W. Hochstrasser, K. Neugebauer, P. Sung

MB&B 749au/GENE 749a, Medical Impact of Basic Science Consideration of examples of recent discoveries in basic science that have elucidated the molecular origins of disease or that have suggested new therapies for disease. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles on which these advances rely. Reading is from the primary scientific and medical literature, with emphasis on developing the ability to read this literature critically. Aimed primarily at undergraduates. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. May not be taken by MB&B B.S./MS. students for graduate course credit. J.A. Steitz, M.W. Hochstrasser, I.G. Miller, A.D. Miranker, D.G. Schatz, T.A. Steitz, P. Sung, and staff

[MB&B 750a2, Biological Membranes]

MB&B 752au/CB&B 752a/CPSC 752au/MCDB 752au, Bioinformatics: Practical Application of Simulation and Data Mining Bioinformatics encompasses the analysis of gene sequences, macromolecular structures, and functional genomics data on a large scale. It represents a major practical application for modern techniques in data mining and simulation. Specific topics to be covered include sequence alignment, large-scale processing, next-generation sequencing data, comparative genomics, phylogenetics, biological database design, geometric analysis of protein structure, molecular-dynamics simulation, biological networks, normalization of microarray data, mining of functional genomics data sets, and machine learning approaches for data integration. Prerequisites: biochemistry and calculus, or permission of the instructor. M.B. Gerstein

MB&B 753a1, Bioinformatics: Practical Application of Data Mining Bioinformatics encompasses the analysis of gene sequences, macromolecular structures, and functional genomics data on a large scale. It represents a major practical application for modern techniques in data mining and simulation. This module focuses on the first of these techniques, data mining. Specific topics to be covered include sequence alignments, comparative genomics and phylogenetics, biological databases, microarray normalization, and machine-learning approaches to data integration. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisites: biochemistry and calculus, or permission of the instructor. M.B. Gerstein

MB&B 754a2, Bioinformatics: Practical Application of Simulation Bioinformatics encompasses the analysis of gene sequences, macromolecular structures, and functional genomics data on a large scale. It represents a major practical application for modern techniques in data mining and simulation. This module focuses on the second of these techniques, simulation. Specific topics to be covered include geometric analysis of protein structure, molecular-dynamics simulation, and biological networks. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisites: biochemistry and calculus, or permission of the instructor. M.B. Gerstein

MB&B 760b3, Principles of Macromolecular Crystallography Rigorous introduction to the principles of macromolecular crystallography, aimed at students who are planning to carry out structural studies involving X-ray crystallography or who want to obtain in-depth knowledge for critical analysis of published crystal structures. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisites: physical chemistry and biochemistry. Y. Xiong, T.A. Steitz

[MB&B 761b4, X-ray Crystallography Workshop]

MB&B 800a, Advanced Topics in Molecular Medicine The seminar, which covers topics in the molecular mechanisms of disease, illustrates timely issues in areas such as protein chemistry and enzymology, intermediary metabolism, nucleic acid biochemistry, gene expression, and virology. M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. Prerequisite: biochemistry (may be taken concurrently). S.J. Baserga, W.H. Konigsberg, and staff

MB&B 900a or 901b, Reading Course in Biophysics Directed reading course in biophysics. Term paper required. By arrangement with faculty. Open only to graduate students in MB&B. Please see syllabus for additional requirements. M.J. Solomon

MB&B 902a or 903b, Reading Course in Molecular Genetics Directed reading course in molecular genetics. Term paper required. By arrangement with faculty. Open only to graduate students in MB&B. Please see syllabus for additional requirements. M.J. Solomon

MB&B 904a or 905b, Reading Course in Biochemistry Directed reading course in biochemistry. Term paper required. By arrangement with faculty. Open only to graduate students in MB&B. Please see syllabus for additional requirements. M.J. Solomon

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Neurobiology

Office: SHM C303, 203.785.4323

http://medicine.yale.edu/neurobiology

Professors A.F. Arnsten, H. Blumenfeld (Neurology), M. Chun (Psychology), M.C. Crair, N. Daw (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), P. De Camilli (Cell Biology), N.C. deLanerolle (Neurosurgery), S. Diano (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), R.S. Duman (Psychiatry), J.E. Gelernter (Psychiatry), C.A. Greer (Neurosurgery), M. Gunel (Neurosurgery), J. Hirsch (Psychiatry), T.L. Horvath (Comparative Medicine), J.D. Kocsis (Neurology), A.J. Koleske (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), R.H. LaMotte (Anesthesiology), D. Lee, C. Leranth (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), P.J. Lombroso (Child Study Center), D.A. McCormick, G.D. Pearlson (Psychiatry), M. Picciotto (Psychiatry), M.N. Potenza (Psychiatry), P. Rakic (Chair), J. Santos-Sacchi (Surgery), N. Sestan, G.M. Shepherd, R. Sinha (Psychiatry), S.M. Strittmatter (Neurology), F.M. Vaccarino (Child Study Center), C.H. Van Dyck (Psychiatry), S.G. Waxman (Neurology), Z. Zhou (Ophthalmology & Visual Science)

Associate Professors M. Alreja (Psychiatry), C.J. Bruce, R.J. DiLeone (Psychiatry), J. Grutzendler (Neurology), E.A. Jonas (Medicine), M. Laubach, C. Li (Psychiatry), A. Louvi (Neurosurgery), J.A. Mazer, D.S. Navaratnam (Neurology), V.A. Pieribone (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), M.L. Schwartz

Assistant Professors J.A. Cardin, B. Chen (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), K.P. Cosgrove (Psychiatry), M.J. Higley, I. Kim (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), I. Levy (Comparative Medicine), J.V. Verhagen

Senior Research Scientists N. Carnevale, M. Hines

Research Scientists A. Duque, C.D. Paspalas, L.D. Selemon, M. Wang

Associate Research Scientists J.B. Ackman, J.I. Arellano, A.E. Ayoub, C. Chiu, Y.K. Imamura, H.J. Kang, Y. Morozov, T.M. Morse, B.G. Rash, R.N. Sachdev, H. Seo, M. Shibata, B. Tahvildari, Y. Xie, H. Xu, X. Xu, Y. Yu

NBIO 500b/NSCI 510b, Structural and Functional Organization of the Human Nervous System An integrative overview of the structure and function of the human brain as it pertains to major neurological and psychiatric disorders. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and clinical correlations are interrelated to provide essential background in the neurosciences. Lectures in neurocytology and neuroanatomy survey neuronal organization in the human brain, with emphasis on long fiber tracts related to clinical neurology. Weekly three-hour laboratory sessions in close collaboration with faculty members. Lectures in neurophysiology cover various aspects of neural function at the cellular level, with a strong emphasis on the mammalian nervous system. Clinical correlations consist of five sessions given by one or two faculty members representing both basic and clinical sciences. These sessions relate neurological symptoms to cellular processes in various diseases of the brain. Variable class schedule; contact course instructors. This course is offered to graduate and M.D./Ph.D. students only and cannot be audited. M.L. Schwartz, P. Rakic, and staff

NBIO 501a/NSCI 501a, Principles of Neuroscience General neuroscience seminar: lectures, readings, and discussion of selected topics in neuroscience. Emphasis is on how approaches at the molecular, cellular, physiological, and organismal levels can lead to understanding of neuronal and brain function. R.J. DiLeone, A. Louvi

NBIO 504b/MCDB 735bU/NSCI 504b, Seminar in Brain Development and Plasticity Weekly seminars and discussion sessions to explore recent advances in our understanding of brain development and plasticity, including neuronal determination, axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and developmental plasticity. W. Zhong, S.S. Chandra, M.C. Crair

NBIO 507b/NEUR 108b/NSCI 507b, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Neurological Disease The course focuses on those diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases, triplet repeat induced diseases, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, etc.) in which modern neuroscience has advanced mechanistic explanations for clinical conditions. It highlights recent molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging experiments in parsing disease mechanisms. The application of pathophysiologic understanding to therapeutics is considered. S.S. Chandra

NBIO 510a, Introduction to Methods in Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Independent study providing firsthand insight into various techniques and approaches used in neuroscience. Light microscopic techniques include various metallic impregnation methods, autoradiography, anterograde and retrograde axonal transport methods, hybridoma and recombined DNA technology, deoxyglucose metabolic method, fluorescent and immunocytochemical methods. Electron microscopy encompasses transmission, electronmicroscopic auto­radiography, and immuno-peroxidase methodology. Choice of techniques and hours to be arranged with individual faculty or staff members of the Department of Neurobiology.

NBIO 511, Introduction to Techniques Used in Electrophysiological Analysis at the Cellular Level Independent study providing practical training in in vivo and in vitro nervous system preparations, extracellular and intracellular recordings, sensory stimulation, dye injections, and selected neuropharmacological procedures. Choice of techniques and hours to be arranged with individual faculty of the Department of Neurobiology.

NBIO 512a/b/NSCI 512a/b, Lab Rotation for First-Year Students Required for all first-year Neuroscience graduate students. Rotation period is one term. Both terms required. Grading is Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. C.A. Greer

NBIO 513a/b/NSCI 513a/b, Second-Year Thesis Research Required for all second-year Neuroscience graduate students. Both terms required. Grading is Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. M.C. Crair

NBIO 532a/NSCI 532a, Neurobiology of Cortical Systems This is a lecture, reading, and discussion-based course focused on the mammalian cerebral cortex. Students learn about the evolution, development, function, and dysfunction of the cortex. Significant emphasis is placed on examining unique aspects of the cortex, including cortical circuit structure, plasticity, cognition, and models of higher-order cognitive processing. We also examine disease processes in which cortical dysfunction is specifically implicated. M.C. Crair

[NBIO 535b/NSCI 535b, History of Modern Neuroscience]

NBIO 570b/C&MP 570b, Sensory Physiology The course provides an overview of the mammalian special sensory systems, including molecular and cellular bases of vision, audition, taste, olfaction, and somatosensation. Faculty with focus in those areas lead presentations and discussions on peripheral and central mechanisms. Psychophysical aspects of sensation are introduced. D. Zenisek, J. Santos-Sacchi, Z. Zhou

NBIO 580b/NSCI 580b, Bioethics in Neuroscience This course is an introduction to ethics and ethical decision making in the neurosciences. Format for the course is an informal discussion. Each week we are joined by members of the Yale faculty and community who can share their experiences and expertise as it relates to the topic of the week. This course is mandatory for first-year graduate students in the Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program (INP). Grading is Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory and is based on attendance/participation, weekly reaction papers, and a final term paper. The successful (Satisfactory) completion of this course is worth one full graduate course credit. C.A. Greer

[NBIO 590a, Sensory Neuroethology: Bats and Owls, Electric Fish, and Beyond Offered every other year]

NBIO 595a/NSCI 595a, Seminar in Visuomotor Neurophysiology Review and discussion of seminal papers in neurophysiological and computational studies of visual system, covering papers on the receptive field physiology of neurons in the retina and central visual pathway, motor cortex, and computational theories of vision and motor control. The course largely focuses on the literature in primates, but also draws on behavioral and neurophysiological studies in other mammals, such as cats and humans. Contact instructor for first class date and time. D. Lee, J.A. Mazer

[NBIO 596a/NSCI 596a, Seminar in Neurophysiology of Decision Making]

NBIO 597b/NSCI 597b, Neuroeconomics This course introduces some of the main topics in human decision-making research. We discuss how behavioral economics methods are combined with neuroscientific tools, in particular functional MRI and single-neuron recordings, to study the neural mechanisms underlying decision and valuation processes. The course includes both introductory presentations by the instructors and paper presentations by the students. D. Lee, I. Levy

NBIO 602a/b, Topics in Cortical Development and Evolution This advanced tutorial course involves extensive reading, discussion, and pilot experiments on the topic. P. Rakic

NBIO 610b/C&MP 620b, Fundamentals in Neurophysiology The course is designed for students who wish to gain a theoretical and practical knowledge of modern neurophysiology. Graduate students specializing in neurophysiology and non-neurophysiology are encouraged to attend, as the course begins at a very basic level and progresses to more complicated topics. Topics include properties of ion channels, firing properties of neurons, synaptic transmission, and neurophysiology methodology. V.A. Pieribone, F.J. Sigworth

NBIO 720a/MCDB 720au/NSCI 720a, Neurobiology Examination of the excitability of the nerve cell membrane as a starting point for the study of molecular, cellular, and intracellular mechanisms underlying the generation and control of behavior. H. Keshishian, P. Forscher

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Neurology

Office: LCI 912, 203.785.5947

http://medicine.yale.edu/neurology

Professors T. Allison (Emeritus), H. Blumenfeld, J. Booss (Emeritus), M.B. Bracken (Epidemiology), H. Feldman (Adjunct), W.D. Graf (Pediatrics), D.M. Greer, D. Hafler (Chair), L.J. Hirsch, B. Jabbari, R.D. Kerns (Psychiatry), J.D. Kocsis, R.H. Mattson (Emeritus), L.R. Ment (Pediatrics), G. Miller (Pediatrics), J.W. Prichard (Emeritus), P. Rakic (Neurobiology), B.A. Shaywitz (Pediatrics), S.M. Strittmatter, C.H. Van Dyck (Psychiatry), S.G. Waxman

Associate Professors J.M. Baehring, R.B. Duckrow, J.M. Goldstein, J. Grutzendler, D.S. Navaratnam, J.W. Pan (Neurosurgery), H.S. Patwa, D. Pelletier, O.A. Petroff, S. Spudich, J. Thomas

Assistant Professors K.P. Becker, F.C. Brown, G. Buchanan, W.B. Cafferty, S.S. Chandra, C. Cotsapas, K. Detyniecki, D.B. DiCapua, E.J. Gilmore, H. Hamid, D.Y. Hwang, C. Juchem (Diagnostic Radiology), B. Khokhar, D.G. Machado, E.G. Marcolini (Emergency Medicine), S. Novella, H.B. Nygaard, K.C. O’Connor, D. Pitt, D. Richardson, J. Schindler, K.N. Sheth, J.J. Sico, H. Tokuno, D.C. Volpe, F.S. Winstanley

Instructors M. Alkawadri, M.A. Bailey, P. Farooque, L.L. Huh, R. Nowak, N. Rampal

Senior Research Scientists S.D. Dib-Hajj, R.H. Mattson

Research Scientist J.A. Black

Associate Research Scientists O. Abdul Samad, E.J. Arroyo, J. Bai, X. Cheng, M. Dominguez-Villar, N.R. Driesen (Psychiatry), M. Estacion, M. Furman, E.C. Gunther, C. Han, J. Hyun, I. Kim, M. Kleinewietfeld, K. Lankford, G.D. Ponath, K. Raddassi, S. Shields, M. Stagi, A.M. Szekely (Genetics), H. Takahashi, A. Tan, D. Vasylyev, X. Wang, S.A. Wilson, M. Wolfel, Y. Wu, H.P. Zaveri, P. Zhao

Clinical Professors R.L. Lesser (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), S.R. Levy (Pediatrics), F.M. Testa (Pediatrics), T.J. Walsh (Ophthalmology & Visual Science)

Associate Clinical Professors R.C. Delaney, J.C. McVeety, N.S. Werdiger, R.S. Young (Pediatrics)

Assistant Clinical Professors S.L. Bridgers, L.J. Cretella, T.Z. Fischer, J.B. Guarnaccia, M. Hasbani, M.J. Hasbani, A. Katz, J.H. Mashman, D.S. Russell (Psychiatry), K.N. Sena, M.J. Stransky

Clinical Instructors O. Avitzur, C.H. Gottschalk, T.B. Toothaker, J. Yim

Lecturers L. Bangalore, J.L. Gross, S. Kadimi, P.J. McAllister, A. Quan Hong, D.J. Shiling, K.C. Siegel, D.M. Zagar

NEUR 102, Clinical Neuroscience Core Clerkship The primary goal of this four-week clinical clerkship is to provide students with a fundamental approach to the nervous system. Specifically, this means the history, examination, diagnostic imaging, and treatment in the context of specific patients. Additionally, there is a series of lectures covering the broad range of conditions students are likely to encounter, such as trauma, stroke, infections, tumors, dementias, and seizures. Students take call with neurology residents once a week at Yale-New Haven Hospital; students assigned to neurosurgery take call with the residents on that service. After having given input on their preferences, students are placed on one of the following services for their clerkships: adult inpatient neurology, adult neurology consultation service, pediatric neurology, neurosurgery. All rotations are done at YNHH and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven. H.S. Patwa, L.R. Ment, C.C. Duncan, H. Blumenfeld

NEUR 106b, Clinical Neurophysiology Seminars and demonstrations in clinical applications of neurophysiology: electromyography and electroencephalography. Basic electronics are taught along with standard practice of recording and interpreting neurophysiology studies. J.M. Goldstein, H.S. Patwa, S. Novella

NEUR 108b/NBIO 507b/NSCI 507b, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Neurological Disease The course focuses on those diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases, triplet repeat induced diseases, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, etc.) in which modern neuroscience has advanced mechanistic explanations for clinical conditions. It highlights recent molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging experiments in parsing disease mechanisms. The application of pathophysiologic understanding to therapeutics is considered. Contact instructor for first class date and time. D.S. Navaratnam, S.M. Strittmatter, S.G. Waxman

NEUR 112b, Neuro-Oncology Neurological complications occur in approximately 20 percent of hospitalized oncology patients. The neurological complications of systemic cancer, as well as of primary CNS tumors, are discussed in depth. Issues regarding diagnosis and management of metastatic disease involving the nervous system as well as treatment-related complications are reviewed. In addition, metabolic and vascular disturbances and infections unique to the oncology patient that involve the nervous system are discussed. Specific cases are presented and arrangements are made to see specific patients during the elective period. This course is offered every three weeks with two lectures each week and is limited to three or four students per session. J.M. Baehring

NEUR 114b, Physiology of the Mammalian Nervous System The overall objective of this laboratory course is to introduce the student by hands-on experience to a variety of cellular electrophysiological techniques used in the study of the mammalian nervous system. Students set up a small electrophysiology laboratory and carry out experiments with the supervision of faculty. Laboratories include sucrose gap in whole nerve, single microelectrode current and voltage clamp recording of sensory neurons, field potential studies in rat hippocampal slice, and patch clamp analysis of cultured neurons. This course is limited to six to eight students. Permission of instructor is required for enrollment, 203.937.3802. J.D. Kocsis

Clinical Neurology Elective

In this four-week elective, the student chooses to work on the clinical neurology ward service, the clinical neurology consultation service, or the neurology ambulatory care service (see below for detailed descriptions). The student works directly with attending faculty, chief residents, and junior residents as well as other medical students, rotators, and support staff. A series of special didactic conferences on the most important topics in neurology is provided. The student also participates in departmental conferences and seminars. An assessment of the history taking, neurological examining skills, and problem assessment is performed by an attending faculty member with each student. An evaluation of the student’s performance is provided, using input from the attending faculty and the chief resident(s). At times, other customized electives may be designed with the program director in areas such as epilepsy, stroke, movement disorders, neuroimmunology, etc., as well as clinical neurophysiology and research methods. Students may request a choice, but assignments are made to ensure that there is a balanced distribution of the students on the required neuroscience clerkship and the student doing an elective, in order to allow an optimal learning experience for all students. One student every four weeks. Director: H.S. Patwa

NEUR 200, Clinical Neurology Ward Service Elective Under appropriate supervision, students directly examine, diagnose, and manage patients on the neurology ward service at Yale-New Haven Hospital and attend daily teaching rounds and conferences. The VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, is also available for this rotation. One student every four weeks. Director: H.S. Patwa

NEUR 201, Clinical Neurology Consultation Service Elective Under the supervision of the neurology consult resident and attending physician, students evaluate patients referred for neurologic consultation from other inpatient services at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Students also participate in clinics and academic activities of the department. The VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, is also available for this rotation. One student every four weeks. Director: H.S. Patwa

NEUR 300, Neurology Ambulatory Care Service Elective Students electing this rotation are assigned to various clinics that include general neurology, neuroimmunology, stroke, movement disorders, epilepsy, and private faculty offices. Associated Neurologists of Southern Connecticut, Fairfield, is also available for this rotation. One student every four weeks. Director: H.S. Patwa

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Neurosurgery

Office: TMP 4, 203.785.2805

http://medicine.yale.edu/neurosurgery

Professors H. Blumenfeld (Neurology), A. Bordey, R.A. Bronen (Diagnostic Radiology), R.T. Constable (Diagnostic Radiology), N.C. deLanerolle, C.C. Duncan, C.A. Greer, D.M. Greer (Neurology), M. Gunel, H.P. Hetherington (Adjunct), C.C. LaMotte (Emeritus), J.A. Persing (Surgery), J.M. Piepmeier, D.E. Redmond, Jr. (Psychiatry), K.J. Ruskin (Anesthesiology), D.D. Spencer (Chair), A.N. Van den Pol

Associate Professors J.M. Baehring (Neurology), K.R. Bulsara, V.L. Chiang, R.B. Duckrow (Neurology), M.H. Johnson (Diagnostic Radiology), J.T. King, A. Louvi, J.W. Pan, A. Williamson (Adjunct)

Assistant Professors K.M. Abbed, I. Cavus (Psychiatry), M.L. DiLuna, T. Eid (Laboratory Medicine), D.J. Gaal (Anesthesiology), J.L. Gerrard, M.S. Laurans, C.C. Matouk, J. Schindler (Neurology), J. Zhou

Research Scientist K. Yasuno

Associate Research Scientists K. Bilguvar, A.O. Caglayan, O.I. Henegariu, F. Imamura, K. Mishra, A.S. Mobley, S. Nishimura, S.B. Omay, J.C. Paglino, D.J. Rodriguez-Gil, G. Wollmann, K. Wu

Clinical Professor J.F. Kveton (Surgery)

Associate Clinical Professors I. Goodrich, D.E. Nijensohn

Assistant Clinical Professors P.S. Dickey, A.F. Douglas, P.B. Senatus, J.G. Strugar

Clinical Instructors E.W. Akeyson, K.E. Holmes

NEUS 101, Subinternship in Neurological Surgery The goals of this full-time, four-week subinternship experience are to work as a team; develop clinical skills, patient management strategies, in-depth understanding of patients assigned, and fundamental operative skills; and be able to articulate differential diagnosis and treatment options for faculty and residents. The subinternship is designed to give the student maximum opportunity to see inpatient and outpatient neurosurgical clinical material and to have a correlation with neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropathology. A major portion of the time is patient-care-oriented, with specific subject-oriented assignments in the basic neurological sciences.

Students are expected to round with their team, follow their patients, participate in operative cases, take call one to two nights per week, and present at teaching conferences. This subinternship is required for Yale School of Medicine students planning to enter the match for neurosurgery and is strongly recommended prior to outside subinternship experiences.

Students who wish to have a more limited exposure to the field as an elective may, with department approval, choose a two-week rotation; and outside (non-Yale) students may wish to opt for a two-week experience if their scheduling is limited. Additional information is available at http://medicine.yale.edu/neurosurgery. Maximum of four students every four weeks. Codirectors: C.C. Duncan, C.C. Matouk

NEUS 102, Investigational Neuroscience Typically taken during completion of the thesis requirement. Specific projects are by agreement with faculty members. Ongoing laboratory research includes the molecular neuroanatomical assessment of the epileptic focus (N.C. deLanerolle); ultrastructural assessment of organization and plasticity in local synaptic networks (C.A. Greer); use of viruses and viral vectors to treat brain cancer and neurological dysfunction (A.N. Van den Pol); understanding tuberous sclerosis complex and mTOR contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive deficits (A. Bordey); human and animal slice electrophysiology and metabolism (A. Bordey); human and animal intracerebral microdialysis (D.D. Spencer, T. Eid); image-guided neurosurgical robotics and biophysical studies of brain imaging (D.D. Spencer, J. Duncan, K.P. Vives); stimulation of the brain for chronic neurological diseases (K.P. Vives, R.B. Duckrow, D.D. Spencer); molecular genetics of neurological disease (M. Gunel, M.L. DiLuna); molecular mechanisms of brain morphogenesis and pathogenesis (A. Louvi); metabolome analysis in cerebral vasospasm, angiogenesis and neurogenesis, skull base anatomy, bypass techniques, and endovascular technology development (K.R. Bulsara); characterization of ensheathing cells in promoting axonal elongation (C.A. Greer); biodegradable nanoparticles for convection enhanced delivery of therapy for malignant gliomas (J.M. Piepmeier). Clinical research includes spine disease and clinical trials (K.M. Abbed), epilepsy surgery (D.D. Spencer, K.P. Vives), pediatric neurosurgery outcomes (C.C. Duncan, M.L. DiLuna), neurooncology (J.M. Piepmeier, J.M. Baehring), basic mechanisms in CNS lymphoma (J.M. Baehring), and stereotactic radiosurgery (V.L. Chiang, K.P. Vives). Available throughout the year. Arrangements made with C.A. Greer

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Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences

Office: FMB 307, 203.785.4212, Jill Aulenti, Manager of Medical Education

http://medicine.yale.edu/obgyn

Professors A.M. Arici, M.B. Bracken (Epidemiology), F.R. Braveman (Anesthesiology), J.A. Copel, T. D’Hooghe (Adjunct), S. Diano, A.J. Duleba (Adjunct), R.A. Ehrenkranz (Pediatrics), M. Hickey (Adjunct), R.B. Hochberg, T.L. Horvath (Comparative Medicine), E.I. Kohorn (Emeritus), C. Leranth, P.E. Levi Setti (Adjunct), C.J. Lockwood (Adjunct), W.E. Longo (Surgery), M.J. Mahoney (Genetics), N.J. Maihle, S.M. McCarthy (Diagnostic Radiology), G.G. Mor, M.J. Paidas, P. Patrizio, S. Pecorelli (Adjunct), T.J. Rutherford, A.D. Santin, P.M. Sarrel (Emeritus), P.E. Schwartz, F.A. Tavassoli (Pathology), H.S. Taylor (Chair), K.A. Yonkers (Psychiatry)

Associate Professors V.M. Abrahams, M.M. Abu-Khalaf (Medicine), M. Azodi, M.O. Bahtiyar, V. Bhandari (Pediatrics), C. Bulletti (Adjunct), F. Galerneau, X. Gao (Comparative Medicine), J.B. Henrich (Medicine), S.A. Higgins (Therapeutic Radiology), Y. Huang, P. Hui (Pathology), J.L. Illuzzi, M. Lee (Adjunct), U. Magriples, L. Pal, D. Sakkas (Adjunct), E.U. Seli, A.K. Sfakianaki, N.S. Stachenfeld, N.L. Stanwood

Assistant Professors S. Abdel-Razeq, R.S. Bercik, K.H. Campbell, L.L. Fan, A. Gariepy, M.K. Guess, C.S. Han, J. Johnson, P.H. Kodaman, N.E. Kummer, H.S. Lipkind, W. Mak, J. Martin, R. Menon (Adjunct), C.M. Pettker, E. Ratner, J.A. Shaw, D. Silasi, M. Silasi, X. Xu

Instructors K.L. Archabald, S.N. Cross, M. Dick, L.F. Doherty, C.M. Duzyj Buniak, D. English, S. Ghazal, C.P. Gheorghe, J.T. Hardy, A.W. Johnson, A.N. Kallen, A. Lake, M.E. McCarthy, A.M. McPencow, R. Papanna, D. Roque, S. Torrealday, J. Varughese

Senior Research Scientists S.M. Guller, G.B. Huszar

Research Scientists A. Alvero, H.J. Kliman, G. Krikun

Associate Research Scientists S. Bellone, H. Du, C.A. Flannery, L. Lundsberg, M. Maduro

Clinical Professors M.R. Berman, D. Greenfeld, V.A. Lynch, M. Minkin, H.J. Sauer, J.S. Silidker, S.S. Spangler, L.J. Wartel

Associate Clinical Professors R.D. Auerbach, Y. Barnhard, S.E. Casper, R.A. Cwik, S.J. Fleischman, T.M. Hanson, R.B. Kaump, P.S. Marcus, L. Mikhail, N.A. Ravski, S.M. Richman, S. Shahabi, H. Shaw, B.B. Silverman, H. Simon, R.J. Stiller, L.H. Zamore

Assistant Clinical Professors N. Achong Dorvilus, P.C. Brines, A.R. Chelouche, R. Chosak, P.J. Coppola, J. Cron, J.A. Cuteri, R.C. Deal, E.A. Fine, S.M. Flaherty, W.P. Fleming, K.C. Fletcher, M.E. Gillette, D. Gottschall, L.C. Hanlon, C.L. Kandall, B.D. Karsif, G.E. Kleinman, S.A. Laifer, P.M. Lamastra, M.R. Laser, A. Lee, D.M. Lima, E. Luchansky, S. Mark (Medicine), R.D. Moscarelli, S. Pace, S.R. Pathy, L. Plisic, R. Pringle, B.F. Rigney, D.M. Roth, D.J. Russell, L.A. Starace-Colabella, A. Strong, H.I. Suesserman, E.A. Topran, O.J. Vincent, M.J. Wise, T. Zreik

Clinical Instructors A. Acharya, N. Adsuar, M.C. Asis, K.R. Aversa, C. Bernier, E.E. Blair, S.M. Cassell, K. Chacho, K. Despot, M. Dube, G. Dunston-Boone, A.Y. Edusa, L. Geer-Yan, R. Goldberg, J.T. Grosso, C.E. Herrick, C.R. Huttler, N. Kaushal, R. Kaza, N.R. Kellett (Office of Medical Education), D.R. Kopel, H. Lope De Haro, G. Lynch, B.L. Maloy, A. Ofer, E. Palluotto, C.E. Presnick, K.M. Rath, M.S. Reel, J.A. Reinshagen (Office of Medical Education), M.C. Rhee, E. Sauter, D. Sivak, M.L. Speranza, M. Szeto, K.A. Thomas, A.L. Tirado, D. Tonzola, M.M. Tse, A.V. Vash-Margita, S.R. Vaz, J.D. Vulte (Office of Medical Education), R. Wineland

Lecturers L. Browning (Office of Medical Education), F.P. Haseltine, A.E. Moss (Office of Medical Education), S.R. Pathy, M. Reault (Office of Medical Education)

OBGY 103, Core Clerkship This core clerkship is a six-week rotation in which students serve as clinical clerks on the following services: obstetrics (two weeks), gynecology (two weeks), and ambulatory OB/GYN (two weeks). Yale-New Haven Hospital and Bridgeport Hospital serve as the main clinical sites for this rotation. During the first week of the six-week clerkship, all students attend an in-depth evening teaching session with the Gynecologic Teaching Associates (GTA), where they are carefully taught pelvic and breast examination techniques, and practice these techniques with the GTA. These practice sessions, in addition to other simulation sessions, prepare students to adeptly handle actual patient examinations, review techniques and instruments, as well as understand how to manage patient encounters. During the Obstetrics portion of the rotation (one week Day Float and one week Night Float), the clinical clerk is assigned to the Labor and Delivery Unit and is expected to actively participate in patient care commensurate with his or her experience. Students are expected to work up and follow patients during the labor and delivery process, write notes during the intrapartum period, participate in vaginal deliveries, scrub in and assist in cesarean deliveries, and participate in the patient’s postpartum care. Students on the Gynecology services become familiar with the common disorders encountered in gynecological practice. They scrub for both major and minor surgeries, including those performed for gynecologic malignancy. The rotation offers an opportunity for the student to learn preoperative and postoperative management of gynecologic patients and to review pelvic and abdominal anatomy. The students spend two weeks in the ambulatory OB/GYN setting where they actively participate in antenatal care of pregnant patients as well as preventative and urgent health care visits for non-pregnant women. Students are supervised by attendings, physician associates, midwives, and residents as they learn to take histories, perform pelvic and breast exams, and gain experience in conducting normal obstetrical visits and routine gynecological care. The student is expected to gain experience in topics such as contraceptive counseling, family planning, menopause management, and other common patient complaints. Subspecialty experiences in Reproductive Endocrinology, Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Family Planning, Gynecologic Oncology, and Urogynecology are integrated into the clerkship. Throughout the rotation, a didactic curriculum is delivered to cover the core topics in Obstetrics and Gynecology, which includes seminars, lectures, standardized patients to practice patient counseling, clinical reasoning workshops, discussions, and student presentations and debates on controversial topics in OB/GYN. Evaluation of the student is based on clinical performance and knowledge, professionalism and attendance, participation at rounds and didactics, student presentations, and submitted write-ups for the student portfolio. The recommended text for this elective is Obstetrics and Gynecology at a Glance by Errol Norwitz and John Schorge. Clerkship director: J.L. Illuzzi

OBGY 107, Subinternship in Maternal Fetal Medicine The Maternal Fetal Medicine division offers a four-week high-risk obstetrics elective for fourth-year medical students. The student functions as a subintern and team member in the care of high-risk obstetrical patients at Yale-New Haven Hospital. In addition to inpatient duties, the student attends the outpatient clinic once a week. Students also participate in prenatal ultrasound sessions as well as labor and delivery activities. Numerous didactic conferences are held during the rotation. It is recommended that students use the text Williams Obstetrics (Cunningham) to prepare for this experience and for research during the rotation. Evaluation of the student is based on clinical performance, participation at rounds, and the student’s presentation of one evidence-based case review to members of the MFM division. Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. There are two weekend calls on this elective. One student every four weeks. Director: F. Galerneau

OBGY 108, Subinternship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility The Reproductive Endocrine and Infertility (REI) division offers a four-week elective to fourth- and fifth-year students. In addition to gaining knowledge about human reproductive endocrine function, students are introduced to disruptions in physiology and function that can lead to endocrinological and infertility disorders. Common problems seen in REI practice include female and male infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, anovulation, amenorrhea, endometriosis, chronic pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and uterine leiomyomas. Exposure to Advanced Reproductive Technologies (ART) is integrated into this elective. In addition to clinical activities in the office and the hospital, students have the opportunity to attend division conferences. Evaluation is based on clinical performance in the office and the operating room, and on an evidence-based presentation on an REI topic of interest. Recommended text: Clinical Gynecological Endocrinology & Infertility (Speroff). Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. During this rotation, it is necessary to travel back and forth between Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Long Wharf Medical Center, 150 Sargent Drive, New Haven. One student every four weeks. Director: P.H. Kodaman

OBGY 109, Subinternship in Gynecology/Oncology The purpose of this elective is to enhance the student’s knowledge of the diagnosis and management of women’s gynecologic malignancies. The student is exposed to all modalities of treatment for gynecologic malignancies including radical gynecological surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The student is expected to be an integral part of the team in the management of the patients admitted to the service. The student admits patients and takes part in their care throughout the elective period. In addition to operating room exposure, extensive experience is gained in the postoperative management of these patients. In the ambulatory setting, the student is exposed to the outpatient management of cancer, chemotherapy, and colposcopy. On a weekly basis, the student also attends divisional teaching sessions and the multidisciplinary tumor conference. There is no night call on this elective. The recommended text is Clinical Gynecologic Oncology (DiSaia). Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. One student every four weeks. Director: E. Ratner

OBGY 110, Subinternship at the Gallup Indian Medical Center (New Mexico) The general Ob/Gyn department of the Gallup Indian Medical Center (GIMC) in New Mexico offers a subinternship in obstetrics and gynecology to fourth- and fifth-year Yale medical students. This center provides Ob/Gyn health care to a growing underserved population. There are no residents at GIMC, and the student therefore gains first-assistant experience during this rotation. The center has 20,000 outpatient visits, 750 deliveries, and 400 surgical cases per year. Bedside rounds, hands-on teaching, formal and informal lectures, and weekly conferences (high-risk Ob/Gyn M&M, C-section review) are integrated into this extramural elective. Students also experience an immersion in the Navajo culture. Evaluation of students is based on clinical performance, participation at rounds, and a final case-based presentation. Night call is approximately every 4–5 nights. The recommended text for this elective is Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology. Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. Students are responsible for the cost of travel, lodging, and miscellaneous expenses. One or two students every four weeks. Director: G. Lynch (on site at GIMC, New Mexico)

OBGY 112, Family Planning/Reproductive Choice Elective This two- or four-week elective provides hands-on experience in family planning in diverse clinical settings. Family planning clinics provide resources to enable couples to determine whether, when, and how often to have children, with special consideration to birth spacing and maternal and child health. The student is exposed to contraceptive counseling and options counseling (abortion, adoption, parenthood). Contraceptive counseling and care includes insertion of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARC, IUDs, and implants). In addition, the student participates in first-trimester ultrasound, medical and surgical abortions, and medical and surgical management of early pregnancy failures and intrauterine fetal demise. Evaluation is based on clinical performance in patient encounters and procedures, and on an evidence-based presentation on a family planning topic. During this rotation, it is necessary to travel back and forth between Yale-New Haven Hospital, Summit Medical Center at 3787 Main Street, Bridgeport, and Planned Parenthood in New Haven. Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. One student every two or four weeks. Codirectors: N.L. Stanwood, A. Gariepy, S.M. Richman

OBGY 208, Outpatient/Ambulatory Elective This elective provides a broad exposure to outpatient gynecologic issues commonly encountered in the ambulatory setting, such as contraception, menstrual abnormalities, pelvic pain, vaginitis and sexually transmitted disease, infertility, disorders of urinary continence, screening for gynecologic malignancies, and management of menopausal symptoms. The student also has the opportunity to participate in the prenatal care of pregnant women in order to gain a deeper understanding of the changes in maternal physiology throughout gestation, prenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling, and the outpatient management of the pregnant woman and her fetus. Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. One student every two or four weeks. Director: J.L. Illuzzi

OBGY 270, Subinternship in General Obstetrics/Gynecology, Bridgeport Hospital Students actively participate in an Ob/Gyn team-centered learning environment at a community hospital. Prerequisite: OBGY 103 or equivalent. One or two students every four weeks. Director: P.S. Marcus

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Ophthalmology and Visual Science

Office: 40 Temple Street, 3rd floor, 203.785.2020

http://medicine.yale.edu/eyes

Professors R.A. Adelman, M. Coca-Prados (Adjunct; Emeritus), M.C. Crair (Neurobiology), N. Daw (Emeritus), C. Gonzalez (Emeritus), W.H. Miller (Emeritus), M.L. Sears (Emeritus), M. Shields (Emeritus), J.H. Sinard (Pathology), J.C. Tsai (Chair), Z. Zhou

Associate Professors J.B. Demb, J.J. Hoh (Epidemiology), J.J. Huang, M.A. Materin, L.J. Rizzolo (Surgery), K.M. Stoessel, C.J. Zeiss (Comparative Medicine), D. Zenisek (Cellular & Molecular Physiology)

Assistant Professors B. Chen, J.H. Chow, J.A. Galvin, T.M. Grippo, J.E. Kempton, I. Kim, F. Levin, P.C. Palmisano, J.J. Servat, A. Shayegani

Instructors S.P. Karim, J. Liu

Associate Research Scientists B. Borghuis, S. Lee, J. Lin

Clinical Professors I. Abrahams, R.L. Lesser, P.E. Liggett, D.E. Silverstone, T.J. Walsh

Associate Clinical Professors B.M. DeBroff, S.H. Forster, P.H. Haffner, A.J. Levada, M.S. Milner, J.J. Olson, D.W. Parke, A.D. Rose, G. Shafranov, C.A. Sklar, R.A. Wiznia

Assistant Clinical Professors D.A. Bacal, P.J. Branden, N. Chaudhry, A.J. Daccache, V.P. de Luise, L. Doctor, P.A. Ecker, J.S. Elman, G.T. Emerick, P.M. Falcone, A.J. Fezza, P. Gaudio, J. Geffin, P.C. Guida, S.B. Hersh, M.A. Howard, W.I. Larrison, E.S. Lim, J.F. Martone, A.W. Mead, A. Musto, R.J. Noecker, R.L. Petrelli, A. Romania, C.A. Sierra, J. Sokol, S.M. Soloway, D. Tom, J.M. Weisz, M.L. Weitzman, B.D. Zuckerman

Clinical Instructors S.B. Castracane, T.H. Cronin, M. Dombrow, O. Faridi, A.H. Guerrero, A.M. Hwang, Y. Kostina-O’Neil, D.H. Levinson, P.A. Marks, P.E. Masi, S.W. Meskin, J.J. Pasternack, R. Scartozzi, S.P. Shah, M.R. Shapiro, D.P. Shore, J.E. Silbert, A.P. Swan, S.C. Thornquist, E.L. Volker

OPHT 120, Ophthalmology and Visual Science Clinical Elective This intensive two- or four-week elective consists of ten half-day sessions per week. Students observe in specialty clinics and ophthalmic surgery. More advanced students evaluate patients in a general ophthalmology clinic. Students are expected to participate in departmental conferences and review independent study material provided by the department. Subspecialty experience includes cornea and external eye disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, oculoplastics, retinal disease, and strabismus. By the end of the elective, students should be able to recognize the four most common causes of profound blindness and be able to identify vision-threatening and non-vision-threatening causes of a red eye; perform an external eye exam; use an ophthalmoscope to identify the optic nerve and be able to describe it; and have some familiarity with the slit lamp. Students who do the four-week elective are expected to do a presentation at the end of the rotation. Evaluation is based on clinic performance, the case discussions, and the presentation. Teaching settings include the Yale Eye Center; the Yale Health Center; the Eye Clinic at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven; and the Cornell Scott-Hill Health Center. Prerequisite: second-year ophthalmology module or equivalent. Maximum of three students every two or four weeks. Director: S.H. Forster

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Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

Office: YPB 133, 203.785.2579

http://medicine.yale.edu/ortho

Professors M.R. Baumgaertner, C.G. Carpenter, T.O. Carpenter (Pediatrics), G.E. Friedlaender (Chair), M.C. Horowitz, P. Jokl, L.D. Katz (Diagnostic Radiology), K.J. Keggi, M.M. Panjabi (Emeritus), R.R. Pelker, T.S. Renshaw (Emeritus), B.G. Smith, W.O. Southwick (Emeritus)

Associate Professors T.A. Blaine, S.D. Dodds, J.N. Grauer, A.H. Haims (Diagnostic Radiology), M.J. Medvecky, P.G. Whang, J.J. Yue

Assistant Professors C.W. Carter, V.P. Eswarakumar, P.C. Ivancic, M.P. Leslie, D.M. Lindskog, J.S. Reach, M. Sharkey, K.M. Sutton, C.R. Swigart, S. Tommasini

Instructors J. Bullock, E.J. Carlson, A.M. Ferrucci, T. Fishler, A. Socci

Senior Research Scientist A.M. Vignery

Associate Research Scientist J.A. Fretz, L. Li, A. Sachpatzidis

Clinical Professors J.K. Lynch, U.H. Weil

Associate Clinical Professors H.B. Bradburn, E.J. Sella

Assistant Clinical Professors M.P. Altman, J.M. Aversa, A.L. Axtmayer, R.A. Bernstein, D.S. Caminear, M.P. Connair, J.P. Daigneault, P.A. DeLuca, D.H. Gibson, G.A. Gorecki, J.F. Irving, M.J. Kaplan, J.V. Lieponis, M.A. Luchini, P.P. Luchini, R.B. Mayor, J.D. McCallum, P. Minotti, T. Moran, M.J. Murphy, D.C. Novicki, M.M. Pressman, J.F. Raycroft, A.M. Reznik, A. Rice, D.S. Rosenblum, A.B. Sicklick, M.D. Silver, J.M. Sumner, S.L. Tomak, S. Vyce, L.D. Weis, V.J. Williams, J. Wu, R.A. Zell

Clinical Instructors N. Babu, J.M. Beiner, P.A. Blume, C.A. Callahan, M.R. Clain, R. Diana, A.H. Feldman, R.B. Feldman, R.P. Hendrikson, N.R. Kaplan, J.D. Kelley, J.J. Key, K.M. Kramer, J.S. Marsh, J.M. Perlman, D.P. Sakalkale, P.M. Sethi, R.A. Stanton, P.B. Stovell

Lecturers L.R. Brenner, G.A. Gorecki, M.J. Parisi, R.E. Stevenson, B.T. Zazulak

ORTH 102, Surgical Clerkship Twelve weeks total. Students in the first clinical year spend six weeks on the general surgical service of one of the following: Yale-New Haven Hospital, Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus, or VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven. Each student is integrated into the clinical team and assigned to specific patients. Responsibilities include taking histories and performing physical examinations on their patients, participating in the evaluation and management of these patients, following patients’ progress, and participating as assistants in the surgical operations performed upon their assigned cases. In addition, the students are expected to participate in the evaluation and care of the critically ill patient in the intensive care unit and the injured patient in the emergency room. Emphasis is placed on involving students in the process of clinical problem solving with the guidance of the residents and the attending preceptors. Conferences, case study groups, and rounds are held emphasizing this problem-oriented approach. Staff

The remaining six-week period is spent as a clinical clerk in the surgical specialties. Seven specialties are offered: cardiothoracic, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, orthopaedics, pediatric, plastic and reconstructive, and urology. Each student elects three of these specialties and spends two weeks on each. While on the specialty of choice, the student is assigned patients in rotation and carries out complete histories, physical examinations, and certain procedures on these patients. While on the orthopaedic service, the student is assigned to one of the subspecialty teams, which include pediatric orthopaedics, spine, joint reconstruction, trauma, oncology, foot and ankle, hand, and sports medicine. The student is expected to participate, whenever possible, in the operative procedures performed on these patients and in their postoperative care. The student is also invited to attend the outpatient clinics in his or her assigned specialty. A series of one-hour lectures, rounds, or demonstrations is given each afternoon by the surgical specialties so that the student has the opportunity of gaining knowledge of the wide field of specialties even though he or she does not participate in every specialty as a clinical clerk. Directed by individual surgical specialty chiefs

ORTH 104, Subinternship in Orthopaedics, Yale-New Haven Hospital Limited to third, fourth, and fifth clinical years. Students are active members of one of the orthopaedic teaching teams. Students assist in the management of orthopaedic inpatients and receive operating room experience in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Participation in the orthopaedic outpatient clinics provides experience in the evaluation and treatment of common musculoskeletal conditions. It is recommended that students take call with the orthopaedic resident in the emergency room to gain insight into the principles of acute fracture management. Clinic and operating room experiences are supplemented by weekly subspecialty conferences and the residents’ education program. Maximum of five students every four weeks. Director: S.D. Dodds

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Pathology

Office: LH 108, 203.785.2759

http://medicine.yale.edu/pathology

Professors R. Bucala (Medicine), D. Chhieng, Y. Choi, J. Costa, S.E. Downing (Emeritus), G.E. Friedlaender (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), P.G. Gallagher (Pediatrics), E.J. Glusac, R.J. Homer, S.D. Hudnall, M. Kashgarian (Emeritus), J.H. Kim (Emeritus), D.S. Krause (Laboratory Medicine), G. Kupfer (Pediatrics), P.M. Lizardi, J.A. Madri, N.J. Maihle (Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences), V.T. Marchesi, J.M. McNiff (Dermatology), J.S. Morrow (Chair), J.S. Pober (Immunobiology), D.L. Rimm, M.E. Robert, J.K. Rose, G.S. Shadel, J.H. Sinard, J.L. Sklar, D.F. Stern, F.A. Tavassoli, A.B. West

Associate Professors M.W. Bosenberg (Dermatology), D. Braddock, J.L. Brandsma (Adjunct), S. Chang (Laboratory Medicine), S.E. Cowper (Dermatology), G. Haines, L. Hao, P. Hui, D. Jain, S.H. Kleinstein, Y. Kluger, C.J. Ko (Dermatology), D. Kowalski, M.O. Krauthammer, T. Kyriakides, R. Lazova (Dermatology), R. Means, W. Min, G. Moeckel, R. Morotti, V. Parkash, M. Prasad, M. Robek, A. Subtil (Dermatology), A.O. Vortmeyer, Z. Walther

Assistant Professors A. Adeniran, V. Bossuyt, N. Buza, G. Cai, P. Cohen, A. Domfeh, A. Galan (Dermatology), J.A. Gibson, M. Harigopal, S. Hattangadi (Pediatrics), A.J. Huttner, S.G. Katz, S. Khelifa, A. Levi, K.A. Mitchell, D. Nguyen, M.M. Pinto, K. Politi (Medicine), Y. Qyang (Medicine), O. Saglam, N. Wajapeyee, M.L. Xu, Q. Yan

Instructor R.K. Virk

Senior Research Scientists M. Kashgarian, J.H. Kim

Research Scientists J. Li, M.M. Wan

Associate Research Scientists S. Agarwal, R.A. Albright, Y. Bai, Y. Bao, R.L. Camp, A. Chattopadhyay, D. Chen, C.D. Cianci, R. Cong, P. Gershkovich, Q. Huang, S.M. Lang, Q. Li, Z. Liu, X. Ma, V. Neumeister, N.F. Rose, K. Schalper, L. Shao, M.C. Stankewich, J. Thakar, J. Wang, G. Yang, L. Yu, H. Zhang

Clinical Professors G.L. Davis, D.M. Lowell

Associate Clinical Professors P.N. Fiedler, D.F. Miller

Assistant Clinical Professors W. Carver, R.N. Eisen, N.A. Gelfman, J. Gill, G.M. Golenwsky, B.C. Kenney, R.N. Kranwinkel, A. Neto

Clinical Instructors W.G. Frederick, A. Katsnelson, S.L. Wain

PATH 200, Molecular and Genomic Mechanisms of Disease This is predominantly a seminar course that covers aspects of the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying various human diseases in the context of various clinical scenarios. The objective is to highlight advances in genomic and molecular medicine as they relate to understanding the pathogenesis of disease and the formulation of therapies. There are a few lectures on autopsy pathology and one lecture on bioinformatics. The course is only open to medical students. Various times. R.J. Homer and staff

PATH 505, Neuropathology Elective The core of the elective is shadowing a neuro­pathologist at work. As experience is gained, core functions of tissue evaluation, processing, and examination can be performed by the student. One or two students every two or four weeks. A.O. Vortmeyer

PATH 600, Pathological Basis of Human Disease Fundamental principles underlying the pathological alterations in function and structure that constitute the reaction of the organism to injury. Pathology of diseases involving neoplasia and special organs and systems. Correlation of the clinical and anatomical manifestations is emphasized. For Public Health graduate students and MSTP students who are required to take PATH 100 for graduate credit. R.J. Homer and staff

PATH 617, Anatomic Pathology Elective The department offers an elective to medical students in the third and fourth years that provides a broad experience in general diagnostic techniques. Students have opportunities to participate in autopsy pathology, cytopathology, and surgical pathology. A daily diagnostic conference is scheduled for both residents and students. In addition to direct responsibilities in autopsy and surgical pathology areas, the student has opportunities to participate in electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics, and flow cytometry techniques. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: G.K. Haines

PATH 618b, Clinical and Pathologic Correlates in Renal Disease A series of clinical pathologic conferences designed to illustrate clinicopathologic correlates in renal disease. At each session, one student acts as clinician and another as pathologist in the evaluation and discussion of case material from autopsies or renal biopsies. Discussions are informal but require preparation in advance, and all participants are expected to contribute in each session. One two-hour session per week for six weeks. Given once in spring term. Limited to twelve students. G. Moeckel

PATH 619/LMED 619, Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Combined Elective The goals for anatomic pathology are to understand the basic principles of diagnostic anatomic pathology and its role in clinical medicine. The goals for laboratory medicine are to learn appropriate usage and interpretation of laboratory tests and to gain a better understanding of the theoretical, technological, and clinical underpinnings of laboratory medicine. This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in laboratory medicine and/or pathology, and for all students who will use laboratory and pathology tests in their careers. One or two students every four weeks. Directors: M. Landry, G.K. Haines

PATH 620a and b, Laboratory Rotations in Experimental Pathology Laboratory rotations for first-year graduate students. M. Robek

PATH 630b/ENAS 535bU, Biomaterial-Tissue Interactions The course addresses the interactions between tissues and biomaterials, with an emphasis on the importance of molecular- and cellular-level events in dictating the performance and longevity of clinically relevant devices. In addition, specific areas such as biomaterials for tissue engineering and the importance of stem/progenitor cells, and biomaterial-mediated gene and drug delivery are addressed. T. Kyriakides

[PATH 634a/GENE 734a/MB&B 734a/MBIO 734a, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Offered every other year]

PATH 650b, Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer A comprehensive survey of cancer research from the cellular to the clinical level. The relation of cancer to intracellular and intercellular regulation of cell proliferation is emphasized, as are animal models for cancer research. Background in molecular genetics and cell biology is assumed. Open to advanced undergraduates with permission of the organizers. D.F. Stern, Q. Yan

PATH 660/C&MP 650/PHAR 580, Ethics Organized to foster discussion, the course is taught by faculty in the Pharmacology, Pathology, and Physiology departments and two or three senior graduate students. Each session is based on case studies from primary literature, reviews, and two texts: Francis Macrina’s Scientific Integrity and Kathy Barker’s At the Bench. Each week, students are required to submit a reaction paper discussing the reading assignment. Students take turns leading the class discussion; a final short paper on a hot topic in bioethics is required. B.E. Ehrlich, M. Robek, S.K. Singh

PATH 670b, Biological Mechanisms of Reaction to Injury An introduction to human biology and disease as a manifestation of reaction to injury. Topics include organ structure and function, cell injury, circulatory and inflammatory responses, disordered physiology, and neoplasia. J.A. Madri, M. Kashgarian, J.S. Morrow, J.L. Sklar, A.B. West

PATH 680a/C&MP 630a/PHAR 502a, Seminar in Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology Readings and discussion on a diverse range of current topics in molecular medicine, pharmacology, and physiology. The class emphasizes analysis of primary research literature and development of presentation and writing skills. Contemporary articles are assigned on a related topic every week, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. The overall goal is to cover a specific topic of medical relevance (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) from the perspective of three primary disciplines (i.e., physiology: normal function; pathology: abnormal function; and pharmacology: intervention). S.-E. Jordt, D. Nguyen, S. Tomita

PATH 690a, Molecular Mechanisms of Disease This course covers aspects of the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying various human diseases. Many of the disorders discussed represent major forms of infectious, degenerative, vascular, neoplastic, and inflammatory disease. Additionally, certain rarer diseases that illustrate good models for investigation and/or application of basic biologic principles are covered in the course. The objective is to highlight advances in experimental and molecular medicine as they relate to understanding the pathogenesis of disease and the formulation of therapies. M. Robek

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Pediatrics

Office: LMP 4085, 203.785.4638

http://medicine.yale.edu/pediatrics

Professors W.A. Andiman, R.J. Antaya (Dermatology), R.S. Baltimore, G.P. Beardsley, L.M. Buckley (Medicine), M. Cappello, S. Caprio, T.O. Carpenter, M.G. Caty (Surgery), J.H. Cho (Medicine), J.A. Copel (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), D.F. Donnelly, C.C. Duncan (Neurosurgery), R.A. Ehrenkranz, S.H. Emre (Surgery), J.T. Fahey, R.L. Fisher (Medicine), B.W. Forsyth, A.H. Friedman, P.G. Gallagher, M. Genel (Emeritus), W.D. Graf, I. Gross, J.R. Gruen, J.P. Hafler, W.E. Hellenbrand, A.L. Horwich (Genetics), D.M. Komp (Emeritus), G. Kupfer, J.F. Leckman (Child Study Center), J.M. Leventhal, J. Lichtor (Anesthesiology), G. Lister (Chair), M.J. Mahoney (Genetics), L.C. Mayes (Child Study Center), P.L. McCarthy, L.R. Ment, M.R. Mercurio, G. Miller, I.G. Miller, P.K. Mistry, H.A. Pearson (Emeritus), S.A. Rooney (Emeritus), E.D. Shapiro, B.A. Shaywitz, S.E. Shaywitz, R.N. Shiffman, B.G. Smith (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), B.R. Smith (Laboratory Medicine), N.S. Talner (Emeritus), W.V. Tamborlane, F.R. Volkmar (Child Study Center), J. Woolston (Child Study Center)

Associate Professors N.A. Ameen, L.D. Arnold, C.R. Baum, A. Bazzy-Asaad, K.A. Bechtel, V. Bhandari, M.J. Bizzarro, C.W. Bogue, M. Brueckner, K. Chawarska (Child Study Center), L. Chen, E.R. Colson, K. Dhodapkar, B.R. Doolittle (Medicine), M.E. Egan, J.N. Grauer (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), A.L. Hsiao, N. Kadan-Lottick, M.K. Khokha, R.A. Martinello (Medicine), J.M. McNamara, R. Morotti (Pathology), J.M. Panisello, D.S. Pashankar, F.D. Pashankar, L.E. Rosenfeld (Medicine), S.A. Ryan, K. Santucci, A. Tufro, M. Vazquez, S.A. Weinzimer, C.C. Weitzman

Assistant Professors P.L. Aronson, A.G. Asnes, J.D. Asnes, M. Auerbach, A.K. Berkwitt, E.M. Bruscia, E. Cengiz, S.D. Chirnomas, M.A. Choma (Diagnostic Radiology), E.R. Christison-Lagay (Surgery), M.X. Cicero, A.I. Del Valle-Segarra (Adjunct), M.L. DiLuna (Neurosurgery), K.B. Dorsey, A.S. El-Guindy, A.E. Esquibies, E.V. Faustino, A.M. Fenick, J.A. Galvin (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), J.S. Giuliano, Jr., J.E. Goodwin, M.R. Grossman, E.K. Hall, S. Hattangadi, D.C. Hersh, A.B. Hittelman (Urology), L.C. Johnston, S. Kandil, M. Langhan, O. Levit, K.F. Liem, J. Loyal, N.E. Major, M.E. McCabe, E. Michaelides (Surgery), D.E. Ozgediz (Surgery), E. Paintsil, A.D. Patel, U.P. Phatak, E. Pinter, A.F. Porto, A. Riera, M.I. Rodriguez-Davalos (Surgery), D.M. Steinbacher (Surgery), J.J. Vermeire, B.P. Weeks, C.G. Weismann, P.G. Weiss, H.Z. Zhang (Genetics)

Instructors L. Beslow-Kaye, D.R. Camenga, A. Chatterjee, E. Deniz, J.N. Flyer, R. Fortune, A.M. Jastreboff (Medicine), G.J. Kim, E.A. Nozetz, L. Pavlovic, S.G. Pels, C.C. Price (Medicine), N.D. Romberg, J.L. Sherr, D.M. Wetzel

Senior Research Scientists M. Genel, P.J. Krause (Epidemiology)

Research Scientists E. Drye, J.M. McGrath (Comparative Medicine), K.C. Schneider

Associate Research Scientists A. Ali, J.M. Ambrosino, L. Balsamo, X. Chen, A.R. Gupta, R. Jakab, D.V. Kravtsov, R. Kursawe, M. Li, J. Liu, K.E. Marchione, N. Niederstrasser, R. Rana, M.S. Rosenthal, N. Santoro, V. Schulz, S.S. Stahl (Child Study Center), Y. Wu, K. Yu

Clinical Professors R. Angoff, H.D. Fink, P. Goldstein, H. Jacobs, R.G. LaCamera, S.R. Levy, B.M. McDonald, C. Randolph, M.W. Sklaire, S.Z. Spiesel, F.M. Testa, J.H. Zelson

Associate Clinical Professors K.M. Berkwits, H.D. Bornstein, C. Canny, R.D. Chessin, S.I. Escalera, S.B. Fishberger, M.B. Flaherty-Hewitt, J.S. Fong, R.M. Freedman, M.W. Galal, G.S. Germain, C.W. Goff, F.L. Gruskay, J. Hen, R.A. Herzlinger, M.P. Hommel, C.F. Mann, S.K. Nallainathan, S.M. Peterec, R.L. Shelling, E.L. Stone, S.N. Sudikoff, S.C. Updegrove, P.P. Wang, C.C. Wood, R.S. Young

Assistant Clinical Professors R.J. Anderson, L. Ardeshirpour, A.J. Avni-Singer, S. Baker (Surgery), J.W. Blanton, S. Bogursky, S. Boulware, J. Burger, C.G. Butler, J.G. Calderon, A. Cameron, D.P. Cheromcha, B.V. Citarella, M.S. Cohen, N. Condulis, N. Czarkowski, M.E. Dilorenzo, C.L. Dorfman, D.H. Dreyfus, A. Driggers, D.P. Durante, M. Ellison, T. Etkin, K.A. Fearn, C.A. Fischbein, M. Gaeta, B. Gardner, E.H. Gleich, A. Golioto, A. Gork, L.E. Gray, D.L. Griffin, J.A. Gruskay, R.B. Halperin, D.L. Idelson, M.K. Ikeda, L.R. Jayanthi, D.E. Karas (Surgery), S.J. Lavietes, M.A. Lee, A. Liebling, D.A. Listman, A. Matczuk, C. Menzies, J.L. Morgan, C.L. Morrison, B.C. Natt, C.L. Patterson, H.J. Pierce, M.F. Robert, M.A. Sanyal, M. Seli, L. Semeraro, L.B. Shader, M. Sharkey (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), R.J. Shea, M. Siev, E.C. Springhorn, J.M. Stein, C.P. Summers, S. Tsalbins, A. Vaezy, S.A. Walsh, G.R. Wanerka, S.A. Weiner, N. Weinstein, E. Wiesner, R.D. Windom, J. Wynne, J. Young

Clinical Instructors P.M. Alvino, C.E. Anderson, A. Antman, C.N. Asomugha, F. Beig, C.A. Brown, K.R. Burke, M.F. Canarie, R.S. Caplan, M.C. Caserta, A.M. Coughlin, E.S. Cuoco, M.R. Dillaway, R.G. Dorr, B.G. Freeman, K.Y. Goldberg, Y.F. Gozzo, J.E. Harwin, S. Hassan, K.M. Hesse, B.A. Hillman, M.S. Hogan, D.L. Idelson, J.C. Jennings, L. Kappus, H. Kipperman, J. Koziel, K. Koziol-Dube, J.T. Lau, R. Lockhart, J.C. Long, A.J. Maley, K. Mozny, C. Nicolosi, L. Pavlovic, M. Pouliot, R.F. Ramos (Medicine), R.C. Rastetter, C.A. Rowan, L.K. Rudich, A. Sahakian, J.C. Samuel, E.C. Schumacher, L.T. Siew, D.J. Springer, J.H. Stein, K.R. Stephenson, S.M. Storeygard, L.E. Sude, D.C. Torres, V.P. Tsuei, L. Visscher, L.M. Walby, L.A. Waldman, N.G. Wijesekera, M. Williams, J.L. Young, Y. Zhang, R.A. Zlotoff (Medicine)

Lecturers L. Alonso, S. Anderson, K.M. Baker, S. Baum, A. Beitel, N.B. Brown, A.J. Carlson, J. Chinchilla-Karolicki, A.V. Cohen, M.C. DeLucia, L.M. DiMauro, D.B. Flanagan, S. Frank, M.H. Gad, L. Glassman-Wisnewski, L.L. Gould, E. Herz, A.M. Hoefer, C.M. Keanna, C.M. Kennedy, K. Kinsella, S.E. Kuhn, S. Kurian, E.M. Lawrence, B.M. Liebler, C.E. Macken, S.P. Martinello, P. Murtagh, R. Nolfo, J.E. O’Connor, K. Pae, E.N. Rice (Nursing), H.J. Sadinsky, Z.A. Scates, R. Seligson, M.J. Sheehan, S.J. Slattery, K. Vassell, K. Wallis, E. Wolfson

PEDS 103, Third-Year Clerkship The Pediatric Third Clerkship is an eight-week required rotation based on a national curriculum developed specifically for students beginning their clinical rotations. The students spend four weeks in the inpatient setting and four weeks in the outpatient setting. During the outpatient rotation, students are exposed to primary care as well as specialty care in the ambulatory setting. The inpatient portion of the rotation takes place at Yale-New Haven Hospital or Bridgeport Hospital. The objectives of the eight-week clerkship include improvement in knowledge as well as clinical skills such as history taking, physical examination skills, and problem solving. During the rotation, students are observed performing these skills by designated supervisors. They have the opportunity to supplement and complement their clinical experiences by doing self-directed reading, completing computer-based cases, working with a simulated model, and interviewing standardized adolescent patients. Attention is paid to optimizing exposure to all pediatric age groups. The clinical experience is enhanced by a weekly interactive teaching session run by pediatric faculty members specifically for the third-year students. E.R. Colson, A.G. Asnes, M.J. Bizzarro

PEDS 128, Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Elective This two- or four-week elective provides a wide variety of experience in the diagnosis and management of malignant diseases and hematologic problems of infancy and childhood. The student functions as part of the inpatient service team and participates in the outpatient clinic three to four mornings each week. Weekly conferences include the multidisciplinary pediatric tumor conference, hemostasis rounds (jointly with medical hematology), a fellows conference, and weekly pediatric hematology/oncology patient management rounds. One student per block—either for a clerkship or an elective, not both—every two or four weeks. Prerequisite: Pediatric Clerkship. Director: F.D. Pashankar

PEDS 139, Pediatric Neurology Elective Students choosing to participate in this elective work in the pediatric neurology clinics, make rounds on neurology patients on the pediatric wards, and attend relevant conferences. One student every four weeks. Director: B.A. Shaywitz

PEDS 143/SURG 176, Subinternship in Pediatric Surgery This subinternship provides an in-depth exposure to the broad spectrum of pediatric surgical problems. Specific attention is given to identifying the pediatric patient in crisis, a relevant skill whether or not the student pursues a career in surgery. Objectives include understanding the correction of major congenital anomalies, management of trauma, care of the critically ill child, and management of solid tumors. Experience includes in-depth exposure to the pediatric operating room, training in neonatal and pediatric critical care, and experience in the pediatric surgical outpatient clinic. The student is an integral part of the pediatric surgical team. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: E.R. Christison-Lagay

PEDS 144, Pediatric Cardiology Elective This four-week elective encompasses all aspects of pediatric cardiology. The student is expected to make daily inpatient rounds in the PICU, NICU, and inpatient floors with the pediatric cardiology attending physician, fellow, and nurse practitioner. Observation in the pediatric cardiology catheterization laboratory and pediatric cardiothoracic operating room is encouraged. The student is also expected to attend the afternoon outpatient pediatric cardiology clinics and all scheduled pediatric cardiology conferences. One or two students every four weeks. Director: B.P. Weeks

PEDS 146, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Elective Students participate in pediatric infectious disease rounds by presenting the case study of an inpatient whom they have examined to a group of faculty and fellows. Emphasis is placed on the correlation of the clinical problem and its practical management with principles of infectious epidemiology and clinical microbiology (bacteriology and virology). Consulting rounds are held daily. Teaching rounds in diagnostic microbiology are held four times a week. Weekly divisional rounds last approximately two hours. Students also attend the pediatric AIDS clinic. Prerequisite: Pediatric Clerkship or permission of the instructor. One student every four weeks. Director: R.S. Baltimore

PEDS 148, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Elective This four-week elective provides extensive exposure to various aspects of pediatric endocrinology, with an emphasis on disorders of growth and sexual development, thyroid function, diabetes (type 1 and type 2), obesity, and bone and mineral metabolism. The student participates primarily in the outpatient pediatric endocrinology and diabetes clinics, as well as the inpatient service. The rotation includes participation in weekly pediatric endocrinology conferences as well as conferences held jointly with the adult endocrinology service. One or two students every four weeks. Codirectors: A.D. Patel, S.A. Weinzimer

PEDS 152, Subinternship in Pediatrics A four-week rotation during which senior medical students are considered the equivalent of interns and are directly responsible for the care of assigned patients under the supervision of resident and attending physicians. Students are assigned to one of the two general pediatric inpatient units at Yale-New Haven Hospital (Medicine/Cardiology and Short Stay). The rotation offers an opportunity to develop organizational skills and experience the pace of internship in a supportive environment. Emphasis is on being a good team member, taking ownership of one’s patients, and demonstrating improvement in intern skills (communication with patients/families, organization, prioritization, presentation, and efficiency). Prerequisite: satisfactory completion of third-year Pediatric and Internal Medicine clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: D.C. Hersh

PEDS 154, Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Elective Students are exposed to a wide variety of activities in the section of Respiratory Medicine. These include the evaluation and treatment of infants and children with acute and chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, aspiration syndromes, and obstructive sleep disorders. The emphasis is on learning how to assess respiratory dysfunction by physical exam and laboratory testing. The basics of mechanical ventilation are reviewed. Students have the opportunity to rotate through both the inpatient and outpatient services, pulmonary function laboratory, and children’s sleep center. Students are expected to participate in seminars, journal club, and patient rounds. One student every two or four weeks. Director: P.G. Weiss

PEDS 155, Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective, Yale-New Haven Hospital Fourth-year students have the opportunity to evaluate and manage a broad range of acute medical and surgical complaints under direct attending supervision, including thirty-six clinical hours per week in the pediatric emergency department. Participation in teaching conferences and mock codes is required. One student every four weeks. Prerequisites: pediatric rotation and Y-NHH Epic inpatient training and Epic ED e-learning. Director: P.L. Aronson

PEDS 307, Pediatric Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Elective Students spend two weeks on the step-down service, followed by two weeks on the intensive care service. On each service students attend medical rounds and follow neonatal patients and write progress notes under close supervision. Students attend delivery room resuscitations and stabilizations, and prenatal consultations. On both services, students attend general and student-oriented educational conferences as well as radiology rounds. Students also pursue independent study on topics in neonatology and make brief presentations to the clinical team. Additional opportunities, such as attendance at outpatient developmental follow-up exams, are available to students based on interest. One student every four weeks. Directors: L.C. Johnston, S.M. Peterec

PEDS 314, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Elective This four-week elective provides an opportunity for a fourth- or fifth-year medical student to participate as a member of the pediatric intensive care unit team. The student is directly responsible for the care of assigned patients under the supervision of pediatric residents, critical care fellows, and attending intensivists. A core curriculum composed of interactive talks on the major pediatric critical care topics is presented two to three times a week, as well as daily radiology rounds and a monthly morbidity and mortality conference. One student every four weeks. Director: M.E. McCabe

PEDS 316, Foundations of Applied High-Fidelity Health Care Simulation Elective Students in this elective (1) gain familiarity with and understanding of advanced simulation technology and equipment; (2) learn key applications of simulation and debriefing within the complex medical environment; (3) participate in educational simulation sessions at 730 Howard Avenue, 733-WP, and situ simulations throughout the hospital; (4) participate in day-to-day activities and strategic operations of the simulation center; (5) develop one deliverable curricular module, including scenarios, relevant references, associated goals/objectives, and other curricular materials; this session will ideally be delivered to a peer group of other medical students; the module will be considered shared work product, and the simulation center reserves the right to incorporate it into future or existing curricula; and (6) may opt to participate in novel or ongoing simulation-based research projects; appropriate funding must be identified for new proposals submitted by the student. Approximately thirty hours per week. One student every two or four weeks. Director: S.N. Sudikoff; J. Zigmont

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Pharmacology

Office: SHM B204, 203.785.4372

http://medicine.yale.edu/pharm

Professors K.S. Anderson, A.M. Bennett, E.S. Canellakis (Emeritus), Y. Cheng, J.R. Cooper (Emeritus), C.M. Crews (Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Biology), P.S. Dannies, B.E. Ehrlich, R.E. Handschumacher (Emeritus), R. Heimer (Epidemiology), R. Herbst (Medicine), J.R. Howe, L.K. Kaczmarek, E. Lolis, A.C. Nairn (Psychiatry), M. Picciotto (Psychiatry), S. Rockwell (Therapeutic Radiology), G. Rudnick, A.C. Sartorelli, J. Schlessinger (Chair), W.C. Sessa, S.G. Waxman (Neurology), D. Wu

Associate Professors T. Boggon, D.A. Calderwood, M.P. DiGiovanna (Medicine), Y. Ha, M.E. Hodsdon (Laboratory Medicine), S. Jordt, I. Lax, D. Spiegel (Chemistry), B.E. Turk

Assistant Professors V.P. Eswarakumar (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), E. Paintsil (Pediatrics)

Senior Research Scientist J.R. Cooper

Associate Research Scientists J. Bae, M. Baldassarre, R.P. Baumann, M. Bouaouina, M. Brown, A. Caceres Bustos, C.H. Calderwood, L. El Hassar, L. Fan, K.A. Grabinska, F. Guan, S. Hamill, J. Hu, R. Hu, Z. Jiang, R. Josyula, E.J. Kaftan, J. Kronengold, W. Lam, H. Lee, S. Lee, Y. Lee, Z. Lin, B. Liu, J.W. Murphy, P.G. Penketh, S. Raghavan, C. Rajagopal, D. Rajasekaran, A.V. Reshetnyak, K. Shyam, A.L. Stiegler, A.A. Surguchev, W. Tang, S. Tavoulari, C. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, R. Zhu, Y. Zhu

Lecturers P. Klein, R.J. Levine (Medicine)

PHAR 502a/C&MP 630a/PATH 680a, Seminar in Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology Readings and discussion on a diverse range of current topics in molecular medicine, pharmacology, and physiology. The class emphasizes analysis of primary research literature and development of presentation and writing skills. Contemporary articles are assigned on a related topic every week, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. The overall goal is to cover a specific topic of medical relevance (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) from the perspective of three primary disciplines (i.e., physiology: normal function; pathology: abnormal function; and pharmacology: intervention). S.-E. Jordt, D. Nguyen, S. Tomita

PHAR 504a, Principles of Pharmacology Lectures covering antibiotics, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. E. Lolis

PHAR 506a and b, Methods in Pharmacological Research (Rotations) Students work in laboratories of faculty of their choice. The period spent in each laboratory is one term. E. Lolis

[PHAR 521a/NSCI 521a, Neuroimaging in Neuropsychiatry I: Imaging Methods]

PHAR 521b/NSCI 521b, Neuroimaging in Neuropsychiatry II: Clinical Applications Neuroimaging methodologies including Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) are rapidly evolving tools used to study the living human brain. Neuroimaging has unprecedented implications for clinical diagnosis, for assessment of drug efficacy, for determination of psychotropic drug occupancy, and for the study of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. The course is designed to provide an overview of the application of state-of-the-art neuroimaging methods to research in neurologic and psychiatric disorders. K.P. Cosgrove, H. Blumberg, I. Esterlis

PHAR 528a, Principles of Signal Transduction The regulation of intracellular signaling is of fundamental importance to the understanding of cell function and regulation. This course introduces the broad principles of intracellular signal transduction. More detailed lectures on specific intracellular signaling pathways are given in which students learn both the basic and most recent and cutting-edge concepts of intracellular signaling. Topics include regulation of signaling by protein phosphorylation, small G proteins, G-protein-coupled receptors, hormones, phospholipids, adhesion, and gasses. A.M. Bennett

PHAR 529b, Structural Pharmacology The goal of the course is to show students how concepts of structural biology are applied to areas of great importance in pharmacology such as protein kinases, proteases, cell surface receptors, integrins and other membrane-bound enzymes, and transporters and channels, and how these concepts facilitate drug development. Y. Ha, T. Boggon

PHAR 550a/C&MP 550aU/ENAS 550aU/MCDB 550aU, Physiological Systems The course develops a foundation in human physiology by examining the homeostasis of vital parameters within the body, and the biophysical properties of cells, tissues, and organs. Basic concepts in cell and membrane physiology are synthesized through exploring the function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. The physical basis of blood flow, mechanisms of vascular exchange, cardiac performance, and regulation of overall circulatory function are discussed. Respiratory physiology explores the mechanics of ventilation, gas diffusion, and acid-base balance. Renal physiology examines the formation and composition of urine and the regulation of electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base balance. Organs of the digestive system are discussed from the perspective of substrate metabolism and energy balance. Hormonal regulation is applied to metabolic control and to calcium, water, and electrolyte balance. The biology of nerve cells is addressed with emphasis on synaptic transmission and simple neuronal circuits within the central nervous system. The special senses are considered in the framework of sensory transduction. Weekly discussion sections provide a forum for in-depth exploration of topics. Graduate students evaluate research findings through literature review and weekly meetings with the instructor. E. Boulpaep, W.M. Saltzman

PHAR 560b/C&MP 560bU/ENAS 570bU/MCDB 560bU, Cellular and Molecular Physiology: Molecular Machines in Human Disease The course focuses on understanding the processes that transfer molecules across membranes at the cellular, molecular, biophysical, and physiological levels. Students learn about the different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport, generate electrical currents, or perform mechanical displacement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the molecular structures of membrane proteins and their individual functions. The interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behaviors of cells and tissues are also stressed. Molecular motors are introduced and their mechanical relationship to cell function is explored. Students read papers from the scientific literature that establish the connections between mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins and a wide variety of human genetic diseases. E. Boulpaep, F. Sigworth

PHAR 580/C&MP 650/PATH 660, Ethics Organized to foster discussion, the course is taught by faculty in the Pharmacology, Pathology, and Physiology departments and two or three senior graduate students. Each session is based on case studies from primary literature, reviews, and two texts: Francis Macrina’s Scientific Integrity and Kathy Barker’s At the Bench. Each week, students are required to submit a reaction paper discussing the reading assignment. Students take turns leading the class discussion; a final short paper on a hot topic in bioethics is required. B.E. Ehrlich, M. Robek, S.K. Singh

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Psychiatry

Office: 300 George Street, Suite 901, 203.785.2117

http://medicine.yale.edu/psychiatry

Professors G.K. Aghajanian (Emeritus), S.A. Ball, M.D. Bell, R.M. Berman (Adjunct), S.J. Blatt (Emeritus), H. Blumberg, B.S. Bunney (Emeritus), T.D. Cannon (Psychology), K.M. Carroll, J.P. Comer (Child Study Center), L. Davidson, R.S. Duman, M.H. Ebert, J.E. Gelernter, E.H. Griffith (Emeritus), C.M. Grilo, K.A. Hawkins, G. Heninger (Emeritus), J. Hirsch, R.E. Hoffman, M.A. Hoge, S.C. Jacobs (Emeritus), H.G. Jarecki (Adjunct), R.D. Kerns, K.K. Kidd (Genetics), R.A. King (Child Study Center), T.A. Kirk (Adjunct), J.H. Krystal (Chair), M. Laruelle (Adjunct), J.F. Leckman (Child Study Center), P.J. Lombroso (Child Study Center), R.T. Malison, A.S. Martin (Child Study Center), S. Martino, G.F. Mason (Diagnostic Radiology), J.W. Mason (Emeritus), C. Mazure, T.H. McGlashan (Emeritus), A.C. Nairn, S.S. O’Malley, G.D. Pearlson, I.L. Petrakis, M. Picciotto, M.N. Potenza, S.M. Powsner, D.M. Quinlan, D.E. Redmond, Jr., R.M. Rohrbaugh, R. Rosenheck, R.H. Roth, G. Sanacora, R.S. Schottenfeld, H.I. Schwartz (Adjunct), M.J. Sernyak, R. Sinha, W.H. Sledge, D.L. Snow (Emeritus), S.M. Southwick, M.W. State (Child Study Center), J.S. Strauss (Emeritus), J.R. Taylor, J.K. Tebes, C.H. Van Dyck, F.R. Volkmar (Child Study Center), B.E. Wexler (Emeritus), S.W. Woods, K.A. Yonkers, H.V. Zonana

Associate Professors M. Alreja, L.M. Anez, S.R. Axelrod, M. Baranoski, K.L. Behar, R. Belitsky, A. Buchanan, V.D. Calhoun (Adjunct), M.C. Chawarski, C. Chiles, C. Connell, J.M. Cook, N.L. Cooney, C.A. Crusto, E. Diaz, R.J. DiLeone, D.C. D’Souza, N.C. Epperson (Adjunct), J.M. Fiszdon, D.C. Glahn, L.S. Godleski, J. Gruber (Psychology), N. Hansen, I. Harpaz-Rotem, R.A. Hoff, J. Kaufman, J.S. Kaufman, P.D. Kirwin, S. Krishnan-Sarin, H.B. Lee, C. Li, S. McKee, T.J. McMahon, P.T. Morgan, E.D. Morris (Diagnostic Radiology), M.A. Norko, M. Paris, S.G. Resnick, M.I. Rosen, M. Rowe, D. Small, M. Sofuoglu, V.H. Srihari, J.L. Steiner, M.C. Stevens (Adjunct), T.H. Styron, N.E. Suchman, G.D. Tamagnan (Adjunct), C. Tek, D.F. Tolin (Adjunct), B.A. Toll

Assistant Professors N.A. Addy, K. Ahn, B.M. Anderson (Adjunct), A. Annamalai, E. Ansell, A. Arias, M. Assaf (Adjunct), G. Balf, A. Barkil-Oteo, D. Barry, J.E. Beauvais, R.D. Beech, C.D. Bellamy, Z. Bhagwagar (Adjunct), M.O. Bonarrigo, R. Branch, J.A. Brewer, I. Cavus (Adjunct), T. Chaplin, L.G. Chepenik, S. Corbera (Adjunct), P.R. Corlett, K.P. Cosgrove, M. Day (Adjunct), I.E. De Araujo, M.E. Delphin, P.H. Desan, J.C. Deviva, G.J. Diefenbach (Adjunct), C. Dike, E.L. Edens, L.M. Edwards, J.A. Encandela, I. Esterlis, D.C. Fehon, E.H. Flanagan, A. Forray, H. Fox, L. Fucito, D.M. Gordon, J.L. Goulet, H. Hamid (Neurology), J.O. Hannestad (Adjunct), A.A. Heapy, D.M. Higgins, M.G. Hunt, T. Iheanacho, J. Ikomi, J.K. Johannesen, R. Kapoor, B. Kiluk, A.S. Klee, H. Kober, S.D. Kruger, D.M. LaPaglia, R.F. Leeman, S. Madonick (Adjunct), C. Marienfeld, R. Masheb, R.S. McWilliam (Child Study Center), P.M. Morrissey (Adjunct), S. Muvvala, C.J. Oleskey, S. Parke, R.H. Pietrzak, D. Pilkey, C. Pittenger, A.N. Ponce, M. Prabhu, Z. Qayyum, E. Ralevski, M. Ranganathan, D.A. Ross, C. Sanislow (Adjunct), C.E. Sartor, J.C. Scott, J.J. Sellinger, R.A. Sewell, M.A. Silva, A.A. Simen (Adjunct), P.D. Skosnik, P. Skudlarski (Adjunct), M.V. Smith, H.R. Steinberg, S. Steinberg (Adjunct), T.P. Sullivan, J.L. Tondora, J. Tsai, K. Tuit, T.C. VanDeusen, D. Vojvoda, F. Wang, N. Ward, A.H. Weinberger, M.A. White, K.M. Wilkins, J. Xu, K. Xu, B. Yang, H. Zhang, P. Zimbrean, L.D. Zimmerman (Child Study Center), Z. Zimolo, L. Zuo

Instructors G.A. Angarita-Africano, N. Hamlett, E.D. Hermes, R.A. Miller, M. Steinfeld

Senior Research Scientists G.K. Aghajanian, J.D. Elsworth, E.H. Griffith, G. Heninger, P.I. Jatlow (Laboratory Medicine), T.H. McGlashan, D.L. Snow, B.E. Wexler

Research Scientists S.A. Castner, J. Olausson, G.V. Williams

Associate Research Scientists A. Anticevic, I.M. Balodis, M. Banasr, R.D. Barnes, A.C. Black, D.L. Boggs, F. Bois, D.A. Cavallo, A. Chen, G.M. Chowdhury, A.D. Dager, A. Desrosiers, E.E. DeVito, L. Dorflinger, N.R. Driesen, C.H. Duman, C.T. Dyer, H.M. Fichtenholtz, A. Herman, E.D. Jackson, J.S. Jane, A. Kaffman, W.J. Kasprow, G. Kong, L.H. Linke, J. Liu, R. Liu, X. Luo, Y.S. Mineur, B.A. Moore, J.A. Noah, E.E. O’Brien, P. Pal, V.M. Pogorelov, D. Rodriguez-Moreno, K.A. Sanders, S.N. Sathyanesan, T.U. Schaller, C.J. Schmidt, B. Schweinsburg, D.J. Sells, D. Seo, E.A. Stefanovics, M.J. Strambler, A. Thompson, M.G. Veldhuizen, L. Wei, M. Wu, C. Yang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang

Clinical Professors D.N. Berg, D.A. Carlson, D.G. Greenfeld, L.L. Harkness, D. Laub, D.O. Lewis, E. Prelinger, L.W. Reiser, H.L. Ruben, L.D. Siggins, J.L. Young

Associate Clinical Professors J. Allison, V.A. Altshul, R.M. Balsam, S. Boltax-Stern (Child Study Center), E.A. Brett, J.J. Ciarcia, V. Coric, J. De Figueiredo, J. Geller, R.L. Goettsche, K. Grady, O.F. Hills, R.J. Hoffnung, D. Johnson, D. Koenigsberg (Child Study Center), C.C. Kovel, K. Liebmann, K.M. Long, J.S. Lustman, M. Mandelkern, B. McKee, S. Mohamed, C.A. Morgan, M.S. Okasha, R.B. Ostroff, H.R. Pearsall, E.A. Perlswig (Child Study Center), R. Peters, J. Phillips, S.H. Phillips, S.G. Possick, M. Rubenstein, E.R. Ryan, S.J. Schreiber, A.P. Siegal, E.W. Snyder, R. Stern, T.D. Stewart, R.R. Tampi, A.P. Thies (Child Study Center), L.A. Trevisan, P. Van Wattum (Child Study Center), G.J. Watstein (Retired), T. Zanker

Assistant Clinical Professors C. Abdallah, L.J. Adams, A.C. Adis, J. Aguilar-Zanatta, A.T. Albrecht, A.M. Almai, J.A. Amatruda, P.T. Amble, J.A. Anderson, T. Armah, B. Arnaout, S.R. Atkins, R. Aziz, J. Ballew, A.L. Balter, J.A. Barber, L.C. Barr, M.V. Barrios, G.A. Bassett, B.R. Becker, E. Becker-Dunn, B.A. Beenken, M. Beitel, C. Bemis, J.G. Bejarano, S. Bender, D.E. Bendor, E.H. Berger, R.L. Bergeron, T. Bergherr, S. Bers, L.A. Blakley, Y.S. Blanco, H.C. Blue, D. Boltas, Z. Boutaeva, D.M. Brandt, D. Brockett, T.E. Brown, J. Bullock, A. Buonopane, R. Casey, L.I. Chaikovsky, A. Chang, J. Charney, J.R. Check, A.S. Cheng, D.E. Ciancimino, T.A. Cipriano, J.C. Cleves-Bayon, J.C. Cline, J.T. Collins (Child Study Center), M.L. Conroy, E.C. Cook, P.R. Correa, C.D. Couch, L.W. Cross, W.F. Dailey, S. De Asis, R.S. Dealy, R.S. Denkin, C. Doebrick, N.S. Downs, V.M. Dreisbach, S.M. Drew, L. Driscoll, B.A. Duncan, C.G. Edelen, J.J. Erdos, R.D. Fallot, L. Fenton, S. Feuerstein, J.F. Fickes, P.L. Filip, S. Finkelstein, D.A. Fisk, K.A. Foran-Tuller, F.G. Fortunati, P.A. Fountain, C.A. Franco, M.I. Frankel, L.M. Frantsve, E.R. Frazer, R. Freeman, T.A. Freeman, C.C. Frick, D. Fried, T. Glinberg, L.I. Goldstein, S.F. Gomez-Luna, M.J. Graham, L.R. Greene, A. Grier, M.C. Groner, E.G. Grottole, C.S. Grove, L.B. Grunebaum, C. Gulrajani, H. Gunduz-Bruce, J.C. Harland, D.D. Hawkins, S.R. Hill, W. Hill, M. Hillbrand, K. Holtzman, J.M. Horowitz, S.J. Houlding, D.D. Jacobson, N. Jain, R.R. Kaminsky, A. Kaner, M. Kang, K.G. Kennedy, K.E. Kerfoot, B. Kerner, S. Khan, S. Kidd, B. Klink, B.E. Knox, F.E. Koerner, R.E. Kravitz, J. Kremer, J.F. Kulas, J. Kurt, M.M. Kurtz, A. Lamba, H.M. Lankenau, K.M. Lazzarini, M. Leddy, B. Lee, C.J. Lee, N.E. Legow, L.N. Levenson, R.C. Lewis, S.V. Lewis, S. Lim, H.J. Lin, A.L. Lipschutz, H.G. Lizcano, D.B. London, J. Lopez, C. Lozano, H. Lubin, C.L. Lukens, B.F. Marcus, C.A. Markle, S.L. Matlin, D. Matuskey, R.W. McCleary, B.B. McConnell, B. Meandzija, A.W. Meisler, N.C. Mellos, S. Meshberg-Cohen, R.M. Meyer, S.J. Migdole, E.S. Millman, R.M. Milstein, V.R. Morrow, F.C. Mueller, P.V. Mulinski, D.S. Mundy, S. Muralee, J. Myer, M. Nakic, E.D. Nasper, M.P. Nespoli, J. Nields, F.J. Ninivaggi (Child Study Center), P. Noulas, D.O. Nudel, K.F. Nuro, N.D. Olson, C.A. Opsahl, A.G. Oren, S. Ottenheimer, R.M. Ownbey, M.V. Pantalon (Emergency Medicine), N. Panza, A. Papsun, F. Perepletchikova, H.V. Phan, J. Poling, J.F. Poll (Child Study Center), D.J. Powell, M.L. Prevey, A.E. Pusey, J. Rakfeldt, I.S. Rathbone, D.R. Rau, N. Reddy, M.D. Rego, A. Resnick, G. Richardson, J.P. Robbins, J.E. Robinson, L. Robinson, S.H. Rodrigues, A. Romeo, V.C. Rosen, B.S. Rothschild, M.P. Roy, N. Roy, J.M. Rozanova, R. Rubin, S. Rubin, D.S. Russell, J.A. Sabbatino, N. Sahay, D.K. Sakheim, S. Salant, K.M. Salisbury, C. Sanders, L.C. Sanfilippo, A.P. Sawyer, J.O. Schechter, B. Schweinsburg, J.L. Scott, J.P. Seibyl (Diagnostic Radiology), K.A. Sevarino, M.A. Shamsi, C. Shankar, R. Shenouda, J.K. Shepard, D.E. Sholomskas, S.H. Silverstein, M.F. Sperrazza, A.D. Spivack, S. Sreenivasan, D.A. Stayner, M. Stefanovic, W.A. Stewart, M. Stitelman, K. Subramanyam, D.C. Tate, E.S. Tek, A.N. Tessler, S.E. Thomas, B. Tobin, K. Trueblood, M. Tupper, G.W. Valentine, J.J. Vanderploeg, D.C. Vogel, J. Walia, D.J. Wallington, J.M. Wexler, R.S. White, M.L. Whitson, A.M. Winkler, J. Wolf, P. Wupperman, C.M. Young, W. Zito, L. Zonana

Clinical Instructors S. Agrawal, E.G. Ahlert-Smith, O. Alpert, M. Bailey, N.M. Campo, V.V. Carvalho, J. Chardavoyne, R.L. Cohen, D.H. David, J.E. Farber, D.J. Flanigan, C. Grazia, M.C. Grenough, C.M. Hunnicutt, W. Levy, N.M. Lustman, M. McCarthy, B.C. Moore, R. Plant (Child Study Center), P.G. Rao, J.N. Rascati, S.J. Rathi, M.F. Shaw, D.J. Suscovich, M.B. Vollmar, E. Weiss

Lecturers J.D. Alvaro, C. Atkins, C.M. Barber, J.L. Barron, L.E. Bedregal, R.H. Berger, D.A. Berv, R.A. Cole, C. Conrad, H.F. Crabbe, G.H. Davis, M. Debor, A.R. Demac, C.E. Desmond, P.J. Dileo, P.A. Dillon, M. Emmanuel, S.G. Goodson, J.B. Gordon, G. Greenberg, F. Grossman, C. Jean, M.A. Kalacznik, A. Kalafa, B.C. Klein, R.H. Klein, J. Klugman, A.S. Koleszar, K.K. Krusong, A.L. Labruzza, L. Lager, L.M. Lothstein, L.M. Madden, J.J. Magnavita, R.B. Makover, K. Marcus, A. Massa, D.M. Mender, J.H. Meyer, M.L. Mitchell, D.C. Moore, M.J. Orlosky, J.M. Palumbo, J. Pelletier, E. Peters, J.M. Pisciotta, S.J. Purcell, W.N. Reich, S.D. Romano, E.B. Rubin, S.L. Satel, M.N. Savage, J.M. Schnitt, A.J. Sholomskas, G.H. Sirkin, P.F. Thomas, R.K. Westheimer, P.J. Whang, J.R. Zigun

The Department of Psychiatry teaches in both preclinical and clinical years. The pre-clinical course is a study of medical behavioral science, rather than an introduction to clinical psychiatry. Specific clinical skills, such as interviewing and the recognition and management of psychiatric syndromes, are taught later in the curriculum and especially during the required clinical clerkship in Psychiatry. Electives are available for students with special interest in selected areas. All advanced clinical electives are numbered in the 200s. The required clinical clerkship (Psychiatry 106) is a prerequisite for enrollment in any of these advanced clinical electives; an advanced clinical elective may not be taken instead of the required clinical clerkship. Please note: All students signing up for a seminar elective must also register with the Medical Student Education Office, Department of Psychiatry, 203.785.2089 (pending approval of the instructor).

Psychiatry 101a, Patient-Centered Interviewing: The Patient’s Story This segment of the Pre-Clinical Clerkship focuses on the experience of illness—how people react to and cope with illness. The various psychosocial factors and psychological defenses which impact on the experience of illness, such as age, gender, social supports, socioeconomic status, and coping style, are examined. There is an emphasis on the patient interview and techniques for eliciting the patient’s story in an empathic and effective manner. The format includes lectures, demonstration interviews, and practice with standardized patients. R. Belitsky and Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine faculty

Psychiatry 101b, Biological Basis of Behavior Lectures are integrated with the Neurology course, and include principles and neural mechanisms of learning and memory; neural systems involved in fear and anxiety; neural systems involved in reward and drug addiction; neural systems involved in stress; and neural systems involved in attention. Following each lecture, a psychiatrist interviews patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, cocaine abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. These 1.5-hour clinical presentations, which include time for questions, link psychiatric symptoms to the neural mechanisms discussed in the lecture on that day. 2.5 hours per week. Department of Psychiatry faculty

Psychiatry 106, Clinical Clerkship Skills and knowledge needed for the general practice of medicine are acquired in a clinical psychiatric setting. There is a “Patients in Crisis” component that emphasizes: conducting a competent screening interview in order to identify symptoms of a psychiatric or substance abuse disorder; performing a complete mental status examination of a patient who is emotionally disturbed or mentally ill; making a differential diagnosis, and planning for further evaluation and tests that would be useful in deciding among various diagnostic possibilities; making recommendations for biological, psychosocial, and/or social treatment interventions; assessing whether or not dangers to or from a patient exist; and understanding indications and procedures for lawful involuntary commitment of a patient to a mental hospital for treatment. There is also a “Psychiatry at the Interface with Medicine” component designed to provide students with an understanding of the presentation of psychiatric illness in patients with co-morbid medical disorders. Emphasis is placed on screening interviews, including mental status examination; identification of symptoms; and differential diagnosis and initial treatment recommendations of patients with co-morbid medical and psychiatric illness. Special emphasis is placed on evaluation of psychiatric emergencies and competency to make informed medical decisions. Additionally, students have the opportunity to learn and develop clinical skills through carefully designed outpatient experiences. K. Wilkins, J.L. Barron, and Department of Psychiatry faculty

Psychiatry 203, Subinternship in Hospital Psychiatry, Inpatient Division, Connecticut Mental Health Center (CMHC) This subinternship includes intensive work with inpatients who suffer from major psychiatric disorders with or without substance abuse. Emphasis is on assessment, acute treatment, and arrangement of continuing care in the community. The subintern functions as an integral member of a multidisciplinary treatment team. Clinical research participation is encouraged. Opportunities are available to explore special areas of interest (e.g., forensics, psychopharmacology, administration) with CMHC faculty. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. Open to fourth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; M. Jean-Baptiste, R.D. Beech

Psychiatry 206, Law and Psychiatry Elective, Connecticut Mental Health Center This elective affords opportunities for third- and fourth-year students to observe and participate in “competency to stand trial” evaluations with a clinical team that makes these assessments at the New Haven Correctional Center. In addition, they may attend Law School classes with students who represent psychiatric patients, observe civil commitment procedures, and attend probate court hearings as well as the criminal proceedings in local New Haven Superior Courts. Students attend work seminars where case evaluations and write-ups are discussed and prepared, and read appropriate legal cases and psychiatric literature. Students may be able to participate in parts of evaluations of insanity defense, custody determination, and other forensic issues. They attend the Law and Psychiatry seminar during their rotation. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; H.V. Zonana

Psychiatry 209, Substance Abuse Elective An elective clinical training experience in substance abuse for third- and fourth-year students. The primary training site is the Outpatient Service at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System (VACHS) in West Haven. This experience is an intensive one in which students work closely with addicted patients with chronic mental illness. Students interested in learning about medical detoxification from alcohol and/or opiates may participate in an intensive two-week elective in the Ambulatory Detoxification Clinic at the VACHS. Students learn about the evaluation and treatment of alcohol withdrawal and detoxification. Patients with benzodiazepine and opiate dependence are also treated in this clinic. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; VACHS Faculty: S.M. Drew, I.L. Petrakis

Psychiatry 210, Subinternship in Hospital Psychiatry, Inpatient Division, Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital This subinternship includes intensive work with patients who suffer from major psychiatric disorders and range in age from college students to middle age. Emphasis is on assessment, acute treatment, and arrangement of post-discharge follow-up care in the community. The student is an advanced clerk functioning as a member of the multidisciplinary treatment team, taking on primary clinician and psychiatric/medical responsibilities for patients under the supervision of senior clinicians. The elective is given on the inpatient service at Y-NHPH; clinical research and outpatient involvement may be options. Open to fourth-year students only. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; R.M. Milstein, R.B. Ostroff

Psychiatry 211, Subinternship in Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit Inpatient Division This subinternship offers senior medical students the opportunity to work closely with a variety of patients who are hospitalized during their participation and treatment in research protocols. The Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit (CNRU) is a thirteen-bed inpatient ward with associated outpatient clinics and basic science laboratories on the third floor of the Connecticut Mental Health Center (CMHC). Supervised implementation of novel psychopharmacology, exposure to multiple aspects of clinical and basic science research, and in-depth experience with individual and group psychotherapies are educational aspects of this elective. Patients’ diagnostic categories include depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, cocaine abuse, substance abuse, and psychiatric genetics. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; R.T. Malison, G. Heninger, M. Bloch, G.A. Angarita-Africano

Psychiatry 234, Subinternship in Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatry, Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital The purpose of this subinternship is to provide fourth-year medical students interested in child and adolescent psychiatry and/or adolescent medicine an experience in working with adolescents presenting with acute psychiatric illness. The subinternship is based on the adolescent inpatient unit at Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital, a short-term fifteen-bed unit serving patients aged 12–18. Students gain exposure to a diverse patient population with severe mood, psychotic, behavioral, and/or substance use disorders, as well as begin to understand the intricacies of working with families and systems providing care for adolescents with significant emotional and/or behavioral disturbances. Teaching activities include daily rounds and weekly case conferences. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; S. Muralee, C.J. Oleskey

Psychiatry 238, Subinternship in Early Psychosis: STEP Clinic STEP (Specialized Treatment Early in Psychosis) is a multidisciplinary team-based treatment for individuals presenting early in the course of a psychotic illness. This clinic offers unique opportunities in the assessment and treatment of a population that is difficult to access in other clinical settings. Students have the opportunity to observe structured research assessments and interpretation of these scales in light of careful clinical follow-up. Given the diagnostic and prognostic heterogeneity of illnesses presenting with psychosis, this experience provides the opportunity to develop clinical expertise in diagnosis and management of a range of mental health issues. The enriched treatment includes cognitive-behavioral group therapy, family psycho-education groups, and cognitive remediation in addition to vocational support with a focus on rapidly reintegrating patients back to age-appropriate social, educational, and employment goals. Students have the opportunity to observe or participate in any of these treatments. The multidisciplinary and pluralistic nature of the intervention presents a rich opportunity to participate in collaborative care with other mental health disciplines. Students can also participate in regular seminars sponsored by the STEP and PRIME (Prevention through Risk Identification, Management, and Education) clinics. The latter is a research clinic focused on prodromal psychosis. Site: Connecticut Mental Health Center (CMHC). Scholarship: STEP is designed as a service delivery model with a built-in observational cohort and experimental pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Students are invited to take an active role in the various domains of scholarship including community and clinician education efforts, publication, and learning about clinical research design. Prerequisite: Psychiatry 106. Open to fourth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh; V.H. Srihari (clinic director), J. Pollard (project director and family interventions coordinator, STEP clinic), C. Tek (program director, Psychosis Team), L.C. Hyman (team leader, Psychosis Team), S.W. Woods (director, PRIME clinic), J. Saksa (CBT coordinator, STEP clinic), B. Walsh (clinical coordinator, PRIME clinic)

Psychiatry 325/CHLD 325, Child Study Psychiatry Elective, Yale Child Study Center The aim of this elective is to provide the student with an intensive experience in infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry. The curriculum includes assessments of normal development and psychopathology in childhood, treatment methods, and research in major disorders of childhood. Students are active team members of the Children’s Psychiatric Inpatient Service and the consultation service to the pediatric wards of Yale-New Haven Hospital and can take advantage of the wide range of ongoing seminars, conferences, and clinical services in place at the Child Study Center. Teaching methods include seminars, conferences, field observations, ward rounds, and practicals selected by the student following consultation with the director of medical studies and the Child Study Center. One student every four weeks. Director: A.S. Martin

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Public Health

Office: LEPH 210, 203.785.2867

http://publichealth.yale.edu

Professors S. Aksoy, D. Albanes (Adjunct), F. Altice (Medicine), W.A. Andiman (Pediatrics), M.Y. Armstrong (Emeritus), R.S. Baltimore (Pediatrics), P. Boyle (Adjunct), M.B. Bracken (Epidemiology), E.H. Bradley, R. Bucala (Medicine), M. Cappello (Pediatrics), E.B. Claus, P.D. Cleary (Dean), L. Dembry (Medicine), V.T. DeVita (Medicine), P. Diggle (Adjunct), A.B. Du Bois (Emeritus), D.A. Fiellin (Medicine), E. Fikrig (Medicine), D. Fish (Epidemiology), H.P. Forman (Diagnostic Radiology), G. Friedland (Medicine), A. Gerber (Political Science), T.M. Gill (Medicine), R. Heimer (Epidemiology),T.R. Holford (Public Health), S.M. Horwitz (Emeritus), J.R. Ickovics (Epidemiology), J.F. Jekel (Emeritus), A.C. Justice (Medicine), E.H. Kaplan (School of Management), S.V. Kasl (Emeritus), A.I. Ko (Epidemiology), H.M. Krumholz (Medicine), B.P. Leaderer (Epidemiology), L.S. Levin (Emeritus), R.W. Makuch (Public Health), L.E. Marks (Epidemiology), S.T. Mayne, R. McCorkle (Nursing), D. McMahon-Pratt, I. Miller (Pediatrics), A.D. Paltiel (Public Health), C.L. Patton (Emeritus), P.N. Peduzzi, R. Perez-Escamilla, J.R. Powell (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), M.G. Reis (Adjunct), H.A. Risch, R. Rosenheck (Psychiatry), N. Rothman (Adjunct), N.H. Ruddle (Emeritus), M.B. Russi (Medicine), P. Salovey, N.G. Saravia (Adjunct), M.J. Schlesinger, E.D. Shapiro (Pediatrics), J.L. Sindelar (Public Health), J.T. Stitt (Emeritus), J.A. Stolwijk (Emeritus), J.K. Tebes (Psychiatry), G.H. Tignor (Emeritus), M.E. Tinetti (Medicine), C. Tschudi, H. Yu (Adjunct), D. Zelterman, H. Zhang (Public Health), H. Zhao (Public Health), T. Zheng

Associate Professors M.S. Bogucki (Emergency Medicine), S.H. Busch, M.M. Desai, R. Dubrow, A.P. Galvani (Epidemiology), E.L. Grigorenko (Child Study Center), C. Gross (Medicine), J.J. Hoh (Epidemiology), M.L. Irwin, T. Kershaw, K. Khoshnood, Q. Lan (Adjunct), B. Levy (Epidemiology), T.T. Lewis (Adjunct), J.H. Lichtman, H. Lin, S. Ma, X. Ma, I. Nembhard (Public Health), L.M. Niccolai, J. Pachankis, M.M. Pettigrew, J.P. Ruger (Public Health), A.N. Sofair (Medicine), N.S. Stachenfeld (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), R. Stolzenberg-Solomon (Adjunct), Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu

Assistant Professors R.D. Bruce (Medicine), X. Chen (Public Health), Z.N. Cooper (Public Health), F.W. Crawford, A.J. Cross (Adjunct), A.T. Dewan, M.A. Diuk-Wasser, A.S. Ettinger, B.E. Gould Rothberg (Medicine), J. Gupta, D. Keene, E.F. Long (School of Management), J.E. Monin, M. Nunez-Smith (Medicine), S. Parikh (Epidemiology), V.E. Pitzer, G.D. Ribeiro (Adjunct), F.M. Shebl, M. Smith (Psychiatry), S. Wang, Z. Wang, D.M. Weinberger, M.A. White (Psychiatry), B. Zhou

Senior Research Scientists K. Belanger (Epidemiology), A. Caccone (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), J.E. Childs (Epidemiology), L. Curry (Public Health), P.J. Krause (Epidemiology), L.E. Munstermann, M.B. Schwartz (Psychology)

Research Scientists N. Abdala, G.M. Attardo, B. Cartmel (Epidemiology), J.F. Gent, R. Gueorguieva, B.A. Jones (Epidemiology), N. Sun

Associate Research Scientists E. Buta, L. Calvocoressi, M.E. Canavan, T.M. Castilho, L.M. Chung, M.M. Ciarleglio (Public Health), F. Dai, L.M. Ferrucci, L.E. Grau, G. Han, L. Hou, A.J. Hromi-Fiedler, H. Huang, H. Jo, M.J. Kane, N.G. Kolev, T.C. Kyriakides (Medicine), E.C. Leifheit-Limson, L. Lu, L. Qin (Public Health), K.M. Talbert-Slagle (Public Health), J. Wang, R. Wang, B.L. Weiss (Epidemiology), E. White, E.A. Wunder, Q. Yan, C.W. Yeckel (Epidemiology), A.J. Zullo

Clinical Professor J.B. Borak (Epidemiology)

Associate Clinical Professors M.L. Cartter, J.L. Hadler, D. Shenson, H. Wang

Assistant Clinical Professors A.M. Miller, L.E. Sosa

Clinical Instructors D.L. Humphries, J.E. Rawlings

Lecturers E. Anderson, J.F. Anderson, T.G. Andreadis, D.D. Aye, T.J. Balcezak (Medicine), K. Belanger (Epidemiology), M. Booss, M.P. Borgstrom, E.A. Bortnichak, M.M. Callaway (Public Health), P.F. Canny, G.L. Capozzalo, B. Cartmel (Epidemiology), G. Charnley, J.E. Childs (Epidemiology), M.M. Ciarleglio (Public Health), K.H. Clark, H. Cohen (Medicine), L. Curry (Public Health), R. D’Aquila, D.A. D’Atri, M.G. Dale, A.S. Darefsky, H.G. Dove, J.D. Dunn, A.J. Durante, B.T. Fenton, C. Fields, B. Fontes, S.D. Geballe, W.A. Gillespie, G.L. Ginsberg, M.K. Gusmano, J.F. Jekel (Public Health), B. Jennings, B.A. Jones (Epidemiology), M. Klein, P.J. Krause (Epidemiology), M. Lee, L.S. Levin (Public Health), D. Li, E.L. Linnander, L.G. Marc, J.A. Mattera, J.E. McGovern, D. McKee (Economics), Z. McNatt, S.M. Merz, (Medicine), M. Moore (School of Management), L.M. Mueller, J.M. Mullen (Epidemiology), E. O’Keefe, J.E. Otero, C. Petit, J.M. Rozanova (Psychiatry), T.W. Ruger, B. Schachtel, R.L. Skolnik, M. Skonieczny, M.D. Slade (Medicine), J.P. Smith, M.V. Smith (Psychiatry), S.S. Spangler, J.A. Sparer (Medicine), D.E. Stevens, J.A. Stolwijk (Public Health), M.H. Stowe (Medicine), K.M. Talbert-Slagle (Public Health), P.H. Van Ness (Medicine), B.L. Weiss (Epidemiology), C.W. Yeckel (Epidemiology), K.A. Yonkers (Psychiatry), K.M. Yousey-Hindes, J.A. Zaccagnino

The nationally accredited Yale School of Public Health (YSPH) offers a wide variety of courses across several departments. Many of these are also available for medical student enrollment. For information on courses and registration procedures, contact the YSPH Registrar’s Office.

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Surgery

Office: FMB 102, 203.785.2697

http://yalesurgery.org

Professors J.J. Abrahams (Diagnostic Radiology), L.M. Bartoshuk (Emeritus), M.G. Caty, M. Centrella, K.A. Davis, F.C. Detterbeck, S.J. Dudrick (Emeritus), J.A. Elefteriades, S.H. Emre, J.P. Geibel, B.G. Green, R.J. Gusberg, G.L. Hammond (Emeritus), G.M. Israel (Diagnostic Radiology), B. Kinder (Emeritus), G.S. Kopf, D.R. Lannin, S.B. Leder, D.J. Leffell (Dermatology), A. Lofqvist (Adjunct), W.E. Longo, L.M. Manuelidis, D. Narayan, J.A. Persing, J. Pollak (Diagnostic Radiology), S.H. Rosenbaum (Anesthesiology), W. Rosenblatt (Anesthesiology), R.A. Rosenthal, P.E. Rubin (Adjunct), R.R. Salem, J. Santos-Sacchi, C.T. Sasaki, I.R. Schwartz (Emeritus), L.M. Scoutt (Diagnostic Radiology), J.H. Seashore (Emeritus), Y.H. Son (Therapeutic Radiology), B. Sumpio, G. Tellides, J.G. Thomson, R.J. Touloukian, R. Udelsman (Chair), W. Yarbrough, D.D. Yuh

Associate Professors J.E. Aruny (Diagnostic Radiology), S. Bokhari (Diagnostic Radiology), C.H. Cha, A.B. Chagpar, R. Cowles, A. Dardik, A. Duffy, R.N. Formica (Medicine), S. Hashim, M.H. Johnson (Diagnostic Radiology), L.J. Kaplan, S. Kulkarni, B.E. Muhs, M.F. Perkal, M. Prasad (Pathology), K.E. Roberts, M. Schilsky (Medicine), K. Schuster, W. Stewart, T. Tsangaris

Assistant Professors A.F. Au, B. Bhattacharya, M.S. Bianchi, D.J. Boffa, P.N. Bonde, L.M. Bow, G. Callender, T. Carling, E.R. Christison-Lagay, U.M. Darr, R. Decker (Therapeutic Radiology), H.A. Deshpande (Medicine), M.L. Dewar, M.F. Ditillo, H. Einarsdottir, A. Geirsson, D. Han, N.R. Horowitz, J. Indes, N. Isaeva, D.C. Johnson, B. Judson, S. Kahn, B. Killelea, A.W. Kim, D. Kowalski (Pathology), S.L. Kwei, S.M. Luczycki (Anesthesiology), F.Y. Lui, L.L. Maerz, R. Manes, A.A. Mangi, A. Maung, E. Michaelides, G. Nadzam, C. Ochoa Chaar, D.E. Ozgediz, G.L. Piper, C. Quinn, V. Reddy, M.I. Rodriguez-Davalos, T. Sam, D.M. Steinbacher, H.E. Tantawy (Anesthesiology), P.S. Yoo, N. Young

Research Scientist M.S. Kidd

Associate Research Scientists X. Guo, R. Korah, L. Qin, T. Rampias, L. Song, J. Zhou

Clinical Professors S. Ariyan, J.E. Fenn, J.F. Kveton, R.S. Stahl, E. Yanagisawa

Associate Clinical Professors N.A. Atweh, Z.N. Chicarilli, R.C. Fazio, J.P. Kelly, K. Lee, R.A. Lowlicht, J.T. Schulz

Assistant Clinical Professors D.I. Astrachan, S. Baker, P.A. Barcewicz, H. Cedarbaum, B.Y. Cha, W. Cholewczynski, R.W. DeNatale, T.G. Duplinsky, S.I. Friedman, S. Fusi, R. Garvey, R.T. Golia, N.A. Gordon, J. Henley, R.H. Hirokawa, G.E. Horblitt, D.E. Karas, D.B. Keck, A.S. Kenler, J.C. Kirchner, S.B. Levine, D.J. Muller, S. Natkin, M.K. O’Brien, G. Opin, P.M. Opin, M.T. Pronovost, J.C. Salomon, R.F. Schlessel, J.F. Schmidt, M.J. Schpero, S. Shah, R.E. Steller, T.F. Sweeney, D.A. Tereb, S.C. Thornton, E.M. Vining, D. Wasson, M.H. Weinstein, J.M. Willett, K. Yanagisawa, K. Zuckerman

Clinical Instructors C.B. Beckman, R. Crombie, A. Czibulka, M. D’Agostino, K. Discepolo, S. Drukteinis, P.L. Fortgang, C. Haberland, E. Honigsberg, J. Kerner, J.R. Klenoff, T.H. Lesnik, R. Radmand, H.F. Reilly, T. Takoudes, M.N. Waltzman

Lecturers L. Acton, L. Copes, J.P. Escandon, A. Ferruggiaro, B.C. Fichandler, D.D. Hendrick, N.M. Hewitt, J. Hopper, J.S. Hundal, H.M. Keiser-Pedersen, V. Lee, E.A. Likins-Graham, J. Mendes, C. Powell, C. Rodolfo, L. Romanelli, P.G. Sasaki, B.J. Sperrazza, H.L. Warner

SURG 103, Surgery Clerkship The twelve-week Surgery Clerkship Block includes four weeks of General Surgery and four weeks of Surgical Specialties, as well as two weeks of Anesthesiology and two weeks of Emergency Medicine. Students have an opportunity to complete a preference form for site assignments but are not guaranteed a specific assignment, nor are they able to indicate which rotation will be done first; this is determined by the clerkship administrator based on space availability.

The four-week General Surgery Core rotation can be completed at Yale-New Haven Hospital the West Haven VA Medical Center. Service preferences include Gastrointestinal Surgery, Oncology Surgery, Trauma/Emergency Surgery, and VAMC Surgery.

The mandatory four-week special services rotation is divided into two weeks on the Anesthesiology service and two weeks on Emergency Medicine.

For the four weeks of surgical subspecialty rotations, students may select two, two-week subspecialty services, which are completed at YNHH. Service preferences include: Cardiac Surgery, Endocrine, Orthopaedic Surgery, Otolaryngology–ENT, Pediatric Surgery, Peripheral Vascular, Plastic Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Transplant, or Urology.

There is a surgery mentoring program throughout the twelve-week block. The Surgery Clerkship Block may not be done away and must be completed by the end of the third year. Clerkship director: R.J. Gusberg

SURG 123b, Biochemical and Metabolic Foundations of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery A course designed to provide in-depth understanding of the molecular events underlying the diverse clinical phenomena encountered in plastic surgery. Topics include fluid electrolyte metabolism in the burn patient, biochemistry and metabolism of collagen and its relation to scarring and connective tissue disorders, normal wound healing, and disorders of the same. Offered for four weeks during the spring term, two hours per week by arrangement. Limited to two fourth-year students. J.A. Persing

SURG 129, Cardiac Transplantation/Cardiac Assist Device Elective Intensive exposure to laboratory and clinical aspects of cardiac transplantation. Special emphasis on the relationship between ongoing laboratory studies and clinical practice in this field. Students are involved in the preoperative assessment of prospective transplant candidates, donor procurement, intraoperative management, and postoperative immunosuppression. One or two students every four weeks. Codirectors: A. Mangi, P. Bonde

SURG 130, Subinternship in Cardiac Surgery Intensive exposure to preoperative and postoperative management of adult and pediatric cardiac surgical patients and to intraoperative conduct of surgical procedures, with active participation in the operating room and in regular conferences. Students attend regular seminars covering major areas of cardiac surgery with members of the faculty, and may be required to present a seminar on a subject in cardiac surgery to faculty and resident staff. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Maximum of four students every four weeks. Director: J.A. Elefteriades; S. Hashim, D. Yuh

SURG 131, Subinternship in General Thoracic Surgery The student is expected to be a valuable contributing team member during daily rounds, in the operating room, in the outpatient clinic, and at conferences. The majority of patients under the care of the thoracic surgery service include those with lung, esophageal, and mediastinal malignancies and infections, and many present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Students have the opportunity to understand the multidisciplinary approach that is undertaken in the management of these complex patients. Interested students can also pursue clinical research projects and papers. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: A.W. Kim

SURG 143, Surgical Critical Care Elective The surgical intensive care unit (SICU) exposes the senior medical student to the day-to-day and minute-to-minute management of the critically ill surgical patient. The breadth of surgical disease, spanning all aspects of surgery, allows the student to understand the management of respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal failure. Advanced techniques in ventilatory management and state-of-the-art sepsis management are used. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: L.L. Maerz

SURG 144, Subintership in Trauma and Emergency General Surgery A four-week exposure to the urgent surgical care of the critically ill and injured. Students are exposed to the evaluation and management of patients with traumatic and general surgical emergencies. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: F.Y. Lui

SURG 150, Subinternship in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Students participate in the evaluation and reconstructive surgery of deformities of congenital, traumatic, and neoplastic origin. Includes inpatient, outpatient, and operating room experience, supplemented by regular conferences. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: J.A. Persing

SURG 151, Subinternship in Gastrointestinal General Surgery This subinternship offers in-depth exposure to the surgical care of the stomach and intestines in the clinic, hospital, and operating room. Diagnosis and treatment procedures are coordinated with gastroenterologists, endoscopists, and cancer experts, with emphasis on the most successful surgery with the least pain, trauma, scarring, and recovery time. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: W.E. Longo

SURG 152, Advanced Senior Seminar, General Surgery This is a weekly evening seminar series covering advanced and controversial topics in general surgery. Three one-hour sessions include dinner at faculty homes and run from October through February. Reprints of pertinent articles provided prior to each seminar. Staff

SURG 153, Subinternship in Otolaryngology This clinical experience is independent of the third-year Surgery/Otolaryngology rotation, and takes place on an individual basis. It includes operating room experience, ward responsibilities, and involvement in outpatient ENT. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: M.S. Bianchi

SURG 159, Subinternship in Urology Flexible program designed to provide in-depth exposure to urology specialty areas, including uro-oncology, minimally invasive (laparoscopic) urology, endo-urology, neuro-urology, female urology, and pediatric urology. Students are part of the urologic team and participate actively in the clinic, the OR, and on rounds. Prerequisite: at least six months of prior clinical training. One or two students every four weeks. Director: D. Singh

SURG 171, Subinternship in Vascular Surgery A practical experience in the diagnosis and management of vascular disease, including pre- and postoperative care. The scope of the experience includes orientation to the noninvasive vascular diagnostic laboratory, outpatient care in the Yale Vascular Center, and inpatient management (including patients in the OR, ICU, and the vascular surgery unit). Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: J. Indes

SURG 172, Subinternship in Transplantation Surgery This intensive clinical experience emphasizes the preoperative assessment, intraoperative care, and postoperative management of patients suffering end-stage organ system failure who are cared for by transplantation. Emphasis also includes the management of immunosuppressive medication regimens and the care of post-transplant problems. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: S.H. Emre

SURG 174, Subinternship in Surgical Oncology Intensive exposure to surgical aspects of the treatment of cancer in the clinic, hospital, and operating room. The interaction among surgery, medical oncology, and radiation therapy is experienced by following patients receiving multiple forms of therapy. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: R.R. Salem

SURG 176/PEDS 143, Subinternship in Pediatric Surgery This subinternship provides an in-depth exposure to the broad spectrum of pediatric surgical problems. Specific attention is given to identifying the pediatric patient in crisis, a relevant skill whether or not the student pursues a career in surgery. Objectives include understanding the correction of major congenital anomalies, management of trauma, care of the critically ill child, and management of solid tumors. Experience includes in-depth exposure to the pediatric operating room, training in neonatal and pediatric critical care, and experience in the pediatric surgical outpatient clinic. The student is an integral part of the pediatric surgical team. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: E.R. Christison-Lagay

SURG 203, Fourth-Year Techniques in Otolaryngology Elective This elective provides exposure to the broad spectrum of otolaryngology and head and neck problems. Students spend time in both the operating room and various clinics, including otology, laryngology, pediatric otolaryngology, head and neck cancer, facial plastics, and sinus. Students are asked to grasp in detail the head and neck exam and to learn diagnostic techniques and procedures useful to all medical specialties. The schedule is flexible and allows students to choose to participate in operations and clinics of their special interest. Ample opportunity is provided to interact with the faculty and to develop a mentor relationship. One or two students every two weeks. Director: M.S. Bianchi

SURG 204, General Surgery Elective, Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus Students become an integral part of the resident team, supervised by the chief resident and attending physicians on the general surgery service. Students participate in the management of general surgical inpatients, preoperative evaluations, and outpatient clinics. Students are expected to participate in all teaching conferences, Grand Rounds, and clinics, and to attend core curriculum conferences each week. The goal is to provide an educational experience that will be of value to students’ eventual practice, regardless of which specialty they enter. One student every four weeks. Director: G. Kaml

SURG 208, Burn Surgery Elective, Bridgeport Hospital This rotation provides an intensive exposure to the care of the acutely burned patient: surgical and nonsurgical care, critical care, and outpatient wound care. Large burn injuries evoke the most severe critical illness known to medicine. Patients with such injuries are unstable for prolonged periods of time and require responsive and attentive critical care. The student participates in this care, including procedures performed in the burn intensive care unit. Assessment of burn depth and the prognosis for wound healing are often far from straightforward, and the student participates in this assessment process with the rest of the team, learning to gauge depth and prognosis via examination of multiple patients. Operative therapy for burns includes excisional debridement and often split-thickness skin grafting, but there are multiple choices to be made in providing optimal care to a particular patient. The student learns the rudiments of this decision-making process and is an active participant in all operations performed by the burn team. One student every four weeks. Director: J.T. Schulz

SURG 209, Congenital Heart Surgery Elective Students participate in the diagnosis, treatment, and operative and postoperative management of patients with congenital heart disease. Daily rounds on adult and pediatric cardiothoracic patients. Students receive a large exposure to pediatric and adult surgical cardiac intensive care unit care. One or two students every four weeks. Director: P. Kirshbom; G.S. Kopf, M. Karimi

SURG 211, Subinternship in Surgical Critical Care, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven Students are assigned advanced clinical duties in the field of surgical critical care. Students spend time in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), where they participate in the management of critically ill surgical patients, including general surgical, vascular, urologic, cardiothoracic, and neurosurgical patients. Topics covered include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, airway and ventilator management, fluid management, nutritional support, and the management of sepsis. Students can participate in all invasive procedures in the SICU, including bedside tracheostomy, percutaneous gastrostomy placement, bronchoscopy, and arterial and central venous catheter placement. Under the supervision of the intensive care attending physician, students are directly responsible for one to two critical care patients. Students present on rounds each day and assist in providing family and primary service communication. Limited to fourth-year students. Prerequisite: completion of third-year surgery and medicine clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: M.F. Perkal

SURG 217, Subinternship in Endocrine Surgery This elective exposes the student to in-depth clinical and surgical aspects of endocrine surgery. Special emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach to the endocrine patient: understanding the laboratory and radiologic studies, cytopathology, biochemical analysis, preoperative stabilization of patients, intraoperative decision making, and postoperative follow-up and outpatient evaluation of patients. Technical skills are emphasized as well for students interested in improving their surgical hands. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: T. Carling

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Therapeutic Radiology

Office: SCH LL507, 203.785.2956

http://radonc.yale.edu

Professors S.J. Baserga (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), Z. Chen, D.C. DiMaio (Genetics), P.M. Glazer (Chair), B.G. Haffty (Adjunct), R. Nath, R.E. Peschel, S. Rockwell, W. Rupp, R.J. Schulz (Emeritus), Y.H. Son, W.C. Summers, P. Sung (Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry), J.B. Sweasy, L.D. Wilson

Professor (Adjunct) of Research K. Low

Associate Professors V.L. Chiang (Neurosurgery), J. Deng, S.A. Higgins, M.S. Moran, K.B. Roberts, J.B. Weidhaas, Z. Yun

Assistant Professors R.S. Bindra, D.J. Carlson, B.W. Chang, J.N. Contessa, S. Damast, R. Decker, S.B. Evans, F. Guo, J.E. Hansen, R.B. Jensen, S. Kamath, W. Lui, B. McGibbon, A.A. Patel, F.A. Rogers, F. Su, J.B. Yu

Senior Research Scientist D.E. Brash

Associate Research Scientists M. Kaushik, D. Kidane, Q. Lin, Y. Lu, T.S. Paranjape

Clinical Professor D.E. Brash

Associate Clinical Professor P.M. Pathare

Assistant Clinical Professors M. Ahmad, J. Albanese, J.E. Bond, A. Chu, J.Y. Chung, C.A. Knowlton, S. Mani

Lecturers H.M. Lincoln, R. Vera

THER 101, Radiation Oncology Elective A flexible program designed to introduce the medical student to radiation oncology. The biological and physical basis of radiation oncology, together with clinical practice and ongoing research. Clinical exposure to patients with malignant disease, with between seventy-five and one hundred patients treated daily in the department. The student takes part in departmental conferences, clinics, lectures, and individual teaching sessions. One or two students every four weeks. Director: S.A. Higgins

THER 102, Clinical Radiobiology This course is designed to provide residents in radiation oncology with a comprehensive review of clinical radiobiology as it applies to the practice of radiation therapy. The course is open to residents and fellows in other disciplines interested in radiobiology as it applies to clinical oncology. The course participant attends approximately twenty lectures in clinical radiobiology, which are delivered throughout the academic year between September and June. Scheduling by arrangement with L.D. Wilson

THER 201b, A Survey of Radiobiology A review of the interaction of radiation on living organisms, progressing from DNA damage to complex mammalian systems. Modern concepts in molecular biology and cell kinetics are emphasized in understanding the sequelae of this interaction and the mechanism by which the organism responds to the injury produced. Fourteen sessions. By arrangement with Radiobiology staff

THER 305, Principles and Methods of Radiation Dosimetry A graduate-level course for physics students or medical students with a strong physics background who want to learn about radiation dosimetry as it applies to medical practice. Topics include X-ray spectra, ionization chambers, X-ray exposure and the roentgen, mass energy-absorption coefficients, the Bragg-Gray principle, stopping power and linear energy transfer, chemical dosimeters, instrumentation, and physical aspects of radiology. Approximately twenty hours of tutorial sessions. Scheduling by arrangement with instructor. R. Nath

THER 306, Laboratory Projects in Radiation Dosimetry Students are given problems that relate to and supplement long-term, ongoing radiation dosimetry projects within the department. Prerequisite: THER 305, or its equivalent. Scheduling by arrangement with instructor. R. Nath

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Urology

Office: FMP 300, 203.737.6038

http://medicine.yale.edu/urology

Professors H.E. Foster, B. Lytton (Emeritus), P. Schulam (Chair), R.M. Weiss

Associate Professor J.W. Colberg

Assistant Professors A.B. Hittelman, D. Singh, C.N. Walker

Instructor H.Z. Kaimakliotis

Associate Research Scientists R.E. Fan, M. Lu

Assistant Clinical Professors R.J. Dean, P.A. Kraus, R.F. Stroup

Clinical Instructors P. Demir, J.J. Williams

Lecturer M.G. Maher

Urology electives are listed under the Department of Surgery.

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