Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Subjects of Instruction

Courses offered by the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies are described below. The letters “a” and “b” following the course numbers indicate fall- and spring-term courses, respectively. Bracketed courses will not be offered during the 2013–2014 academic year.

Project courses involve individually assigned advanced field or laboratory work, or literature review, on topics of special interest to the student; credits and hours for these projects are determined for each student in consultation with the instructor.

Courses throughout the University are generally open to students enrolled in the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, subject to limitations on class size and requirements for prerequisites.

Note For updated course listings, please see the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Web site, www.environment.yale.edu/courses.

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List of Courses by Topic


  • [F&ES 500a]
  • Landscape Ecology
  • 36
  • F&ES 505b
  • Economics of the Environment
  • 37
  • F&ES 510a
  • Introduction to Statistics in the Environmental Sciences
  • 37
  • F&ES 515a
  • Physical Sciences for Environmental Management
  • 37
  • F&ES 520a
  • Society and Environment: Introduction to Theory and Method
  • 37
  • F&ES 525a
  • The Politics and Practice of Environmental and Resource Policy
  • 38
  • F&ES 530a
  • Ecosystems and Landscapes
  • 38

Integrative Frameworks

  • F&ES 600b
  • Linkages of Sustainability
  • 38
  • F&ES 610a
  • Science to Solutions: How Should We Manage Water?
  • 38
  • [F&ES 620b]
  • Integrative Assessment
  • 39


  • F&ES 950b
  • Life Cycle Assessment Practicum
  • 39
  • [F&ES 951b]
  • Managing the Global Carbon Cycle
  • 39
  • F&ES 953a,b
  • Business and the Environment Consulting Clinic
  • 40
  • F&ES 954a
  • Management Plans for Protected Areas
  • 40
  • F&ES 955b
  • Seminar in Research Analysis, Writing, and Communication
  • 40
  • F&ES 960b
  • Workshop in the Analysis, Writing, and Communication of Social Science Research
  • 40
  • [F&ES 963b]
  • Payments for Ecosystem Services
  • 41
  • [F&ES 964b]
  • Large-Scale Conservation: Integrating Science, Management, and Policy
  • 41
  • F&ES 965b
  • Advanced Readings: Social Science of Development and Conservation
  • 42
  • F&ES 966a
  • The Entrepreneurial Approach to Environmental Problem Solving
  • 42
  • F&ES 969b
  • Rapid Assessments in Forest Conservation
  • 42
  • F&ES 970a,b
  • Environmental Protection Clinic
  • 43


Ecosystem Ecology
  • F&ES 681a
  • Ethnobotany
  • 43
  • [F&ES 731b]
  • Tropical Field Botany
  • 43
  • F&ES 733b
  • Synthesizing Environmental Science for Policy
  • 43
  • F&ES 734b
  • Biological Oceanography
  • 43
  • [F&ES 735a]
  • Biogeography and Conservation
  • 44
  • F&ES 741b
  • Introduction to Indigenous Silviculture
  • 44
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Biology
  • [F&ES 736b]
  • Ecology Seminar
  • 44
  • [F&ES 738a]
  • Aquatic Ecology
  • 44
  • F&ES 739b
  • Species and Ecosystem Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Approach
  • 45
  • [F&ES 740b]
  • Dynamics of Ecological Systems
  • 45
  • F&ES 744b
  • Conservation Science
  • 45
Environmental Education and Communication
  • F&ES 745a
  • Environmental Writing
  • 46
  • F&ES 746b
  • Archetypes and the Environment
  • 46
  • F&ES 747a
  • Global Communication Skills
  • 46
  • F&ES 750a
  • Writing the World
  • 46
  • F&ES 900a
  • Doctoral Student Seminar
  • 47
  • F&ES 949b
  • Responsible Conduct of Research
  • 47


Forest Biology
  • F&ES 581a
  • Multifunctional Carbon-Sequestering Agroforestry
  • 47
  • F&ES 650b
  • Fire: Science and Policy
  • 48
  • F&ES 651b
  • Forest Ecosystem Health
  • 48
  • F&ES 654a
  • Structure, Function, and Development of Trees and Other Vascular Plants
  • 48
  • [F&ES 655b]
  • Research Methods of the Anatomy and Physiology of Trees
  • 48
  • F&ES 656b
  • Physiology of Trees and Forests
  • 48
  • F&ES 671a
  • Natural History and Taxonomy of Trees
  • 49
Forest Management
  • F&ES 657b
  • Managing Resources
  • 49
  • F&ES 658a
  • Global Resources, International Resource Exchanges, and the Environment
  • 49
  • F&ES 659b
  • Principles in Applied Ecology: The Practice of Silviculture
  • 50
  • F&ES 660a
  • Forest Dynamics: Growth and Development of Forest Stands
  • 50
  • [F&ES 661b]
  • Analysis and Development of Silvicultural Prescriptions
  • 50
  • [F&ES 663b]
  • Invasive Species: Ecology, Policy, and Management
  • 50
  • F&ES 668b
  • Field Trips in Forest Resource Management and Silviculture
  • 51
  • F&ES 669b
  • Forest Management Operations
  • 51
  • F&ES 670b
  • Southern Forest and Forestry Field Trip
  • 51
  • F&ES 680a
  • Forest and Ecosystem Finance
  • 51

Physical Sciences

Atmospheric Sciences
  • [F&ES 700b]
  • Alpine, Arctic, and Boreal Ecosystems Seminar
  • 52
  • [F&ES 701b]
  • Climate Change Policy and Science Seminar
  • 52
  • [F&ES 702b]
  • Climate Change Seminar
  • 52
  • F&ES 703b
  • Climate and Life
  • 52
  • [F&ES 704a]
  • An Atmospheric Perspective of Global Change
  • 52
  • [F&ES 705b]
  • Climate and Air Pollution
  • 53
  • [F&ES 722b]
  • Boundary Layer Meteorology
  • 53
  • [F&ES 771a]
  • Climate Modeling
  • 53
Environmental Chemistry
  • [F&ES 706b]
  • Organic Pollutants in the Environment
  • 53
  • F&ES 707b
  • Aquatic Chemistry
  • 53
  • [F&ES 708a]
  • Biogeochemistry and Pollution
  • 54
  • F&ES 711a
  • Atmospheric Chemistry
  • 54
  • [F&ES 743a]
  • Environmental Chemical Analysis
  • 54
  • F&ES 773a
  • Air Pollution Control (APC)
  • 54
  • F&ES 777b
  • Water Quality Control
  • 54
Soil Science
  • [F&ES 709a]
  • Soil Science
  • 55
Water Resources
  • F&ES 710b
  • Coastal Governance
  • 55
  • [F&ES 712b]
  • Water Resource Management
  • 55
  • F&ES 713a
  • Coastal Ecosystems
  • 55
  • [F&ES 714b]
  • Environmental Hydrology
  • 55
  • F&ES 719a
  • River Processes and Restoration
  • 56
  • F&ES 724b
  • Watershed Cycles and Processes
  • 56
  • F&ES 729b
  • Caribbean Coastal Development: Cesium and CZM
  • 56

Quantitative and Research Methods

  • F&ES 550a
  • Natural Science Research Methods
  • 57
  • F&ES 551a
  • Social Science Qualitative Research Methods
  • 57
  • F&ES 552b
  • Master’s Student Research Colloquium
  • 57
  • F&ES 725b
  • Remote Sensing of Land Cover and Land Use Change
  • 57
  • F&ES 726b
  • Observing Earth from Space
  • 58
  • F&ES 749a
  • Seminar: Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Research
  • 58
  • F&ES 751b
  • Sampling Methodology and Practice
  • 58
  • F&ES 753a
  • Regression Modeling of Ecological and Environmental Data
  • 58
  • F&ES 754a
  • Geospatial Software Design
  • 58
  • F&ES 755b
  • Modeling Geographic Space
  • 59
  • F&ES 756a
  • Modeling Geographic Objects
  • 59
  • [F&ES 757b]
  • Statistical Design of Experiments
  • 59
  • F&ES 758b
  • Multivariate Statistical Analysis in the Environmental Sciences
  • 59
  • F&ES 762a
  • Applied Math for Environmental Studies (AMES)
  • 59
  • F&ES 780a
  • Seminar in Forest Inventory
  • 60
  • F&ES 781b
  • Applied Spatial Statistics
  • 60

Social Sciences

  • F&ES 795b
  • Nature as Capital: Merging Ecologic and Economic Models
  • 60
  • [F&ES 800b]
  • Energy Economics and Policy Analysis
  • 60
  • F&ES 802b
  • Valuing the Environment
  • 61
  • [F&ES 803b]
  • Green Markets: Voluntary and Information Approaches to Environmental Management
  • 61
  • F&ES 804b
  • Economics of Natural Resource Management
  • 61
  • F&ES 805a,b
  • Seminar in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
  • 61
  • [F&ES 806b]
  • Economics of Pollution Management
  • 61
  • F&ES 890a
  • Energy Markets Strategy
  • 62
  • [F&ES 904a]
  • Doctoral Seminar in Environmental and Energy Economics
  • 62
  • [F&ES 905b]
  • Doctoral Seminar in Environmental Economics
  • 62
Environmental Policy
  • F&ES 775b
  • Sustainable Sites
  • 62
  • [F&ES 794a]
  • Making Better Decisions with Environmental Applications
  • 63
  • F&ES 807a
  • Corporate Environmental Management and Strategy
  • 63
  • F&ES 814a
  • Energy Systems Analysis
  • 63
  • [F&ES 815a]
  • The New Corporate Social Responsibility: Public Problems, Private Solutions, and Strategic Responses
  • 63
  • F&ES 817a
  • Urban, Suburban, and Regional Planning Practice
  • 64
  • F&ES 818a
  • Energy Technology Innovation
  • 64
  • F&ES 819b
  • Strategies for Land Conservation
  • 65
  • F&ES 820b
  • Land Use Law and Environmental Planning
  • 65
  • F&ES 821b
  • Private Investment and the Environment: Legal Foundations and Tools
  • 66
  • [F&ES 823a]
  • Climate Change and the International Court of Justice
  • 66
  • F&ES 824a
  • Environmental Law and Policy
  • 66
  • F&ES 825b
  • International Environmental Law
  • 67
  • F&ES 826a
  • Foundations of Natural Resource Policy and Management
  • 67
  • F&ES 828b
  • Comparative Environmental Law in Global Legal Systems
  • 68
  • F&ES 829b
  • International Environmental Policy and Governance
  • 68
  • F&ES 832a,b
  • Entrepreneurial Business Planning
  • 68
  • F&ES 835a
  • Seminar on Land Use Planning
  • 69
  • F&ES 837b
  • Seminar on Leadership in Natural Resources and the Environment
  • 69
  • F&ES 841b
  • A Critical History of U.S. Energy Law and Policy
  • 69
  • [F&ES 843b]
  • Readings in Environmental History
  • 70
  • [F&ES 849b]
  • Natural Resource Policy Practicum
  • 70
  • F&ES 850a
  • International Organizations and Conferences
  • 70
  • F&ES 851a,b
  • Environmental Diplomacy Practicum
  • 70
  • [F&ES 855a]
  • Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Areas
  • 71
  • [F&ES 860b]
  • Understanding Environmental Campaigns and Policy Making: Strategies and Tactics
  • 71
  • [F&ES 866b]
  • [The] Law of Climate Change
  • 71
Social and Political Ecology
  • F&ES 770b
  • The Human Population Explosion
  • 71
  • F&ES 772a
  • Social Justice in the Food System
  • 71
  • F&ES 774b
  • Agriculture: Origins, Evolution, Crises
  • 72
  • F&ES 779b
  • Religion, Ecology, and Cosmology
  • 72
  • F&ES 793b
  • Abrupt Climate Change and Societal Collapse
  • 72
  • [F&ES 827b]
  • Contemporary Environmental Challenges in Africa
  • 72
  • F&ES 831b
  • Society and Natural Resources
  • 73
  • F&ES 836a
  • Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development
  • 73
  • F&ES 838a
  • Producing and Consuming Nature
  • 74
  • F&ES 839a
  • Social Science of Development and Conservation
  • 74
  • [F&ES 845b]
  • Energy Issues in Developing Countries
  • 75
  • F&ES 846b
  • Perspectives on Environmental Injustices
  • 75
  • F&ES 848a
  • Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation
  • 75
  • F&ES 854b
  • Institutions and the Environment
  • 75
  • [F&ES 857b]
  • Urbanization, Global Change, and Sustainability
  • 76
  • [F&ES 859b]
  • American Environmental History and Values
  • 76
  • F&ES 861a
  • American Indian Religions and Ecology
  • 76
  • [F&ES 862b]
  • Advanced Seminar in Social and Political Dimensions of Climate Change
  • 77
  • F&ES 863a
  • Sustainability in Latin America
  • 77
  • F&ES 869b
  • Disaster, Degradation, Dystopia: Social Science Approaches to Environmental Perturbation and Change
  • 77
  • [F&ES 872a]
  • Seminar on World Religions and Ecology
  • 78
  • [F&ES 873a]
  • Global Environmental History
  • 78
  • [F&ES 876a]
  • Indigenous Religions and Ecology
  • 78
  • F&ES 877b
  • Anthropology of the Global Economy for Development and Conservation
  • 78
  • [F&ES 878a]
  • Anthropology of Climate: Past to Present
  • 79
  • F&ES 879b
  • World Religions and Ecology: Asian Religions
  • 79
  • F&ES 882a
  • The Black Box of Implementation: Households, Communities, Gender
  • 79
  • F&ES 892a
  • Introduction to Planning and Development
  • 80
Health and Environment
  • [F&ES 727a]
  • The Future of Food
  • 80
  • F&ES 761b
  • Food Security and Agricultural Development
  • 80
  • F&ES 765b
  • Mitigating Agriculture’s Impact
  • 81
  • F&ES 889a
  • Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA)
  • 81
  • F&ES 891a
  • Ecoepidemiology
  • 81
  • F&ES 893a
  • Applied Risk Assessment
  • 81
  • F&ES 896b
  • Introduction to Toxicology
  • 82
  • F&ES 897b
  • Assessing Exposures to Environmental Stressors
  • 82
  • [F&ES 898a]
  • The Environment and Human Health
  • 82
  • F&ES 899b
  • Sustainable Development in Post-Disaster Context: Haiti
  • 82
Industrial Ecology, Environmental Planning, and Technology
  • F&ES 782a
  • Globalization Space: Infrastructure and Extrastatecraft
  • 82
  • F&ES 788b
  • Applied Urban Ecology
  • 83
  • F&ES 881a
  • FT: Field Experience in Industrial Operations
  • 83
  • F&ES 883b
  • Advanced Industrial Ecology Seminar: The Energy Industry
  • 83
  • F&ES 884b
  • Industrial Ecology
  • 83
  • F&ES 885b
  • Green Engineering and Sustainability
  • 83
  • [F&ES 888a]
  • Ecological Urban Design
  • 84
  • F&ES 894a
  • Green Building: Process, Products, Perspective, and Policy
  • 84

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Course Descriptions

At F&ES, new courses are often added after this bulletin is printed. Our Web site at www. environment.yale.edu will have an updated list, as well as a list of environmental courses available in other departments at Yale. See also Yale University’s online course information Web site: www.yale.edu/oci.


[F&ES 500a/E&EB 365a/665a, Landscape Ecology 3 credits. This Foundations course is an introduction to the study of large-scale ecological patterns and processes. Landscape ecology is a relatively young, rapidly changing field. The topics covered reflect the diverse interests of ecologists: species-area relationships, island biogeography, metapopulation theory, individual-based models, cellular automata, models of biodiversity, etc. Throughout the course the emphasis is on when and how to integrate a spatial perspective into consideration of major ecological questions. Readings from the primary literature augment material covered in lectures. Students complete a project resulting in a manuscript on a landscape-related topic. Knowledge of the concepts and principles covered in Landscape Ecology is assumed for all other F&ES courses in ecology and is essential for informing many kinds of decisions regarding ecosystem management. David K. Skelly]

F&ES 505b, Economics of the Environment 3 credits. This course provides students with in-depth training using economic analysis to address environmental policies and management. Students are exposed to tools that allow them to assess the efficiency of different environmental policies and management strategies. The course examines when markets manage the environment efficiently and when they fail. It covers a range of topics including preventing pollution, managing renewable resources, and consuming nonrenewable resources. It stresses the importance of science and values in making efficient choices. The course is a prerequisite for all advanced economics courses and provides knowledge that is fundamental to success in F&ES courses on resource management. Faculty

F&ES 510a, Introduction to Statistics in the Environmental Sciences 3 credits. An introduction to probability and statistics with emphasis on applications in forestry and environmental sciences. Includes methods of graphical analysis, introduction of common probability distributions, and hypothesis testing. The final third of the course introduces the topics of regression and analysis of variance that are covered more thoroughly in F&ES 753a. There are weekly problem sets using MINITAB software, as well as a final project. This course is a prerequisite for all other statistics courses offered through F&ES, and it presents statistical methods used in many of the School’s courses in both the natural and social sciences. Three hours lecture. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer

F&ES 515a, Physical Sciences for Environmental Management 3 credits. This Foundations course seeks to provide students with the physical science basics that they need in order to understand and manage environmental problems. The course draws on the following disciplines: climatology, environmental chemistry, geology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, and soil science. Focus is on understanding both the underlying concepts and how they apply to real-world environmental challenges. Useful both as a freestanding course and as a gateway to a wide spectrum of intermediate and advanced courses. Three hours lecture, weekly problem sets. Shimon C. Anisfeld

F&ES 520a/ANTH 581a, Society and Environment: Introduction to Theory and Method 3 credits. This is an introductory course on the scope of social scientific contributions to environmental and natural resource issues. Section I presents an overview of the field and course. Section II deals with the way that environmental problems are initially framed; case studies focus on placing problems in their wider political context, new approaches to uncertainty and failure, and the importance of how the analytical boundaries to resource systems are drawn. Section III focuses on questions of method, including the dynamics of working within development projects, and the art of rapid appraisal and short-term consultancies. Section IV is concerned with local peoples and the environment, with case studies addressing myths of native tropical forest use and abuse, development discourse, and the question of indigenous peoples and knowledge. No prerequisites. This is a Foundations course in F&ES, a core course in the joint F&ES/Anthropology doctoral degree program, and a prerequisite for F&ES 869b/ANTH 572b. Three hours lecture/seminar. Michael R. Dove

F&ES 525a, The Politics and Practice of Environmental and Resource Policy 3 credits. The purpose of this Foundations course is to provide a survey of public policy theory and practice, as related to development and implementation of environmental and natural resource policy. The course examines theories of policy formation; the intricacies of the policy-making process; the history of natural resource and environmental policy; and applied techniques in policy analysis and evaluation. The course has been specifically designed to provide both a theoretical and practical introduction to natural resource and environmental public policy. Upon completion of the course, the student will understand the political environment within which public policy is formulated, including the role of ideas, science, and learning. Students also will be able to demonstrate basic technical competence in environmental public policy development and the implementation process. The course has been developed to accommodate biologists and other natural scientists and assumes no prior knowledge of political science or the policy-making process. Benjamin Cashore

F&ES 530a, Ecosystems and Landscapes 4 credits. This Foundations course is an introduction to concepts in ecosystem and landscape ecology. Topics covered include element cycling, food web interactions, species-area relationships, whole system metabolism, models of biodiversity, etc. The course emphasizes how to integrate knowledge to understand ecological patterns and processes at multiple scales in order to study, manage, and conserve species and ecosystems. Peter A. Raymond, Oswald J. Schmitz

Integrative Frameworks

F&ES 600b, Linkages of Sustainability 4 credits. The Earth system is made up of interdependent components—land, water, energy, biota, and nonrenewable resources, all of which have physical limits. Societies transform these resources into useable goods, and production and consumption cycles connect people and places across space and time. This team-taught course provides an overview of these linkages and explores their implications for applying and measuring the concept of sustainability. It examines the constraints to sustainability imposed by those linkages (e.g., the energy required to supply water), opportunities for their transformation, and challenges of implementing sustainability across complex social and cultural systems. Lecture and discussion. Thomas E. Graedel, Karen Seto

F&ES 610a, Science to Solutions: How Should We Manage Water? 3 credits. While there are many different approaches to understanding and managing complex environmental problems, most involve several major steps: (1) describing/understanding the nature of the problem and its causes; (2) using technical, policy, social, and other management tools/processes to help address it; while (3) recognizing/making the value judgments embedded in each (what problems/data are “important”? what solutions are “best”?). The purpose of this introductory course is to illustrate how an M.E.M. student might integrate scientific understanding with management choices as part of an effort to address any particular environmental issue over time. Ideally, it should help students choose areas of specialization, as well as improve their ability to engage in integrative problem solving—both in their final term and after they graduate. The class is focused on water issues, but the integrative structure of the course could be used on other problems as well. The class is built around a case-study approach, in which the faculty bring their different perspectives to bear on understanding and addressing the issues raised in a diverse set of cases, including the protection of New York City’s drinking water supply; the arsenic problem in Bangladesh’s drinking water supplies; and the “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico. Preference given to first-year M.E.M. students. Three hours lecture, one hour discussion. Bradford S. Gentry, Peter A. Raymond, Julie B. Zimmerman

[F&ES 620b, Integrative Assessment 3 credits. This course illustrates how to integrate the insights and models of different disciplines to address key environmental management questions facing society. Examples are drawn from across pollution and natural resource issues so that students can become familiar with a diverse set of issues. The course illustrates the merits of learning about the natural sciences, engineering, and economics in order to practice environmental management. Robert Mendelsohn and faculty]


F&ES 950b, Life Cycle Assessment Practicum 3 credits. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an environmental modeling method that has become increasingly popular within business and academia for evaluating the environmental impacts of products or systems. LCA considers impacts along the entire life cycle, from production to consumption to disposal, and generally provides quantitative information for a range of different environmental issues. In this practicum course, students work on real projects with industry partners in order to achieve skills and training as analysts in this field. The course begins with a review of the intellectual foundation of LCA, the computational structure of the method, and the international standards that govern its use. Students then receive several hands-on training modules for commercial LCA software packages, and work examples for model products and systems. This initial training prepares students to carry out their independent group projects over the remainder of the course. Special topics in LCA research and implementation are also covered later in the course, including carbon and water footprinting and a focus this year on the built environment. Regular project updates occur in class and individually with the instructor, and results are presented to industry partners at the end of the course in a professional consulting context. Philip Nuss, Thomas Swarr

[F&ES 951b, Managing the Global Carbon Cycle 3 credits. Managing atmospheric CO2 entails managing the global carbon cycle. This class starts with a short series of lectures on the processes and fluxes that make up the global carbon cycle. The remainder of the class takes a case-study approach to aspects of managing the global carbon cycle. Instructors and students critically evaluate portions of the global carbon cycle that are under stress or are part of the proposed portfolio for carbon management and sequestration. Peter A. Raymond, Robert Bailis]

F&ES 953a,b, Business and the Environment Consulting Clinic 3 credits. In this class, students work as a team on a specific project for an external organization. It provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of business and environmental issues to real-life situations. It also provides a unique opportunity for students to manage a real-life consulting client engagement. Examples of projects include (1) developing a corporate sustainability scorecard for an organization’s suppliers; (2) researching the market opportunity for a new environmentally friendly product or service; and (3) recommending operational improvements around energy usage, waste disposal, etc. The intent is to provide a “capstone” experience, calling for the application of skills and tools learned from previous classes. There are weekly in-class lectures and team meetings with the instructor. Lectures address topics such as project management, environmental science and technology issues, business evaluation and competitive analysis, and influencing environmental policy, and include guest speakers from organizations tackling environmental issues. The clinic is open to both F&ES and SOM students. Prerequisites for F&ES students applying to the clinic are at least one of the following courses (or equivalent experience): F&ES 578b, 680a, 807a, 821b, or 832a,b. SOM students need to have completed their first term at the School. Maureen Burke

F&ES 954a, Management Plans for Protected Areas 6 credits. A seminar that comprises the documentation of land use history and zoning, mapping and interpretation, and the collection and analysis of socioeconomic, biological, and physical information for the construction of management plans. Plans are constructed for lands managed by the Nature Conservancy; Massachusetts Trustees of Reservations; private industrial and nonindustrial landowners; town land trusts; city parks and woodlands of New Haven, New York, and Boston; and the Appalachian Mountain Club. This fall we focus on the Quiet Corner Initiative. Prerequisite: F&ES 659b or 660a, or permission of the instructor. Ten days fieldwork. Limited enrollment. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 955b, Seminar in Research Analysis, Writing, and Communication 3 credits. Students work through the peer-review publication process on data sets and projects in applied ecology. Discussions involve rationale and hypothesis testing for a project, data analysis techniques, reporting and interpretation of results. It is expected that manuscripts developed in the course are worthy of publication and that oral presentations are of a caliber for subject area conferences and meetings. Three hours lecture. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 960b, Workshop in the Analysis, Writing, and Communication of Social Science Research 3 credits. This workshop guides F&ES master’s students in the analysis, writing, and presentation of prior social science research. It is organized to facilitate the completion of three final products related to the master’s project: (1) a master’s thesis or equivalent, whose format will be determined with guidance from each student’s primary adviser; (2) an academic article manuscript based on the larger thesis, intended for submission to a peer-reviewed publication of the student’s choice; and (3) a short (fifteen-minute) presentation of the research for the spring master’s research colloquium and/or other professional meetings and conferences. Note that assignments related to these course goals require significant work beyond that necessary for the master’s thesis alone. Designed as a workshop, the course demands extensive student participation both within and outside the classroom, including involvement in smaller writing groups whose weekly meetings and activities are coordinated with the larger seminar. Instruction and activities focus on the use of qualitative social science data, especially ethnographic material. The workshop also covers the integration of data from mixed methods into project findings, reports, and presentations. The course aims to train students to become not merely more capable and confident writers, communicators, and researchers, but also more skilled and constructive readers of one another’s work. Enrollment limited to twelve F&ES master’s students. Karen Hébert

[F&ES 963b, Payments for Ecosystem Services 4 credits. The modern economy consumes many ecosystem services without paying for their production: forested areas protect water resources; plants sequester carbon; intact ecosystems protect biodiversity and its associated services (potential pharmaceuticals, existence value, etc.). In response, a growing number of experiments are under way to have consumers of ecosystem services pay the producers of the services, thus creating market incentives to sustain intact, biologically diverse areas. However, these experiments are in their infancy and raise a host of ethical, scientific, commercial, and policy questions. The purposes of this seminar are (1) to understand these opportunities and their limits by examining current scientific, commercial, and policy knowledge relevant to capturing payments for ecosystem services; and (2) to apply the lessons learned to actual properties or questions by analyzing the scientific, business, and policy aspects of these issues. Prerequisite: course work or experience in at least one of the following: silviculture, business analysis/planning, or policy/law. Limited enrollment. Offered every other year. Bradford S. Gentry, Mark S. Ashton]

[F&ES 964b, Large-Scale Conservation: Integrating Science, Management, and Policy 3 or 6 credits. Environmental sustainability and human dignity are important societal goals, but figuring out how to achieve them on large scales—geographic, temporal, and in terms of complexity—has proven to be extremely challenging. Abundant trend data show that many species, ecosystems, and other environmental and human systems are being overused, stressed, or degraded, thus undercutting the likelihood that we can reach sustainability and human rights for all. In addition, our institutions for science, management, and policy are not designed to address sustainability challenges on these scales. Over the last few decades numerous management and policy initiatives have been put forward to address large-scale resource use, including single and multiple use, parks and protected areas, ecosystem management, bioregional planning, integrated conservation and development, transboundary approaches, and adaptive governance. This course (a mixed seminar and practicum) explicitly uses an integrative (i.e., via interdisciplinary) framework to examine the conceptual and contextual basis for these efforts; compares and contrasts their scientific, management, and policy components; explores themes of leadership, problem solving, decision making, governance, change, and learning; and surveys cases from three arenas (terrestrial, aquatic, and marine). The course takes a problem-oriented, contextual, and multi-method approach that offers students conceptual, practical, and professional benefits. It includes readings, lectures, discussions, workshops, exercises, oral presentations, guest speakers, individual and small-group assignments, and possibly a field trip and group project. In past years the course took a field trip to the Connecticut River system to evaluate region-wide conservation efforts, the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the Grand Canyon Ecosystem. It also organized an international workshop focused on the Yellowstone to Yukon initiative, and assisted a major U.S. NGO plan for transboundary projects along the U.S.-Canadian border. Extensive student participation is required throughout. Susan G. Clark]

F&ES 965b/ANTH 598b, Advanced Readings: Social Science of Development and Conservation 3 credits. An advanced seminar on the social science theory of sustainable development and conservation, designed as an M.E.M. capstone course and to provide theory for M.E.Sc. and doctoral students to use to place their own work in a wider theoretical context in analyzing and writing up their research. The course traces the conceptual history of the social science theory of sustainable development and conservation, focusing on theories of discursive power, governmentality, and capitalism. It examines relations between these theories, alternative theories, and how this history influences the field. The course covers the works of Michel Foucault most relevant to development and conservation, important social scientists who have used Foucault’s ideas (e.g., James Ferguson, Arturo Escobar, Timothy Mitchell, Tania Li, Donald Moore), alternative theories of power (e.g., James Scott, Bruno Latour), applications of Foucault’s ideas to development (selections change every year), applications of Foucault’s ideas to the environment (especially Arun Agrawal, Timothy Luke, Bruce Braun), theories of resistance (Michel Foucault, James Scott, and others), Foucauldian views of the economy, capitalism, and governmentality (Aiwa Ong, Anna Tsing), and other views of capitalism (Tania Li, James Ferguson, Timothy Mitchell). Students are expected to use the course to develop, and present in class, their own research and writing. Prerequisite: F&ES 839a, 877a, or 882a. Three hours lecture/seminar. Enrollment limited to twelve. Carol Carpenter

F&ES 966a, The Entrepreneurial Approach to Environmental Problem Solving 3 credits. This course provides a format for students ready to develop entrepreneurial plans for specific environmental businesses. There are two aspects to any business: knowing the technical subject, and understanding the business environment. It is assumed that students have a background in both aspects, and this course is to enable the students to work in groups to “flesh out” a business. The course has regular meetings, but much of the work—and reporting—is done by the students, with advice and input from the faculty and others at Yale and in the business world. The course (and its prerequisite) may be used in conjunction with competing for the Sabin Prize. Prerequisite: F&ES 657b. Chadwick D. Oliver

F&ES 969b, Rapid Assessments in Forest Conservation 3 credits. An advanced interdisciplinary course concerned with assessing the protection and management of biologically diverse, complex forested ecosystems that produce various goods and services. Examples of independent case analyses concern landscape management of biogeographic regions in the Pacific Northwest, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Belize, central and southern Mexico, and the Panama Canal Watersheds. Students are encouraged to travel on extended class field trips to these regions. Prerequisites: F&ES 659b or 660a; F&ES 804b; or permission of the instructor. Three hours lecture. Eight days fieldwork. Limited enrollment. Mark S. Ashton, Amity Doolittle

F&ES 970a,b/LAW 20316,21321, Environmental Protection Clinic 3 credits. A clinical seminar in which students are engaged with actual environmental law or policy problems on behalf of client organizations (environmental groups, government agencies, international bodies, etc.). The class meets weekly, and students work eight to ten hours per week in interdisciplinary groups (with students from the Law School and other departments or schools at Yale) on projects with a specific legal or policy product (e.g., draft legislation or regulations, hearing testimony, analytic studies, policy proposals) to be produced by the end of the term. Students may propose projects and client organizations, subject to approval by the instructor. Enrollment limited to twenty. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. Joshua Galperin, Allison Clements, Lisa Suatoni


Ecosystem Ecology

F&ES 681a, Ethnobotany 3 credits. Ethnobotany is the scientific study of mutual relationships among peoples, plants, and the environment. This course presents ethnobotany as a broad interdisciplinary field at the interface of anthropology and botany and discusses its methodology, ranging from plant inventories to multivariate analysis of plant knowledge. The course focuses on classic themes of interest to ethnobotany, such as the importance of plants for local livelihoods (including nutrition and medicine) and the ethnobotanical importance of selected plant families, but it also explores topics of current ethnobotanical investigation, such as urban ethnobotany, intellectual property rights, development cooperation, biocultural diversity, and conservation. The course topics have been selected to provide an all-round overview of how ethnobotany research has evolved over the past decades and to represent a well-rounded mix of theory and practice, with the aim to prepare an aspiring junior ethnobotanist for field research. Ina Vanderbroek

[F&ES 731b, Tropical Field Botany 3 credits. This course teaches students how to identify the most important tropical plant families, with an emphasis on woody taxa. Students learn key characteristics for identification. We concentrate on families that have high economic, ecological, or ethnobotanical importance. We also discuss distribution, habitat, and ecology. The course has a strong practical component, and instructors emphasize vegetative characters to identify families and higher-level taxa. The course includes a two-week field trip to Costa Rica over spring break. NYBG Faculty: Lawrence Kelly, Fabian Michelangeli]

F&ES 733b, Synthesizing Environmental Science for Policy 3 credits. A seminar exploring science-based environmental policy in order to direct scientific synthesis as well as new research that meets the criteria for policy relevance. The seminar involves two discussions each week and relies on concepts and data from ecological and biogeochemical disciplines to predict and manage the impacts of environmental changes, such as invasive species and changing climate, on supporting ecosystem services that underlie the provisioning of resources such as food and clean water. Prerequisites: F&ES 500a and 515a, or permission of the instructor. Mark A. Bradford

F&ES 734b, Biological Oceanography 3 credits. Exploration of a range of coastal and pelagic ecosystems. Relationships between biological systems and the physical processes that control the movements of water and productivity of marine systems. Anthropogenic impacts on oceans, such as the effects of fishing and climate change. Includes up to three Friday field trips. Recommended prerequisite: college-level biology or ecology course. Three hours lecture. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Mary Beth Decker

[F&ES 735a, Biogeography and Conservation 3 credits. This course is designed to apply the principles of systematics to historic and ecological biogeography and in turn apply these to the conservation of biodiversity. In doing so, consideration is given to the circumscription of terrestrial biomes and speciation and extinction models. Reconstruction of past geologic and climatic events as well as the impact of human activities is related to the current distribution of the biota. The use of this information as related to CITES legislation and the development of IUCN Action Plans is explored through case studies. Dennis W. Stevenson]

F&ES 741b, Introduction to Indigenous Silviculture 3 credits. The course examines small-holder management systems in the tropics from several different perspectives. A brief overview of tropical forest ecology is provided first, with an emphasis on the factors that limit the nature and intensity of resource use. An analysis of silviculture as applied forest ecology follows, together with a description of the major silvicultural systems employed commercially throughout the world. The distinct operational and contextual differences between conventional and indigenous forms of forest management are presented, and the three main types of indigenous silvicultural practice are defined and described in detail. Examples from Asia, Central America, South America, and Africa are provided to illustrate each system. The relative economic, social, and ecological benefits of community forest management are discussed in detail, and the major constraints to a greater acceptance and application of the “conservation through sustainable use” paradigm are highlighted. A selection of case studies is used to examine existing policies that regulate the use, management, and trade of forest resources by local communities. A final lecture and discussion weave together these themes to assess the overall potential of managed landscapes as a viable conservation strategy. Charles M. Peters

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Biology

[F&ES 736b, Ecology Seminar 1 credit. The ability to read and understand the literature is a critical skill. This seminar is structured to encourage participation in discussions of papers from the ecological literature. The specific papers to be read vary from year to year; however, each year we focus on papers that have made major contributions to the conceptual foundations of ecology. Many of the papers have direct or indirect relevance to applied issues such as the conservation of species and ecosystems. Seminar responsibilities include active participation in weekly meetings and the leadership of one discussion. David K. Skelly]

[F&ES 738a/E&EB 370a/670a, Aquatic Ecology 4 credits. An intensive introduction to the ecology of populations and communities in freshwater systems. The aim of this class is to learn the concepts, patterns, and organisms important in lakes and streams along with the major techniques of information collection and analysis. Weekly field trips are used to gather data that form the basis of lab exercises and research projects. The course presumes familiarity with ecological concepts and terminology. Permission of the instructor required. David K. Skelly]

F&ES 739b, Species and Ecosystem Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Approach 3 credits. The loss of global biodiversity is a major problem with profound repercussions for present and future human generations. Professional conservationists now living are the last generation that can prevent the extinction of large numbers of species and the disruption of large-scale ecosystem processes. Professionals must not only apply relevant conservation sciences to these problems, but also bring to bear explicit knowledge about the real-world organizational and policy settings in which they will work and expert skills in influencing those systems. The course combines the problem-solving approaches of the conservation sciences with those of the policy sciences by surveying a range of policy and organizational contexts, theories, techniques, and professional settings using a variety of case studies. We typically have guests who focus on contemporary challenges and offer successful cases from their own experience. Students learn an interdisciplinary analytic framework and apply it to a case of their choice. The role and problem-solving styles of the individual professional in these complex contexts are emphasized. Students must keep a journal. Active student participation is required, as well as a presentation and a paper. The course helps students gain a very important skill set for problem solving and positions students to work for many nongovernmental, governmental, and business organizations, assuming leadership and problem-solving positions. Enrollment limited to sixteen; application required. Susan G. Clark

[F&ES 740b, Dynamics of Ecological Systems 3 credits. The course provides students in-depth understanding of theory on multiple species interactions and dynamics including predation, competition, food chain, and food web interactions. Considerable emphasis is placed on mathematical modeling to formalize ideas about how species interactions structure ecological communities and to specify the appropriate focus of empirical research, study design, and data gathering. The course addresses contemporary issues in community and ecosystem ecology including scaling from individual behavior to community and ecosystem dynamics, the link between biodiversity and system stability, alternative dynamic regimes, spatially extended systems, and metacommunities. A course in calculus is recommended. Oswald J. Schmitz]

F&ES 744b, Conservation Science 3 credits. This advanced course applies ecological principles to understand and manage biodiversity and attendant ecosystem functioning and services in the anthropocene. The course addresses the ethical and functional basis for conservation and fosters thinking about why and how humans ought to share the planet with nonhuman life. It covers scientific principles such as evolution, life-history and the viability of species, species endangerment and extinction risk, the kinds of biodiversity, the spatial distribution of biodiversity, the functional roles of species in ecosystems, vulnerability and risk assessments, and valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services. The course applies these principles to the exploration of such topics as biodiversity’s role in the functioning and sustainability of ecological systems, restoration of environmental damages, conserving biodiversity in dynamic landscapes, adapting landscapes to climate change, balancing conservation with urban development and agriculture, and renewable energy siting. It provides students with the quantitative skills to conduct population viability analyses, geospatial analyses of the distribution of biodiversity across landscapes, vulnerability analyses, and decision-analysis to balance trade-offs among multiple objectives of human land development and biodiversity conservation. Prerequisites: F&ES 530a or equivalent course in population or community ecology, F&ES 755b or equivalent course in GIS, and F&ES 510a or equivalent course in statistical analysis of biological data. A course in economics or applied math for environmental studies is strongly encouraged. Oswald J. Schmitz

Environmental Education and Communication

F&ES 745a, Environmental Writing 1 credit, half term, or 3 credits, full term. Students in this course should plan to produce one full-length article, 3,000 to 4,000 words, that could appear in a wide-circulation magazine such as Audubon, Orion, Sierra, or The New Yorker. One-credit students begin a potentially publishable article; three-credit students complete a publishable article. Admission is by application, which must include a proposed writing topic, at the beginning of the term. For information on applying, please see the course information at https://webspace.yale.edu/fes745a. Three hours seminar and writing workshops. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Fred Strebeigh

F&ES 746b, Archetypes and the Environment 3 credits. This course explores the mythologies, literatures, arts, and folklore of a variety of cultures in search of archetypal characters whose role is to mediate between nature and society. Beginning with sources as early as The Epic of Gilgamesh and ending with contemporary film and media, the course seeks to examine and understand the ways in which diverse peoples integrate an awareness of their traditional and popular arts and cultures. The course makes use of works from a variety of languages, including Akkadian, Greek, Tibetan, Bhutanese, Chinese, German, French, and Italian, but all readings are available in English; students with reading abilities in foreign languages will be encouraged to examine primary sources wherever possible. The course includes visits to the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, the Yale Center for British Art, and the Yale Art Gallery. Three hours lecture/discussion. Paul A. Draghi

F&ES 747a, Global Communication Skills 3 credits. This course helps students to sharpen their language and strategy in professional communication. Course topics include accent reduction, language accuracy, writing styles, presentation skills, meeting leadership, barriers to communication, and types of persuasion in multicultural contexts. We first address aspects of intelligibility, exploring how improved word choices and speech clarity affect audience understanding. We then look at the problem of comprehension and discuss strategies for increasing the student’s ability to listen accurately and read efficiently. We also examine common difficulties and cultural differences in the arrangement of information, use of evidence, and academic argumentation. Several sessions are devoted to specific skills, such as negotiating agreements and writing research reports. The course meets for lecture (two hours), and students attend a weekly small group practicum (one hour). The practicum allows students to reinforce new communicative behaviors in oral and written assignments, while receiving feedback from peers and the instructor. As students polish their skills, they improve their ability to express ideas and to interact in both academic and professional contexts. William A. Vance

F&ES 750a, Writing the World 3 credits. This is a practical writing course meant to develop your skills as a writer. But its real subject is perception and the writer’s authority—the relationship between what you notice in the world around you and what, culturally speaking, you are allowed to notice. What you write during the term is driven entirely by your own interest and attention. How you write is the question at hand. We explore the overlapping habitats of language—present and past—and the natural environment. And, to a lesser extent, we explore the character of persuasion in environmental themes. Every member of the class writes every week, and we all read what everyone writes every week. It makes no difference whether you are a would-be journalist, scientist, environmental advocate, or policy maker. The goal is to rework your writing and sharpen your perceptions, both sensory and intellectual. Verlyn Klinkenborg

F&ES 900a, Doctoral Student Seminar 3 credits. This course provides an introduction to doctoral study at the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Students attend the F&ES seminar each week and then meet with the seminar speakers after their presentations. Weekly assigned readings support these discussions, which are used as a foundation to explore diverse approaches to formulating and addressing research questions. Students also work with their advisers to design an assignment to be completed during the term. Students may choose to write and submit a fellowship application (e.g., to NSF or EPA), carry out a literature review, or develop a collaborative research project. Students present their embryonic research ideas in class and use feedback from the group to further develop their ideas. Required of all doctoral students in their first term. David K. Skelly

F&ES 949b, Responsible Conduct of Research 0 credits. Starting with an introduction of research misconduct and outline of specific cases, the concepts and resources for responsible conduct of research are discussed in the areas of data acquisition and management, authorship and publication, peer review, conflicts of interest, mentoring, and collaborative research. Those topics are covered in a seminar style using case studies. Cursory guidance is given for resources on animal and human subjects research. Class meets on three consecutive Fridays in the beginning of the term. Required for first-year doctoral students. Helmut Ernstberger


Forest Biology

F&ES 581a, Multifunctional Carbon-Sequestering Agroforestry 1 credit. This course examines carbon-sequestering agricultural practices and their potential to provide solutions to a range of social and environmental problems from climate justice to land degradation. It introduces a global toolkit of practices old and new and profiles promising plant species. A key group of species profiled is perennial staple crops, a group of trees and other long-lived plants providing protein, carbohydrates, and fats for human consumption. We explore industrial ecological applications of perennial crops for materials, chemicals, and energy. While many tropical species and systems are already implemented on a large scale, the course also closely views cold-climate developments. Participants are introduced to the farm business planning challenges of production in regenerative integrated systems. Diverse strategies for implementation are presented, including policy, grassroots, and consumer-driven options. Eric Toensmeier

F&ES 650b, Fire: Science and Policy 3 credits. This course examines the ecological, social, and policy implications of forest and grassland fire. Topics include the historical and cultural role of fire, fire behavior, fire regimes, fire ecology, the use of fire in ecosystem restoration, fire policy in the United States and elsewhere, and controversies around suppressing fires and post-fire rehabilitation practices. Conditions permitting, the course also involves implementing a prescribed fire to achieve management goals in restoring meadow and oak savanna at Yale Myers Forest. Ann E. Camp

F&ES 651b, Forest Ecosystem Health 3 credits. This course is an introduction to the biotic and abiotic agents affecting the health of forest ecosystems, including insects, pathogens, parasites, exotic invasive species, climate change, and acid deposition. Using a case study approach, several different forest types are looked at in detail, with students interacting with management professionals who visit the class in person or via remote conferencing. Students learn methods of assessing forest health and how the health of particular forests affects carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. The course emphasizes the ecological roles played by disturbance agents, discusses how they affect the sustainability of forest ecosystems, and identifies when and how management can be used to return forests to healthier conditions. The course provides students with the necessary background to determine if stressors are negatively impacting management objectives, to identify the probable stress agents, and to decide what, if any, actions should be initiated to protect forests from further damage. The course includes several field trips. Ann E. Camp

F&ES 654a/EVST 260a/MCDB 660a, Structure, Function, and Development of Trees and Other Vascular Plants 3 credits. This course focuses on two aspects of plant life: (1) basic processes that drive plant systems, such as fertilization, embryogeny, seed development, germination, seedling establishment, maturation, and senescence; and (2) basic structure and function of plants (such as root systems, leaf formation and development, height, and diameter growth). Differences between different groups of seed plants are analyzed from structural, functional, ecological, and evolutionary standpoints. Special attention is given to woody plants and their importance in the biosphere and human life. Coverage includes tropical, temperate, and boreal trees. Plant biology is discussed in the context of physiological and structural adaptations in terms of strength, storage, and water and solute transport. Prerequisite: general biology or botany or the equivalent, or permission of the instructor. Graeme P. Berlyn

[F&ES 655b, Research Methods of the Anatomy and Physiology of Trees 4 credits. Advanced investigative techniques with emphasis on instrumentation, experimental design, execution, and analyses. After a series of class experiments and demonstrations are completed, each student selects a personal project under the direction of the instructor and prepares a minidissertation complete with literature review, materials and methods, results, and discussion. Weekly seminars and progress reports on the projects are required. Prerequisites: F&ES 654a and 656b and permission of the instructor. Four hours lecture/laboratory. Limited enrollment. Graeme P. Berlyn]

F&ES 656b, Physiology of Trees and Forests 3 credits. Mineral nutrition and cycling; mycorrhizas; symbiosis; nitrogen fixation; light processing, photosynthesis, respiration; water relations including transpiration; ecophysiology. Effects of climate changes, past and present, on forests and other current topics are also considered. Term paper required. Prerequisite: F&ES 654a or permission of the instructor. Graeme P. Berlyn

F&ES 671a, Natural History and Taxonomy of Trees 3 credits. Knowledge of tree species and the evolutionary and ecological relationships among them is essential to the study and management of forest ecosystems. This course provides an introduction to the systematics, evolution, biogeography, and autecology of woody plants, as well as patterns of human utilization (both modern and historical), with an emphasis on taxa of temperate North America. Regular field trips in the New Haven area as well as to the Yale Myers Forest acquaint students with the major species and habitats of southern New England forests. Ann E. Camp

Forest Management

F&ES 657b, Managing Resources 3 credits. Resource sustainability requires knowing how to “get things done” with resources, whether one’s goal is policy, investment, or on-the-ground management. The challenge of resource management is knowing how to provide the many commodity and noncommodity objectives people demand from the terrestrial ecosystems across time and space. This management can be cost-effective and applicable to many places with the proper integration of management and social scientific knowledge. Students master the scientific basis, methods (and reasons for the methods), and techniques for management of various resources. The course covers managing an ecosystem with concerns about water, agriculture, grazing, wildlife, timber, recreation, people, and hazards of wind, fire, avalanche, and flood. The class examines the basic issues and describes tools and techniques for analyzing and managing. Case studies of specific areas are used for many of the analyses. The course covers systems concepts; decision analysis; area, volume, and other regulatory systems; silvicultural pathways; growth models; wind and fire hazard analyses; habitat and biodiversity analyses; carbon sequestration; payment for ecosystem services; cash flow; operations scheduling; portfolio management; monitoring; and continuous quality improvement and adaptive management. Class includes lectures and exercises in which students integrate these subjects. Chadwick D. Oliver

F&ES 658a, Global Resources, International Resource Exchanges, and the Environment 3 credits. Students first learn the global distribution of resources—the amounts, importance, and causes of distribution, and potential changes of soils, water, biodiversity, human societies, energy sources, climates, agriculture, forests and forest products, minerals, and disturbances. They also learn how to analyze and interpret data on global resource distributions. Secondly, they gain an understanding of the value of multiple-country trading of resources. Thirdly, they gain an understanding of the many mechanisms that facilitate such exchanges, including policies and treaties; business, markets, trading partners, and economics; “good will”; social “taboos”; force; news media; philanthropy; skillful negotiations; cultural/social affiliation; technologies; shared infrastructures; and others. Four teaching methods are used: lectures on the different resources and policy mechanisms; analytical exercises for understanding how to use and interpret international data—and its limitations; a class negotiation exercise for learning the uses of international trade; and guest lectures by faculty and meetings with practitioners for learning the facilitation mechanisms. Three hours lecture; possible field trips. Chadwick D. Oliver, other faculty, and guest speakers

F&ES 659b, Principles in Applied Ecology: The Practice of Silviculture 4 credits. The scientific principles and techniques of controlling, protecting, and restoring the regeneration, composition, and growth of natural forest vegetation and its plantation analogs worldwide. Analysis of biological and socioeconomic problems affecting specific forest stands and design of silvicultural systems to solve these problems. Applications are discussed for management of wildlife habitat, bioenergy and carbon sequestration, water resources, urban environments, timber and nontimber products, and landscape design. Recommended: some knowledge of soils, ecology, plant physiology, human behavior, and resource economics. Four to six hours lecture. One hour tutorial. Seven days fieldwork. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 660a, Forest Dynamics: Growth and Development of Forest Stands 3 credits. This course introduces the study of forest stand dynamics—how the structure and composition of different forest types change over time (from regeneration to old growth). Understanding the dynamic nature of forest stands is important for creating and maintaining a variety of critical wildlife habitats on the landscape, managing for sustainable supplies of wood products and other forest values, or predicting the risks and managing the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Through lectures, discussions, and field trips we explore forest development processes and pathways, concentrating on the biological mechanisms driving forest structural change and the roles of natural and human disturbances in initiating and altering stand development trajectories. We make use of New England forests as living laboratories, while discussing how similar patterns and processes of forest development are played out in forests around the globe. Ann E. Camp

[F&ES 661b, Analysis and Development of Silvicultural Prescriptions 3 credits. This course considers selected topics in silviculture or silviculture-related issues for clients within the Quiet Corner Initiative. It explores the silvicultural options and the development of prescriptions for wildlife habitat, trail design, aesthetics, and wood and nonwood products for private landowners. Students complete prescriptions for landowners and administer their implementation based on management plans developed in F&ES 954a. Prerequisite: F&ES 659b or 660a, or permission of the instructor. Mark S. Ashton]

[F&ES 663b, Invasive Species: Ecology, Policy, and Management 3 credits. Invasive species are disrupting both ecosystems and economies at all scales from local to global. A clear understanding of the nature of the problem, the ecology and biology of the invasive species, the influence of globalization of trade, and advances in management strategies is critical for land managers, scientists, and policy makers. In this lecture/discussion/seminar we focus on current issues surrounding invasive species (both plants and animals) at various spatial and temporal scales in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Emphasis is on the biology and ecology of invasive species along with a basic understanding of their economic impacts and public policy options to address prevention and management of invasive species. The course includes several local field trips with scientists and land managers. Ann E. Camp, Mary Tyrrell]

F&ES 668b, Field Trips in Forest Resource Management and Silviculture 1 credit. Seven- to twelve-day field trips to study the silviculture and forest management of particular forest regions. In previous years, classes have visited Slovenia, Germany, Austria, the United Kingdom, British Columbia, and, in the United States, the southern Coastal Plain and Piedmont, and the Allegheny, Appalachian, Adirondack, and Green mountains. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 669b, Forest Management Operations 2 or 3 credits. The operational aspects of managing forestland are taught, including topics essential to the professional practice of forest management. Operational aspects of regeneration, intermediate tending, and harvesting (planning, layout, implementation, and post-operation evaluation), best management practices, regulatory and wetlands considerations, and socioeconomic dimensions of field operations are the focus. The ethical and professional responsibilities of forest managers who are responsible for land-altering activities are also considered. The course includes considerable field time to help students utilize their existing knowledge about forests to rapidly assess stands and land parcels with respect to the planning and implementation of on-the-ground treatments. Classes feature local field trips to view forestry operations and to develop and refine field skills. Prerequisites include any silviculture courses. Optional: students can choose to participate in the Southern Forest and Forestry Field Trip for 1 additional credit. Michael Ferrucci

F&ES 670b, Southern Forest and Forestry Field Trip 1 credit. This course augments our forestry curriculum by providing a forum for viewing and discussing forestry and forest management with practitioners. The trip provides forestry and other interested students with an opportunity to experience the diversity of forested ecosystems and ownership objectives ranging from intensively managed pine plantations to restoration and protection of endangered habitats. Students discuss forest management issues—including forest health, fragmentation, policy, law, and business perspectives—with landowners and managers from large industries, nonindustrial private landowners, TIMOs, federal and state land managers, NGOs, and forestry consultants. We also tour sawmills, paper mills, and other kinds of forest products processing facilities, active logging operations, and, weather permitting, participate on prescribed fires. Not least, we experience the unique cultures, food, and hospitality of the southeastern United States. The course can be taken for 1 credit by any student at F&ES or combined with the 2-credit Forest Operations course for 3 credits. Ann E. Camp

F&ES 680a, Forest and Ecosystem Finance 3 credits. Understanding the tools used in financial analysis is an important component of successful forestland investment and forest management decision making. In addition, as new ecosystem services markets develop, these skills become even more critical in determining those management strategies that are both ecologically sound and financially viable. This course provides students with a basic suite of financial tools used in the acquisition and management of forestland/timber as well as in the management of ecosystem services. It includes an overview of traditional financial analysis metrics used in land acquisition, timber management, and risk management. It also applies these metrics in ecosystem services markets, which allows students to assess the financial impacts of various management choices. Concepts are reinforced through spreadsheet-based exercises and case studies. Prerequisite: F&ES 578b or permission of the instructor. Deborah Spalding

Physical Sciences

Atmospheric Sciences

[F&ES 700b, Alpine, Arctic, and Boreal Ecosystems Seminar 3 credits. Biogeoclimatic analysis of these systems worldwide with special attention to biogeography, biometeorology, physiology, histology, morphology, autecology, and silviculture of high-elevation and high-latitude forests through lectures, guest lectures and discussions, student seminars, and field experience. One and one-half hours lecture weekly. Student contributions are one or more seminars and a term paper. Prerequisite: F&ES 656b or permission of the instructors. Graeme P. Berlyn, Ann E. Camp, Xuhui Lee, Mark S. Ashton]

[F&ES 701b, Climate Change Policy and Science Seminar 3 credits. The course first reviews the science and policy in the 2007 IPCC 4th Assessment Report. The course then discusses a number of controversial topics including credibility and uncertainty, BAU emission pathways, multiple greenhouse gases, climate sensitivity, ecosystem response, geoengineering, contribution of land use to emissions, regulations versus cap and trade, universal participation, concentration targets, carbon-price paths, measuring impacts, catastrophic damages, cross-generation distributional issues, cross-income distributional issues, autonomous adaptation, role of government in adaptation, and R&D. Robert Mendelsohn]

[F&ES 702b, Climate Change Seminar 2–3 credits. An advanced seminar that explores current topics in global climate change, including scientific evidence for global warming, climate change impacts on natural ecosystems and the human society, and policy and management options for mitigating climate change. Meetings are divided between student presentation, invited lecture, and panel debate on selected hot issues. Preference is given to second-year students, but first-year students with background and interest in the subject area are also encouraged to participate. Presentation/literature critique/term paper. Prerequisite: F&ES 703b or 704a. Xuhui Lee]

F&ES 703b, Climate and Life 3 credits. This is an applied climate science course with the aim to provide a broad working knowledge of the Earth’s atmospheric environment. The course deals with pollution and resource issues pertinent to a career in environmental management. Topics include climate system components; climate resources for agriculture; forestry and renewable energy; air pollution and meteorology; anthropogenic drivers of atmospheric and climate changes; climate data resources; the scientific basis of greenhouse gas inventories; and atmospheric models to aid decision making. Biweekly assignments consist of problem sets, data manipulation, inventory scenarios, and model simulations. Students develop skill sets for handling atmospheric data and interpreting atmospheric models. Students also gain experience with state-of-the-art greenhouse gas inventory systems and the latest IPCC climate model products. Three hours lecture. Group project. Xuhui Lee, Nadine Unger

[F&ES 704a, An Atmospheric Perspective of Global Change 3 credits. This course aims to promote understanding of major global changing agents and their impacts on the climate system, air quality, and ecosystem health. Special attention is given to anthropogenic and natural causes of ozone hole photochemical smog, mercury deposition and acid rain, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and impact of global warming on the terrestrial biosphere. Also discussed are inventory methodologies for regulatory applications. Three hours lecture and discussion. Term paper/presentation/literature critique. Xuhui Lee]

[F&ES 705b, Climate and Air Pollution 3 credits. In this seminar, we review current scientific understanding of the linkages between climate change and air pollution. Topics include short-lived climate forcers, climate sensitivity, impact of air pollution control measures on climate, geo-engineering and solar radiation management, metrics used in climate policy, and future climate change impacts on air quality in the United States and other regions. Active student participation is required. Meetings are divided between lecture, student presentation, structured discussion, and invited outside speakers. The course includes a group project to develop plausible multi-pollutant climate mitigation strategies that address key sectors in different world regions. Nadine Unger]

[F&ES 722b, Boundary Layer Meteorology 3 credits. This course examines the interactions between the atmosphere and the earth’s surface. Students gain an understanding of the surface energy and radiation balance, air motion in the atmospheric boundary layer, land surface parameterization for climate models, and field research methods. Three hours lecture and discussion. Data analysis/term paper/presentation. Permission of the instructor required. Xuhui Lee]

[F&ES 771a, Climate Modeling 3 credits. This course teaches the fundamentals of climate modeling. Students learn how to run models and apply them to research problems. Class meetings are composed of lectures, discussions, and hands-on experience using EdGCM and a NASA climate model developed for the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Nadine Unger]

Environmental Chemistry

[F&ES 706b, Organic Pollutants in the Environment 3 credits. An overview of the pollution problems posed by toxic organic chemicals, including petroleum, pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, chlorinated solvents, and emerging contaminants. Processes governing the environmental fate of organic pollutants, e.g., evaporation, bioconcentration, sorption, biodegradation. Technologies for prevention and remediation of organic pollution. Shimon C. Anisfeld]

F&ES 707b/344b/ENAS 640b, Aquatic Chemistry 4 credits. A detailed examination of the principles governing chemical reactions in water. Emphasis on developing the ability to predict the aqueous chemistry of natural, engineered, and perturbed systems based on a knowledge of their biogeochemical setting. Calculation of quantitative solutions to chemical equilibria. Focus on inorganic chemistry. Topics include elementary thermodynamics, acid-base equilibria, alkalinity, speciation, solubility, mineral stability, redox chemistry, and surface complexation reactions. Prerequisites: general chemistry, algebra, and F&ES 708a or equivalent. Three hours lecture, weekly problem sets. Gaboury Benoit

[F&ES 708a, Biogeochemistry and Pollution 3 credits. A descriptive overview of baseline biogeochemistry and the nature and behavior of pollutants in the environment. The course is designed to aid future environmental professionals who sometimes may find it necessary to make decisions based on chemical data. It is geared to the nonspecialist who needs to establish familiarity with various classes of pollutants and the chemical, biological, and physical processes that control their transport and fate. Topics include the fundamental classes of chemical reactions in the environment, critical analysis of chemical data, sampling techniques, analytical methods, natural biogeochemical controls on environmental chemistry, as well as detailed examination of contaminants of special interest like acid precipitation, nutrients, and sewage. Recommended: college-level general chemistry. Three hours lecture. One class project, problem sets, midterm, final exam. A small number of field trips. Gaboury Benoit]

F&ES 711a, Atmospheric Chemistry 3 credits. A science lecture course designed to explore the chemical and physical processes determining the composition of the atmosphere and its implications for climate, ecosystems, and human welfare. Topics covered include origin of the atmosphere; photolysis and reaction kinetics; atmospheric transport of trace species; stratospheric ozone chemistry; tropospheric hydrocarbon chemistry; oxidizing power and nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and carbon cycles; chemistry-climate-biosphere interactions; aerosols, smog, and acid rain. Course project, final presentation, and paper. Midterm and final exam. Nadine Unger

[F&ES 743a/443a, Environmental Chemical Analysis 3 credits. An overview of techniques and instrumentation used for the chemical analysis of environmental samples. Theory is taught together with hands-on practical skills through a combination of weekly lectures and labs. Focus is on the principles for quantitative analysis of nutrients, major ions, trace metals, and trace organics. Techniques include titrations, spectrophotometry, chromatography, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and electrochemistry. The analysis procedures are relevant to water, soil, sediment, plants, and air analysis. Individuals currently engaged in or interested in lab-based research should benefit most from the course. Enrollment limited to twelve. Two hours lecture and three hours lab. Prerequisites: CHEM 112/114 or equivalent. Next offered fall 2014. Helmut Ernstberger]

F&ES 773a/CENG 373a/ENVE 373a, Air Pollution (APC) 3 credits. Thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions associated with the primary air pollutants. Conventional environmental control technologies of air pollutants emitted from fossil-fired power plants. Design and performance characteristics of air pollution-control technologies. State-of-the-art computer models for evaluating air pollution-control technologies and hybrid power generation, renewable-energy sources. Electricity generation from nuclear power and its environmental impact. Technologies for CO2-emission reduction, including oxy-combustion using air liquefaction, chemical-looping combustion (CLC), and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). Prerequisite: CENG 210a or permission of the instructor. Yehia F. Khalil

F&ES 777b/CENG 377b/ENVE 377b, Water Quality Control 3 credits. Study of the preparation of water for domestic and other uses and treatment of wastewater for recycling or discharge to the environment. Topics include processes for removal of organics and inorganics, regulation of dissolved oxygen, and techniques such as ion exchange, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, activated carbon adsorption, and biological methods. Prerequisite: ENVE 120a or permission of the instructor. Jaehong Kim

Soil Science

[F&ES 709a, Soil Science 3 credits. Lectures and discussions of soil science, with emphasis on soil ecology. Topics cover the structure and functioning of soils, and how this relates to ecosystem responses and feedbacks to environmental changes. The class covers both natural and managed landscapes. Fieldwork and associated labs. Prerequisites: F&ES 500a and 515a, or permission of the instructor. Mark A. Bradford]

Water Resources

F&ES 710b, Coastal Governance 3 credits. Effective governance combines a basic understanding of natural systems with human values to create new coastal institutions. Examples are drawn from energy development, wastewater treatment, wetland protection, dredging, sea-level rise, eutrophication, and fisheries. Spatial planning, protected areas, and ecosystem-based approaches to coastal management are contrasted with conventional regulatory systems and each other to demonstrate the content and effectiveness of different frameworks as well as their evolution in response to changes in society. F&ES 515a and 525a or equivalent knowledge recommended. Three hours seminar; term project. Richard Burroughs

[F&ES 712b, Water Resource Management 3 credits. An intermediate-level exploration of water resource management at scales ranging from local to global. The course looks at multiple dimensions of the water crisis, including both human and ecosystem impacts, quantity and quality issues, and science and policy. Theory is illustrated through a variety of case studies. Topics covered include global water resources; flooding; water scarcity; residential, agricultural, and industrial water use; water and health; impacts of climate change and land use change; stormwater management; dams and other technologies for water management; human impacts on aquatic ecosystems; water and energy; water economics; water rights and water conflict and cooperation. Three hours lecture; several homework assignments; several field trips. Shimon C. Anisfeld]

F&ES 713a, Coastal Ecosystems 3 credits. An examination of the natural processes controlling coastal ecosystems and the anthropogenic threats to the health of these systems. Focus is primarily on tidal marshes and estuarine open-water systems. The course covers a wide range of physical, chemical, and ecological processes, with special focus on nutrient cycling, primary production, detrital pathways, and marsh accretion. Anthropogenic impacts covered range from local to global, and include nutrient enrichment, hypoxia, sea-level rise, invasive species, marsh drowning, and wetland filling. Three hours lecture, several field trips. Shimon C. Anisfeld

[F&ES 714b/ENAS 646b, Environmental Hydrology 3 credits. Exploration of the roles of natural processes and anthropogenic activities in regulating the quantity, distribution, and chemical composition of the Earth’s freshwater. Students gain exposure to theoretical and applied elements of surface and subsurface hydrology. The theory covered in the course focuses on hydrologic phenomena of societal and environmental importance, including stream-flow generation, wetland-water cycling, groundwater-flow dynamics, contaminant migration in surface and groundwater, and water use and redistribution by plants. Application of theory is accomplished through student use of hydrologic simulation models, which are expressions of theory and essential tools of water-resource management and assessment. Intended as a first course in scientific hydrology; appropriate for M.E.M., M.E.Sc., and Ph.D. students, as well as for advanced undergraduates. Because hydrology is a quantitative science, treatment of the course subject matter involves mathematics. F&ES 714b is designed for students who typically do not have previous course work in mathematics beyond one semester of college-level calculus. Students who have not completed a college-level calculus course can succeed in F&ES 714b provided that they are comfortable with arithmetic operations and algebra and are willing to learn a few, very basic principles of introductory calculus. Although students use hydrologic simulation models, the course does not involve any computer programming and requires no special computer skills. James E. Saiers]

F&ES 719a, River Processes and Restoration 3 credits. This course studies the geophysical processes of natural rivers with emphasis on qualitative and quantitative aspects of fluvial morphology; the course addresses channel dynamics, urban rivers, human impacts on rivers, and climate change. It also addresses restoration of degraded rivers, including dechannelization, dam removal, sediment transport, aquatic habitat improvements, and naturalistic design. Students learn to inspect, classify, identify, and measure river features. Quantitative analyses of river hydraulics and morphology are performed to predict river reactions to human activities and watershed change. The class includes class lectures, readings, problem sets, field labs, and a team project. A previous course in hydrology (F&ES 714b or equivalent) is recommended. James G. MacBroom

F&ES 724b, Watershed Cycles and Processes 3 credits. This course explores abiotic and biotic controls on the cycling of water and chemicals within watershed systems. Students gain an understanding of the coupled roles of climate, hydrology, and biogeochemistry in regulating the fate of nutrients, carbon, and pollutants in watersheds. The class also features six guest lectures on issues at the forefront of watershed science. Upon successful completion of the course, students have acquired scientific knowledge that is relevant to interpreting watershed-based observations and to informing watershed-management decisions. Peter A. Raymond, James E. Saiers

F&ES 729b, Caribbean Coastal Development: Cesium and CZM 3 credits. A field-intensive seminar exploring human-ecosystem interactions at the land-sea interface in the Caribbean, with St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, as the study site. Many tropical islands are undergoing rapid, uncontrolled development, placing severe local stress on several unique and vulnerable ecosystem types. In addition, human-induced environmental changes on scales up to global also impose stresses. This course examines the normal functioning of these ecosystems, scientific methods to evaluate and characterize ecosystem condition and processes, how human activities interfere with natural cycles in biophysical systems, and what management and policy tools can be applied to reduce impacts. An organizing framework for the course is the close coupling of coastal watersheds and adjacent marine ecosystems, especially coral reefs. A major part of the course is a one-week field trip to St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands during spring break. We also meet twice each week before the break to discuss readings and arrange logistics. Student presentations and projects. Class enrollment is limited to eight, and priority is given to F&ES students, with others admitted as space permits. Students are selected in December of the fall term. Gaboury Benoit, Mary Beth Decker

Quantitative and Research Methods

F&ES 550a, Natural Science Research Methods 3 credits. The course prepares students to design and execute an intensive research project. It covers elementary principles and philosophy of science; research planning, including preparation, criticism, and oral presentation of study plans; communicating research findings; limitations of research techniques; the structure of research organizations; and professional scientific ethics. Oswald J. Schmitz

F&ES 551a, Social Science Qualitative Research Methods 3 credits. A broad introduction to issues of social sciences research methods and design. Emphasis in the readings and lectures is placed on qualitative methods such as interviews, participant observation, and participatory appraisal, although consideration is given to the ways that quantitative approaches can be used to support qualitative approaches to research. No prior knowledge of methodology or statistics is expected or assumed. The course is intended both for doctoral students who are in the beginning stage of their dissertation research, and for master’s students developing research proposals for their thesis projects. The course covers the basic techniques for collecting, interpreting, and analyzing qualitative data. During the term we explore three interrelated dimensions of research. One focuses on the theoretical foundations of science and research, another focuses on the various methods available to researchers for data collection and analysis, and finally we complete exercises in the practical application of various methods. In the course we consciously address the unique nature of social science research within environmental studies. One significant premise underlies this class: some of the most important questions addressed in environmental studies have such complex solutions that traditional positivist scientific approaches have limited application. Amity Doolittle

F&ES 552b, Master’s Student Research Colloquium 0 credits. One of the most important aspects of scientific research involves the communication of research findings to the wider scientific community. Therefore, second-year M.E.Sc. and M.F.S. students are required to present the results of their faculty-supervised research as participants in the Master’s Student Research Colloquium, a daylong event held near the end of the spring term. Student contributors participate by delivering a 15-minute oral presentation to the F&ES faculty and student body or by presenting a research poster in a session open to the F&ES community. Students receive a score of satisfactory completion for this effort. James E. Saiers

F&ES 725b, Remote Sensing of Land Cover and Land Use Change 3 credits. This is an advanced course on the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover change. The course emphasizes digital image processing techniques to detect landscape dynamics using data from NASA’s satellites. Topics include pre-processing data for change detection, accuracy assessment of change maps, and methodologies to detect changes such as urban expansion, deforestation, seasonal variations in vegetation, agricultural expansion, vegetation health, and wildfires. Prerequisite: F&ES 726b. Lecture and lab. Karen Seto

F&ES 726b/ARCG 762b/EMD 548b/G&G 562b, Observing Earth from Space 3 credits. Course topics include the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, satellite-borne radiometers, data transmission and storage, computer image analysis, and merging satellite imagery with GIS. Applications to weather and climate, oceanography, surficial geology, ecology and epidemiology, forestry, agriculture, and watershed management. Preference to students in F&ES, Geology and Geophysics, Epidemiology, Anthropology, and Studies in the Environment. Prerequisites: college-level physics or chemistry, two courses in geology and natural science of the environment or equivalents, and computer literacy. Xuhui Lee, Mark S. Ashton, Karen Seto

F&ES 749a, Seminar: Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Research 3 credits. The goal of this seminar is to create a space where research scholars can learn and discuss what it means to do interdisciplinary research in the field of environmental studies/sciences, why it is important, and how it can be done. This course is intended to stimulate critical thinking about the role of interdisciplinarity in answering complex socio-ecological questions and to provide students with conceptual tools, grounded in concrete examples, to pursue interdisciplinary research within environmental studies/sciences. A. Clare Gupta, Marian R. Chertow

F&ES 751b, Sampling Methodology and Practice 3 credits. This course is intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the principles of statistical sampling, alternative estimators of population parameters, and the design basis for inference in survey sampling. Natural, ecological, and environmental resource applications of sampling are used to exemplify numerous sampling strategies. Sample designs to be studied include simple random; systematic; unequal probability, with and without replacement; stratified sampling; sampling with fixed-radius plots; horizontal point sampling; and line intercept. The Horvitz-Thompson, ratio, regression, and other estimators are introduced and used repeatedly throughout the course. Three hours lecture. Weekly and biweekly problem sets requiring the use of a computer spreadsheet. Timothy G. Gregoire

F&ES 753a, Regression Modeling of Ecological and Environmental Data 3 credits. This course in applied statistics assists scientific researchers in the analysis and interpretation of observational and field data. After considering the notion of a random variable, the statistical properties of linear transformations and linear combinations of random data are established. This serves as a foundation for the major topics of the course, which explore the estimation and fitting of linear and nonlinear regression models to observed data. Prerequisite: a course in introductory statistics. Three hours lecture. Statistical computing with R, weekly problem exercises. Timothy G. Gregoire

F&ES 754a, Geospatial Software Design 3 credits. This course introduces computer programming tools and techniques for the development and customization of geospatial data-processing capabilities. It relies heavily on use of the Python programming language in conjunction with ESRI’s ArcGIS, Google’s Earth Engine, and the open-source Quantum geographic information systems (GIS). Enrollment limited to fifteen. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 755b, Modeling Geographic Space 3 credits. An introduction to the conventions and capabilities of image-based (raster) geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis and synthesis of spatial patterns and processes. In contrast to F&ES 756a, the course is oriented more toward the qualities of geographic space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion) than the discrete objects that may occupy such space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 756a, Modeling Geographic Objects 3 credits. This course offers a broad and practical introduction to the nature and use of drawing-based (vector) geographic information systems (GIS) for the preparation, interpretation, and presentation of digital cartographic data. In contrast to F&ES 755b, the course is oriented more toward discrete objects in geographical space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures) than the qualities of that space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required. Dana Tomlin

[F&ES 757b, Statistical Design of Experiments 3 credits. Principles of design for planned experiments, coupled with methods of analysis of experimental data. The course is applications-oriented using the results of established theory. The nuances, strengths, and weaknesses of a number of classical designs are discussed. These include completely randomized design, block designs, and split plot designs. The analysis of data from these designs is treated at length. This course also deals with the question of sample size estimation. Students may use R or SAS for the completion of assignments. Prerequisite: a prior course in introductory statistics. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer or Timothy G. Gregoire]

F&ES 758b, Multivariate Statistical Analysis in the Environmental Sciences 3 credits. An introduction to the analysis of multivariate data. Topics include multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), principal components analysis, cluster analysis (hierarchical clustering, k-means), canonical correlation, multidimensional scaling ordination methods, discriminate analysis, and structural equations modeling. Emphasis is placed on practical application of multivariate techniques to a variety of natural and social examples in the environmental sciences. Students are required to select a dataset early in the term for use throughout the term. There are regular assignments and a final project. Extensive use of computers is required. Prerequisite: a prior course in introductory statistics. Three hours lecture/discussion. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer

F&ES 762a, Applied Math for Environmental Studies (AMES) 3 credits. The language of mathematics is an important leg in the stool of interdisciplinary research and analysis, and many graduate courses at F&ES involve mathematical content. However, many graduate students have not taken a math course in years, and their math skills are rusty. Furthermore, many graduate-level mathematical concepts may be entirely new. Experience suggests that many students either opt out of taking courses they are truly interested in or muddle through, struggle with the math, and miss important concepts. AMES is meant to help students refresh or acquire new math skills and succeed in content and “toolbox” graduate-level courses. AMES provides a structured opportunity to learn a range of mathematical concepts used in environmental studies. The course assumes that, at a minimum, students took college algebra and perhaps a semester of calculus (but might not really remember it). Concepts are presented heuristically in a “how to” approach with examples from environmental studies. The goal is for students to be conversant and have intuition about (i.e., to demystify) why logs, exponents, derivatives, integrals, linear algebra, probability, optimization, stability analysis, and differential equations show up throughout environmental studies. Students learn (review) how to use these techniques. Also covered is a bit of history of math and an introduction to computer programming. Eli Fenichel

F&ES 780a, Seminar in Forest Inventory 2 credits. An advanced seminar that explores the design and implementation of forest inventory. Topics are varied to meet the interest of the class, but generally include the evolution and current status of broad regional and national inventories in the United States and abroad. Each week readings are assigned from primary sources that document the development of, and motivation for, various sampling methods for forest inventory. These include fixed and variable radius plot sampling, 3P sampling, double sampling for stratification in forest inventory, sampling with partial replacement, and line intersect sampling. Time and interest permitting, there is discussion of some newer, more specialized methods such as Monte Carlo methods and randomized branch sampling. A familiarity with the precepts and vernacular of probability sampling or statistics is presumed. Prerequisite: F&ES 751b. Timothy G. Gregoire

F&ES 781b/STAT 674b, Applied Spatial Statistics 3 credits. An introduction to spatial statistical techniques with computer applications. Topics include spatial sampling, visualizing spatial data, quantifying spatial association and autocorrelation, interpolation methods, fitting variograms, kriging, and related modeling techniques for spatially correlated data. Examples are drawn from ecology, sociology, public health, and subjects proposed by students. Four to five lab/homework assignments and a final project. The class makes extensive use of the R programming language as well as ArcGIS. Timothy G. Gregoire, Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer

Social Sciences


F&ES 795b, Nature as Capital: Merging Ecological and Economic Models 3 credits. The course is designed to familiarize students with concepts and tools for valuing ecological structures (broadly defined) as forms of capital with a specific link to quantitative measures that may be useful in assessing sustainability. Students gain a working knowledge of concepts necessary to apply capital theory to ecosystems and develop a skill set sufficient to build dynamic bioeconomic models that can help them approximate the value of changes in ecosystems. Students also learn tools in dynamic optimization, which are useful for forward-looking decision making. Eli Fenichel

[F&ES 800b, Energy Economics and Policy Analysis 3 credits. This course examines energy policy issues that pertain to the environment, with a focus on providing tools for analyzing these issues. A primary objective is to apply economics to particular issues of energy markets, environmental impacts, investment in renewables, and other energy issues such as transportation and energy efficiency. We cover the economic and technical considerations behind a particular energy policy issue and then discuss a related article or case study. Prerequisites: to allow for a deeper treatment of the material, students are required to have completed F&ES 505b (or equivalent) and at least one course on energy. Kenneth T. Gillingham]

F&ES 802b, Valuing the Environment 3 credits. This quantitative course demonstrates alternative methods used to value environmental services. The course covers valuing pollution, ecosystems, and other natural resources. The focus of the course is on determining the “shadow price” of nonmarket resources that have no prices but yet are considered valuable by society. Taught every other year. Three hours lecture. Robert Mendelsohn

[F&ES 803b, Green Markets: Voluntary and Information Approaches to Environmental Management 3 credits. Two observations provide motivation for this seminar. First, voluntary and information-based approaches to environmental management are becoming increasingly common. Environmental managers should thus be familiar with the approaches, along with their advantages and limitations. Second, students, advocates, and managers are often searching for ways outside of formal regulatory contexts to promote more pro-environmental behavior. There exists a sizable academic literature on the subject, but rarely is it covered in courses on environmental management. Readings span economics, psychology, and political science. Class occasionally has a lecture format, but for the most part, we have structured discussion, rotating responsibility for presentation and critique. Matthew J. Kotchen]

F&ES 804b, Economics of Natural Resource Management 3 credits. This course uses economic theory and empirical evidence to address nonrenewable resource extraction and renewable resource management. The course teaches students how to apply economics to real-world problems. The nonrenewable resource section focuses on how to consume a resource of limited size over time with applications to fossil fuels, metals, and minerals. The renewable resource section covers management of water, land, and ecosystems. Taught every other year. Prerequisite: F&ES 505b. Robert Mendelsohn

F&ES 805a,b, Seminar on Environmental and Natural Resource Economics 3 credits. This seminar is based on outside speakers and internal student/faculty presentations oriented toward original research in the field of environmental and natural resource economics and policy. Presentations are aimed at the doctoral level, but master’s students may enroll with permission of the instructor. Eli Fenichel

[F&ES 806b, Economics of Pollution Management 3 credits. This course uses economic theory, econometric evidence, and integrated assessment to address the broad issue of managing pollution. The course discusses both the source and consequence of pollution and identifies strategies to reduce the overall burden to society. The course covers air, water, and solid waste emissions. Air pollutants include threats to human health such as particulates, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides as well as greenhouse gases. Water pollutants include pathogens, fertilizers, and toxic chemicals. Solid waste includes traditional household waste disposal as well as hazardous and radioactive wastes. Optimal strategies to manage both stationary source and nonpoint sources are addressed. Prerequisite: F&ES 505b. Robert Mendelsohn]

F&ES 890a/MGT 820a, Energy Markets Strategy 1.5 credits. In the past thirty years, energy markets have changed from quiet, often heavily regulated areas of the business landscape to some of the most dynamic markets in the world economy. Regulation of oil, natural gas, and electricity markets has been reduced dramatically in the United States and in many other countries. Electricity deregulation swept the industrialized and developing world, but it is now associated with the 2000–2001 California electricity crisis and the 2001–2002 Enron scandal. Oil prices have reached record levels with great uncertainty about where they are headed. Drawing on the tools of economics, we study the business and public policy issues that these changes have raised. Topics include the competition in wholesale electricity markets, market power and antitrust, the economics of exhaustible resources, demand efficiency, and the transportation of energy commodities. We examine the economic determinants of industry structure and evolution of competition among firms in these industries, investigate successful and unsuccessful strategies for entering new markets and competing in existing markets, and analyze the rationale for and effects of public policies in energy markets. Students play strategy games to learn about wholesale electricity markets and for-profit firms in a restructured electricity market, and develop a carbon policy to implement during the game. They consider how to operate in electricity markets given capacity constraints, inelastic demand, lack of storage, and potential regulation of carbon emissions. Arthur Campbell

[F&ES 904a, Doctoral Seminar in Environmental and Energy Economics 3 credits. This course is designed to bring doctoral students up to speed on the latest developments in the literature on environmental and energy economics. Key papers are presented, and associated mathematical and empirical methods are covered. Topics to be covered include uncertainty and climate change policy, estimating energy demand, electricity markets, and behavioral economics and the environment. A focus is on identifying areas that deserve future research attention. Open to advanced master’s students with permission of the instructor. Kenneth T. Gillingham]

[F&ES 905b, Doctoral Seminar in Environmental Economics 3 credits. This course critically examines a set of recent and also famous papers in environmental and resource economics. The purpose of each paper, its method, results, and conclusions are all discussed. The course is intended to prepare students for a career in economic research. Offered every other year. Robert Mendelsohn]

Environmental Policy

F&ES 775b, Sustainable Sites 3 credits. This course provides students with an overview of the different processes and players involved in planning, creating, and managing sustainable sites, through the lens of the framework and principles of the Sustainable Sites Initiative. Main topics include framework for and assessment of sustainable sites; site implementation aspects such as planning, design, construction, and maintenance; and real-world applications. The course consists of core lectures by principal instructors, with guest lectures by Sustainable Site practitioners—ecologists, planners, designers (architect and landscape architect), contractors, and site managers. A termlong group project allows students to develop site strategies for a local development proposal. Andrew Tung

[F&ES 794a, Making Better Decisions with Environmental Applications 1 credit. Students use the assigned text, Making Better Decisions by Itzhak Gilboa, as a basis for discussions about decision making in the context of environmental management and more broadly. Discussions focus on what constitutes a defensible decision, common pitfalls in decision making, consumption of scientific evidence and statistical data by decision makers, risk, uncertainty, and issues related to normative criteria for making decisions. Students identify an environmental decision-making case study of their own interest and keep a running journal that assesses how decision makers address the principles of decision making covered by Gilboa and discussed during class meetings. Students take turns leading discussions about decision-making principles and how these principles are or are not used in their case studies. If all goes well, at the end of the term we jointly summarize and edit the journals into a review article for publication. Eli Fenichel]

F&ES 807a/MGT 688a, Corporate Environmental Management and Strategy 3 credits. This course focuses on understanding how adroit environmental management and strategy can enhance business opportunities; reduce risk, including resource dependency; promote cooperation; and decrease environmental impact. The course is divided into three broad areas: environmental management (within firms), environmental strategy (of firms and industries), and cooperative environmental business practices (across firms and with other stakeholders). The course combines weekly lectures on management theory, tools, and practice with class discussions of cases; legal and regulatory frameworks shaping the business-environment interface; and evolving requirements for business success. Marian R. Chertow

F&ES 814a/MGT 563a, Energy Systems Analysis 3 credits. This lecture course offers a systems analysis approach to describe and explain the basics of energy systems, including all forms of energy (fossil and renewable), all sectors/activities of energy production/conversion, and all energy end-uses, irrespective of the form of market transaction (commercial or noncommercial) or form of technology (traditional as well as novel advanced concepts) deployed. Students gain a comprehensive theoretical and empirical knowledge base from which to analyze energy-environmental issues as well as to participate effectively in policy debates. Special attention is given to introducing students to formal methods used to analyze energy systems or individual energy projects and also to discuss traditionally less-researched elements of energy systems (energy use in developing countries; energy densities and urban energy use; income, gender, and lifestyle differences in energy end-use patterns) in addition to currently dominant energy issues such as climate change. Active student participation is required, including completion of problem sets. Participation in extra-credit skill development exercises (presentations, fact-finding missions, etc.) is encouraged. Invited outside speakers complement topics covered in class. Enrollment limited to fifty. Arnulf Grubler

[F&ES 815a, The New Corporate Social Responsibility: Public Problems, Private Solutions, and Strategic Responses 3 credits. This seminar assesses the proliferation of policy innovations aimed at promoting and encouraging “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). We define CSR broadly to include the diverse range of self- and civil regulation, voluntary instruments, private authority, and non-state market driven (NSMD) initiatives that have emerged in the last fifteen years to engage firms directly, rather than working through traditional governmental process. Examples include firm-level initiatives, industry codes, product codes, third-party certification, ethical brands and labels, and “clean” investment funds. The course reviews the growing literature on these phenomena that now exists within political science, management, economics, sociology, environmental studies, and law. Our aim is to reflect on the broad array of scholarship on emergence and institutionalization of CSR innovations questions. While the class is interested in assessing the strategic advantage that CSR might bring firms, our emphasis is on whether, and how, CSR initiatives might address enduring policy problems where traditional governmental approaches have been ineffective. The course is organized into four components. First, we review and assess the different types of CSR or “private” policy instruments vying for firm-level support and distinguish them from traditional governmental mechanisms. Second, we discuss what is meant by “effectiveness” and the different ways of measuring success. Third, we assess the assumptions behind different theoretical frameworks about what types of CSR innovations firms are more likely to support, if any, and why. Fourth, we turn to empirical evidence to assess existing theories of support, and what this means for understanding support and effectiveness of CSR. This section draws on a variety of empirical methods including guest speakers from the world of CSR, analysis of large-N analyses on support, as well as detailed historical and comparative case studies. Benjamin Cashore]

F&ES 817a, Urban, Suburban, and Regional Planning Practice 3 credits. This course explores the challenges and opportunities faced by America’s suburban communities and urban centers as they work to become more sustainable and livable. Land use plans, private development, and public infrastructure shape our communities and determine where and how development occurs. The form of our cities and towns dictates our ability to meet the nation’s housing demand and grow our employment while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving the environment, and enhancing quality of life. Planners play a key role in understanding trends, crafting policy solutions, and generating support for action through stakeholder engagement. While most land use decision making is local, the majority of the challenges and opportunities we face cross political boundaries. New regional policies and partnerships, coupled with consensus-building across diverse constituencies, will be necessary to realize a new way to build our communities for the twenty-first century. This course delves into the planning techniques, zoning tools, and other land use regulations that are the principal mechanisms employed to achieve safe, livable, and sustainable communities. This course is part of the concentration in land use and planning, a subset of four classes under the specialization in sustainable land management. This subset is for students interested in the interface of environmental issues with land use, planning, and development. The other three courses in the subset are F&ES 775b, 820b, and 835a. David Kooris

F&ES 818a/MGT 561a, Energy Technology Innovation 3 credits. This advanced seminar aims at providing essential knowledge as well as a forum for students to discuss energy technology innovation strategies and policies from a systemic perspective. The first half of the seminar provides basic knowledge on technological change in general and on energy technology innovation in particular from an interdisciplinary perspective, including history of technology, engineering, management science, systems theory, economics, and social sciences including diffusion theory. Focus is on introducing students to the main patterns, drivers, policy leverages, and constraints in energy technology innovation systems. Core theoretical concepts introduced include inter alia technological inertia and lock-in, uncertainty, knowledge accumulation (learning) and depreciation, dynamic economic feedbacks like increasing returns to adoption, and knowledge and technology spillover effects. The second part of the seminar focuses on student-led discussions of selected case studies of energy technology innovation and/or policy approaches in both energy supply and energy end-use. Student proposals on case studies are welcome. Prerequisites: F&ES 814a, an equivalent of 3 credits of energy courses obtained outside F&ES, or two years professional experience in the energy industry including energy finance. Other highly motivated students, including undergraduates, can apply for admission through a motivational statement and a three-page summary of a relevant energy technology innovation publication chosen by the applicant. In order to maximize discourse possibilities and levels, enrollment limited to twelve. Arnulf Grubler

F&ES 819b, Strategies for Land Conservation 3 credits (or audit). This is a professional seminar on private land conservation strategies and techniques, with particular emphasis on the legal, financial, and management tools used in the United States. The seminar is built around presentations by guest speakers from land conservation organizations. Speakers are assigned topics across the land conservation spectrum, from identification of target sites, through the acquisition process, to ongoing stewardship of the land after the deal is done. The tools used to protect land are discussed, including the basics of real estate law, conservation finance, and project/organizational management. Students are required to undertake a clinical project with a local land conservation organization. Enrollment limited to twenty; preference to second-year students if limit reached. Bradford S. Gentry

F&ES 820b, Land Use Law and Environmental Planning 3 credits. This course explores the regulation by local governments of land uses in urban, rural, and suburban areas and the effect of development on the natural environment. The course helps students understand, in a practical way, how the environment can be protected through effective regulation at the local level. It introduces students to federal, state, and regional laws and programs that affect watershed protection and to the laws that delegate to local governments primary responsibility for decision making in the land use field. Theories of federalism, regionalism, states’ rights, and localism are studied. The history of the delegation of planning and land use authority to local governments is traced, leading to an examination of local land use practices particularly as they relate to controlling development in and around watershed areas as well as regulatory response to sea-level rise and climate change. Course participants engage in empirical research working to identify, catalogue, and evaluate innovative local laws that successfully protect environmental functions and natural resources, and the manner in which towns, particularly on the coast, incorporate climate change into their planning and regulations. Nearby watersheds are used as a context for the students’ understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of local planning and regulation. Attention is paid, in detail, to how the development of the land adversely affects natural resources and how these impacts can be mitigated through local planning and subsequent adoption of environmental regulations and regulations designed to promote sustainable development in a climate-changing world. The course includes examination of the state and local response to climate change, sea-level rise, growth management, alternatives to Euclidean zoning, low-impact development, brownfields redevelopment, energy conservation, and innovative land use strategies. Marjorie Shansky

F&ES 821b, Private Investment and the Environment: Legal Foundations and Tools 3 credits. As environmental problems become harder to regulate and public funds available for environmental protection decline, more people are looking to private investment as a tool for helping to improve environmental performance. This course explores the legal aspects of these initiatives, both opportunities and limits. It starts with an analysis of the goals of private investors—as a way to target efforts to change their decisions. It then moves to a review of the legal frameworks within which investors operate (property and tax law), as well as the legal tools that investors use to order their activities (contract law) and that governments use to address market failures (liability, regulation, information, and market mechanisms). The course concludes by examining efforts to use combinations of these legal tools to expand private investment in environmentally superior goods, services, and operations. Students are asked to choose an issue about which they care as the focus for their class deliverables. Offered every other year. Bradford S. Gentry

[F&ES 823a/LAW 20620, Climate Change and the International Court of Justice 2 or 3 credits. The President of the island nation of Palau, Johnson Toribiong, has called on the United Nations General Assembly to request an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) addressing state responsibility for the harmful consequences of anthropogenic climate change. President Toribiong has said that voluntary actions by individual states are not enough to “stem the rising tides or the flood of global emissions” and that an advisory opinion from the ICJ is an appropriate recourse that “will give us the guidance we need on what all states must do.” In the process, Palau also hopes “to raise the consciousness of the world community to the issue of responsibility.” This course, co-taught with Ambassador Stuart Beck and Counselor Aaron Korman of the Permanent Mission of Palau to the United Nations, considers the legal and policy issues raised by Palau’s ICJ campaign. During the first part of the course, background readings and guest speakers are utilized to familiarize students with legal principles, institutions, and procedures relevant to the ICJ campaign. During the second part of the course, students break into working groups to undertake research and analysis concerning different aspects of the campaign. Paper required. Prerequisite: permission of the instructors. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. Douglas Kysar, Stuart Beck, Aaron Korman]

F&ES 824a/LAW 20348, Environmental Law and Policy 3 credits. Introduction to the legal requirements and policy underpinnings of the basic U.S. environmental laws, including the Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and various statutes governing waste, food safety, and toxic substances. This course examines and evaluates current approaches to pollution control and resource management as well as the “next generation” of regulatory strategies, including economic incentives and other market mechanisms, voluntary emissions reductions, and information disclosure requirements. Mechanisms for addressing environmental issues at the local, regional, and global levels are also considered. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. E.D. Elliott

F&ES 825b, International Environmental Law 3 credits. An introduction to public international law that both governs the global commons—atmosphere, climate, oceans, and stratospheric ozone layer—and guides the national obligations for ensuring transnational public health, advancing sustainable development, and managing the Earth’s shared resources: sources of energy and renewable stocks of plants and animals, biodiversity, and ecosystems services. The course explores how environmental law builds upon general principles of international law; the evolving norms of humanitarian law, human rights, environmental rights, and the rights of nature; and the substantive and procedural treaty obligations of nations. The principal multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are studied, with attention to how states enact environmental law regimes to implement the MEAs. Decision-making procedures of United Nations agencies and other international and regional bodies are critically examined. The main texts are a law school casebook, D. Hunter, D. Zaelke, and J. Salzman, International Environmental Law and Policy (Foundation Press, 2002), and the UN Environment Programme’s commissioned restatement of this body of law, N.A. Robinson and L. Kurukulasuriya, Manual on International Environmental Law (UNEP, 2006). The course concludes with a written final examination. Nicholas A. Robinson

F&ES 826a, Foundations of Natural Resource Policy and Management 3 credits. This course offers an explicit interdisciplinary (integrative) framework that is genuinely effective in practical problem solving. This unique skill set overcomes the routine ways of thinking and solving conservation problems common to many NGOs and government organizations by explicitly developing more rigorous and effective critical-thinking, observation, and management skills. It is genuinely interdisciplinary. By simultaneously addressing rational, political, and practical aspects of real-world problem solving, the course helps students gain skills, understand, and offer solutions to the policy problems of managing natural resources. The approach we use requires several things of students (or any problem solvers): that they be contextual in terms of social and decision-making processes; that they use multiple methods and epistemologies from any field that helps in understanding problems; that they strive to be both procedurally and substantively rational in their work; and, finally, that they be clear about their own standpoint relative to the problems at hand. The approach used in this course draws on the oldest and most comprehensive part of the modern policy analytic movement—the policy sciences (interdisciplinary method)—which is growing in its applications worldwide today. The course includes a mix of critical thinking, philosophical issues, history, as well as issues that students bring in. Among the topics covered are human rights, scientific management, decision making, community-based approaches, governance, common interest, sustainability, and professionalism. In their course work students apply the basic concepts and tools to a problem of their choice, circulating drafts of their papers to other seminar participants and lecturing on and leading discussions of their topics in class sessions. Papers of sufficient quality may be collected in a volume for publication. Active participation, reading, discussion, lectures, guests, and projects make up the course. The seminar supports and complements other courses in the School and at the University. Enrollment limited to sixteen; application required. Susan G. Clark

F&ES 828b, Comparative Environmental Law in Global Legal Systems 3 credits. This course examines environmental law in the various legal systems of the world—from the common and civil law traditions to socialist law, customary law, and Islamic law. In particular, environmental law and case studies from a number of countries are examined, including Australia, Canada, China, Europe, New Zealand, the United States, Singapore, and the states of Southeast Asia. The objective is to understand the scope and evolution of national environmental law through the patterns of legislative, administrative, and judicial decision making in the various legal regimes. The systems of central/unitary governments are contrasted with those of federal systems. As corporations engage in the same manufacturing activities around the world, it is important that corporate managers and their legal advisers understand how these activities are regulated in the different legal systems. Additionally, as earth’s natural systems are integrated throughout the biosphere, the effectiveness of one nation’s environmental laws is complemented or undermined by the efficacy of another nation’s comparable laws. Students are examined by a written paper that is a comparative study of some aspect of environmental law, involving at least two jurisdictions. Lye Lin Heng, Nicholas A. Robinson

F&ES 829b/245b/EVST 245b/PLSC 146b, International Environmental Policy and Governance 3 credits. The development of international environmental policy and the functioning of global environmental governance. Critical evaluation of theoretical claims in the literature and the reasoning of policy makers. Introduction of analytical and theoretical tools used to assess environmental problems. Case studies emphasize climate, forestry, and fisheries. Benjamin Cashore

F&ES 832a,b/MGT 618a,b, Entrepreneurial Business Planning 3 credits. This course is for six teams of five students each that want to write a business plan for their own real new start-up company. It runs October 21, 2013–February 24, 2014. Entrepreneurship is all about starting and running one’s own business. In order to focus thinking and to help assemble the needed people and financial resources, many entrepreneurs write a business plan for their new venture. One of the best ways to learn how to write a business plan is to learn by doing—a real plan for a real new venture. The work is “hands-on,” “learn by doing” in nature. Entrepreneurs should be flexible thinkers and highly motivated, with a large capacity for work. They must be persistent and able to thrive in an unstructured environment. Entrepreneurs should be confident self-starters with the ability to take the initiative, overcome obstacles, make things happen, and get things done. Students enter their plans in the Yale Venture Challenge Business Plan Contest sponsored by the Yale Entrepreneurial Society. The scope of the work includes doing in-depth market, product, and competitor research; creating a strategy for a sustainable business; and writing and presenting a professional-quality plan (including a financial model and deal structure). Enrollment limited to thirty, by permission of the instructors. There will be an information session regarding the application process for this course on Monday, September 9, 11:45 a.m.–12:45 p.m. in A74 in SOM’s Founders Hall. David Cromwell, Maureen Burke

F&ES 835a, Seminar on Land Use Planning 1 credit. Land use in the United States encompasses the interacting factors of land ecological function, building design, economic development, and community support. Planning for land use and techniques used to implement these plans determine where development occurs on the American landscape. This plays a key role in determining how the needs of the nation’s growing population for housing and nonresidential development are accommodated and how natural resources and environmental functions are protected from the adverse impacts of land development. This course explores the multifaceted discipline of land use planning and its associated ecological implications. Land use strategies identify land functions, incentivize energy-efficient and climate-resilient structures, and harness community and market support for effective land use decision making. When done well, land use planning possesses the capacity to maximize utility while minimizing environmental damage. The focus of this seminar is to expose students to the basics of land use planning in the United States and to serve as an introduction for the F&ES curriculum concentration in land use. Guest speakers are professionals involved in sustainable development, land conservation, smart growth, and climate-change management. Classes focus on current issues in domestic land use and include discussion on the trajectory for professions and career paths in this sector. John R. Nolon

F&ES 837b, Seminar on Leadership in Natural Resources and the Environment 3 credits. This seminar explores the qualities, characteristics, and behaviors of leaders in the fields of natural resources, science, and management. Through lectures, guest speakers, and individual and team projects, students analyze the attributes of leadership in individuals and organizations. They examine leaders and organizations and develop skills and techniques for leading and for assessing various organizations’ leadership strengths and weaknesses. The class travels to Washington, D.C., and meets with leaders in the policy, environmental, industry, and information segments. Through this experience, students have the opportunity to assess their own leadership capabilities and identify means to improve them. Chadwick D. Oliver

F&ES 841b/LAW 21720, A Critical History of U.S. Energy Law and Policy 2 or 3 credits. Why does U.S. environmental law work reasonably well to achieve its declared objectives, but energy law does not? Since the 1973 Arab oil embargo, every president has declared as a central goal of national policy for the United States to become less dependent on imported oil, but until recently our “addiction” to imported oil (in the words of George W. Bush) increased. Will the recent boom in shale gas and unconventional oil change all that and turn the United States into an energy exporter? This research seminar examines national energy law and policy since World War II with the objective of understanding why the legal techniques that we have applied have been so unsuccessful in achieving their declared objectives. We focus particularly on policies intended to stimulate renewables and other alternative sources of energy, including energy efficiency. This course considers renewables not in isolation but in dynamic interrelationship with policies toward conventional fossil sources of energy. A third unit is by arrangement with the instructor. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. Self-scheduled examination (Web) or paper option. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. E.D. Elliott

[F&ES 843b/AMST 839b/HIST 743b/HSHM 744b, Readings in Environmental History 2 credits. Reading and discussion of key works in environmental history. The course explores major forces shaping human-environment relationships, such as markets, politics, and ecological dynamics, and compares different approaches to writing about social and environmental change. Paul Sabin]

[F&ES 849b, Natural Resource Policy Practicum 3 credits. This practicum provides opportunities for students to participate in the analysis and development of current issues/policies affecting natural resources in the United States and to learn about contemporary issues affecting natural resources and the environment. Students are organized into teams and assigned a number of current policy issues for analysis and discussion. The identified issues originate from discussions with staff of national environmental organizations, Congressional offices, and federal natural resource agencies that serve as “clients” for the purposes of this practicum. Students are required to communicate directly with the organizations and individuals seeking policy analysis assistance, to conduct research and interdisciplinary analysis of the subject, to prepare a report and recommendations for the identified client, and to brief the client on the product of their analysis. Each team is responsible for a minimum of two policy analysis projects during the term. Following an initial organizational meeting, student teams meet with the instructor once a week to provide updates on projects and to discuss current national and international issues and concerns affecting natural resources and the environment. James R. Lyons]

F&ES 850a, International Organizations and Conferences 3 credits. This course, taught in the fall term, focuses on an international conference or symposium and the organization that sponsors the event. Both theoretical and clinical approaches are used. The course studies the mission of the organization and the role of the conference. Students prepare individual and group papers suitable for presentation at the conference. Every attempt is made to have the students participate in the conference, even if it occurs in the next term, but attendance is not guaranteed. The class has studied and participated in the 5th World Parks Congress, Durban, South Africa, 2003; the World Conservation Congress in Bangkok, Thailand, 2004, and in Barcelona, Spain, 2008; and the UNEP Council Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, 2005. In 2009, thirty students participated in the COP 15 in Copenhagen, Denmark.This course is co-taught with an advanced doctoral student or visiting faculty member who brings knowledge of the specific organization and subject matter being studied. Gordon T. Geballe

F&ES 851a,b, Environmental Diplomacy Practicum 3 credits per term. This course aims to provide experiential learning of environmental and sustainable development issues at the international level through field research, analysis, and presentation of results. Students attend UN meetings and interview UN diplomats, officials of international agencies, and civil society representatives at the UN in New York to collect their views on achieving better substantive results. Weekly seminars examine the issues as they emerge in the course of the stages of implementation. Students make presentations of research results to the UN community in New York. Prerequisites: enrollment requires an application and permission of the instructor. Roy S. Lee

[F&ES 855a, Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Areas 3 credits. This class provides an in-depth assessment of the relationships between urbanization and climate change, and the central ways in which urban areas, cities, and other human settlements can mitigate climate change. The course explores two major themes: (1) the ways in which cities and urban areas contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change; and (2) the ways in which urban areas can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Class topics parallel the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Chapter 12, Human Settlements, Infrastructure, and Spatial Planning, and include spatial form and energy use, land use planning for climate mitigation, urban metabolism, and local climate action plans. The class format is lecture, short break, and discussion. Karen Seto]

[F&ES 860b, Understanding Environmental Campaigns and Policy Making: Strategies and Tactics 3 credits. This course taught from a practitioner’s perspective helps the student to understand how the advocacy community operates to advance policy making in the environmental arena by exposing students to well structured case examples from the environmental policy-making world of the past decade. Michael Northrop]

[F&ES 866b/LAW 21566, [The] Law of Climate Change 3 credits. This course explores legal and policy developments pertaining to climate change and the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Approaches considered range in scale (state, regional, national, international), temporal scope (incremental measures, multi-decade emissions goals, constitutional amendments), policy orientation (voluntary initiatives, disclosures rules, subsidization, tort litigation, command-and-control regulation, cap-and-trade schemes, emissions taxes), regulatory target (industry and manufacturing, commercial and retail firms, financial and insurance companies, consumers and workers), and regulatory objective (stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations, reduction of emissions levels or intensity, energy security, optimal balancing of costs and benefits, adaption to unavoidable impacts). Although course readings and discussion focus on existing and actual proposed legal responses to climate change, the overarching aim of the course is to anticipate how the climate change conundrum will affect our laws and our lives in the long run. No prerequisites. Self-scheduled examination or paper option. Douglas Kysar]

Social and Political Ecology

F&ES 770b/MCDB 861b, The Human Population Explosion 3 credits. Global population growth in its human, environmental, and economic dimensions. Social and sociobiological bases of reproductive behavior. Population history and the causes of demographic change. Interactions of population growth with economic development and environmental alteration. Overconsumption of the rich and overpopulation of the poor. “Hot-button” issues surrounding fertility: contraception, abortion, infanticide, and the status of women. Robert Wyman

F&ES 772a, Social Justice in the Food System 3 credits. This course explores social justice in today’s globalized food system. We learn about strategies and discourses used by community-based activists, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and scholars in order to understand injustice and work to create a more just food system for all. We begin by developing an understanding of the food system as one that encompasses farm and industry workers, farm owners and collectives, and agroecological systems, as well as all those who consume food. Based on this understanding, we review injustice in the food system from multiple sectors and standpoints. We also explore concepts used to frame current critical food studies and movements, including environmental justice, food justice, and food sovereignty, and we consider how these are applied in multiple contexts, both within the United States and globally. We examine several ideological debates among current food justice activists and scholars, including the extent to which neoliberalism and racial oppression are reinscribed through alternative food initiatives and framings, as well as the legitimacy of analyzing food systems as dichotomous, either/or arrangements. Kristin Reynolds

F&ES 774b, Agriculture: Origins, Evolution, Crises 3 credits. Analysis of the societal and environmental causes and effects of plant and animal domestication, the intensification of agro-production, and the crises of agro-production: population pressure, land degradation, societal collapses, technological innovation, transformed social relations of production, sustainability, and biodiversity. From the global field, the best-documented eastern and western hemisphere trajectories are selected for analysis. Harvey Weiss

F&ES 779b/REL 903b, Religion, Ecology, and Cosmology 3 credits. For many years science, engineering, policy, law, and economics alone were considered indispensable for understanding and resolving environmental problems. We now have abundant knowledge from these disciplines about environmental issues, but still not sufficient will to engage in long-term change for the flourishing of the Earth community. Thus, there is a growing realization that religion, spirituality, ethics, and values can make important contributions, in collaboration with science, to address complex ecological issues. We examine those contributions, acknowledging both the problems and promise of religions. This course in religion, ecology, and cosmology involves an exploration of the world’s religions within the horizon of interdependent life and the cosmos. In particular, it investigates the symbolic and lived expressions of this interconnection in diverse religious texts, ethics, and practices arising from relations of humans with the universe and the Earth community. The course also draws on the narratives of science for an understanding of the dynamic processes of the universe, Earth, life, and ecosystems. In the first part of the course, we explore ecological perspectives from indigenous traditions, Christianity, and Confucianism. In the second part of the course we survey environmental ethics leading to an emerging global ethics. In the final section, we turn to the interdisciplinary scientific story of the unfolding universe as a cosmological narrative orienting new human-Earth relations. This scientific narrative has continuity and discontinuity with earlier religious cosmologies and their views of nature. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

F&ES 793b/ANTH 773b/EVST 473b, Abrupt Climate Change and Societal Collapse 2 credits. The coincidence of societal collapses throughout the Holocene with decadal and century-scale abrupt drought events. Challenges to anthropological and historical paradigms of cultural adaptation and resilience. Examination of archaeological and historical records and high-resolution sets of paleoclimate proxies. Harvey Weiss

[F&ES 827b, Contemporary Environmental Challenges in Africa 3 credits. The objective of this seminar is to provide students with in-depth insight into the dynamics of human-environment interactions in sub-Saharan Africa in a collaborative and open discussion format. Families, communities, and nations in the African region face an array of environmental challenges ranging from periodic drought and food insecurity to loss of biodiversity, conflict over resources, and persistent poverty. Moreover, many countries in the region are saddled with histories of colonial rule that defined human-environment relationships in the simplest terms, often posing direct links between traditional practices and environmental degradation while ignoring the complex interplay of social, biophysical, and geographical factors that contribute to environmental outcomes. Throughout the course, we critically engage common perceptions of African environments, explore alternative theories, and seek deeper understandings of human-environment interactions in the region. The course is designed around five main themes: (1) environment, poverty, and development; (2) property rights and access to resources; (3) risk and adaptation to natural hazards and climate change; (4) conservation, deforestation, and biodiversity, and (5) transboundary issues and environmental politics. Within each theme, we devote a week to introducing the general concepts and a second week to discussing one or two in-depth case studies that illustrate the issue in detail. Student work consists of participation in class discussion and a course paper, which is presented to the class. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Robert Bailis]

F&ES 831b, Society and Natural Resources 1–3 credits. This research seminar explores the relationship between society and natural resources in a genuinely interdisciplinary manner. Although the specific topic of the seminar varies from year to year, the consistent underlying theme is an examination of how societies organize themselves, use natural resources, and affect their environment. In past years, the seminar focused on energy and the environment, interdisciplinary problem solving, and other topics. This year’s seminar is on environmental psychology and sociology. It draws upon literature from psychology and sociology to deepen our understanding of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and human-nature relationships. Using literature reviews, case studies, guest speakers, our own self-examination, and research, we analyze how people’s construction of self and “worldviews/window on the world” affect their decisions about their lives, nature, and the environment. Improvement and sustainability rest on change in ourselves and in other people. We focus on leadership (the lead and leader’s relationships), too. Guests and students make presentations and participate in discussions each week. Readings, active participation, and student papers are required. The seminar overall looks at people seeking values using natural resources through institutions. This relationship (people, values, natural resources, and institutions) has been extensively written about and discussed in diverse fields. A few years ago, the seminar examined the relationship of human dignity as a universal value goal, professionalism and practice, and sustainability as an applied notion. Other versions of the seminar have looked at conceptual (theoretical) models about society and natural resources from policy sciences, social ecology, political ecology, and other knowledge areas. Still other seminars focused on “Bridging Local and Professional Knowledge in Environmental Sustainability” and “War and the Environment.” Susan G. Clark

F&ES 836a/ANTH 541a/HIST 965a/PLSC 779a, Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development 3 credits. An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a historically grounded account of the transformation of rural societies. Four hours lecture plus discussion sections. James Scott, Michael McGovern, K. Sivaramakrishnan

F&ES 838a/ANTH 517a, Producing and Consuming Nature 3 credits. This intermediate to advanced seminar brings together readings in social theory with ethnographic case studies to examine the changing means by which elements of the natural world are drawn into circuits of production, exchange, and consumption. How do environmental goods become conceptualized as natural resources for human ends, and, more specifically, remade into commodities that circulate in global markets? The course explores efforts to rethink classical theories of economic processes in light of shifting forms of natural resource transactions and use. Topics examined include agrarian and fisheries transformations; the rise of green consumerism and product certification regimes; and the market valuation of ecosystem goods and services. Course texts are drawn from anthropology and related disciplines, like cultural geography, sociology, and science and technology studies. Basic knowledge of social science is a prerequisite. Karen Hébert

F&ES 839a/ANTH 597a, Social Science of Development and Conservation 3 credits. This course is designed to provide M.E.M., M.E.Sc., and doctoral students with the opportunity to master the essential social science literature on sustainable development and conservation. Social science makes two contributions to the practice of development and conservation. First, it provides ways of thinking about, researching, and working with social groupings—including rural households and communities, but also development and conservation institutions, states, and NGOs. This aspect includes relations between groups at all these levels, and the role of power in these relations. Second, social science tackles the analysis of the knowledge systems that implicitly shape development and conservation policy and impinge on practice. In other words, we analyze communities but also our own ideas of what communities are. We also examine our ideas about sustainable development and conservation. Finally, we attempt to look at development and the institutions that implement it from the perspective of communities. The emphasis throughout is on how these things shape the practice of sustainable development and conservation. Case studies used in the course have been balanced as much as possible between Southeast Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America; most are rural and Third World (largely due to the development and conservation focus). The course includes readings from all noneconomic social sciences. Readings are equally focused on conservation and development. The goal of the course is to stimulate students to apply informed and critical thinking (which means not criticizing others, but questioning our own underlying assumptions) to whatever roles they may come to play in sustainable development and conservation, in order to move toward more environmentally and socially sustainable projects and policies. The course is also designed to help students shape future research by learning to ask questions that build on, but are unanswered by, the social science theory of conservation and development. No prerequisites. This is a requirement for the joint F&ES/Anthropology doctoral program, and a prerequisite for some advanced F&ES courses. Open to advanced undergraduates. Three hours lecture/seminar. Carol Carpenter

[F&ES 845b, Energy Issues in Developing Countries 3 credits. This graduate course is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore the interrelationships among energy, environment, economic development, and social welfare in developing countries. Throughout the course, we consider the role that people, industries, and state institutions play in supplying and consuming energy-based resources in countries of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and much of Asia. The goal of the course is to understand the many ways in which energy is used by the majority of the world’s population and to examine some of the tensions that exist among environmental sustainability, economic growth, and quality of life within the context of non-Western, nonindustrialized, and/or industrializing populations. Class meetings consist of a short lecture followed by discussion; therefore reading and participation are critical components of the course and students are evaluated based on their contributions to the discussion. Students are strongly encouraged to have prior knowledge of basic energy issues. Robert Bailis]

F&ES 846b, Perspectives on Environmental Injustices 3 credits. In this seminar we explore global environmental issues from a perspective that foregrounds questions of social justice. This course is based on three fundamental premises: (1) all individuals and communities, regardless of their social or economic conditions, have the right to a clean and healthy environment; (2) there is a connection between environmental exploitation, human exploitation, and social justice; and (3) many environmental and social injustices are rooted in larger structural issues in society that must be understood. With these premises as a starting point, we turn to more difficult questions such as, Why and through what political, social, and economic processes are some people denied this basic right to a clean and safe environment? The course draws on both international and domestic case studies. Amity Doolittle

F&ES 848a, Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation 3 credits. This is an interdisciplinary graduate course designed for students who are familiar with the basic science of climate change and the international negotiations that have occurred since the drafting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992. The course draws on diverse fields ranging from economics to international relations and energy systems analysis. We examine climate change from an international perspective, with particular emphasis placed on the world’s developing countries. The course opens with a brief review of the latest scientific findings, the most recent developments in climate change policy, and an overview of common tools that analysts use to examine the climate question. We then devote roughly half of the term to examining climate change impacts and adaptation and half to mitigation. In looking at impacts and adaptation, we examine social and biophysical vulnerabilities to environmental change and explore the policies and measures that have been proposed to minimize the impacts of climate change. In examining mitigation, we discuss technological options, policies, and socioeconomic impacts of mitigative measures. The course has a mixed lecture-discussion format. Participation during discussion is strongly encouraged and is incorporated in student evaluations. In addition, there are several guest speakers and potentially one field trip to the United Nations. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. Robert Bailis

F&ES 854b, Institutions and the Environment 3 credits. One of the most critically important questions facing those seeking to promote environmental stewardship of the world’s biosphere is to understand better what types of local, domestic, global, and non-state institutions might best promote meaningful and enduring environmental problem solving. The purpose of this seminar is to review key works in political science and related disciplines on institutions to assess their direct or indirect implications for environmental governance and effectiveness. The course assesses perspectives from rational choice, historical, and sociological institutionalism that have permeated comparative public scholarship; the treatment of institutions with international relations literature; the attention that common property scholars have placed on understanding the development of local institutions; and the emergence and proliferation of private governance institutions. We are curious about understanding the theoretical underpinnings and scholarly debates about how support for such systems occurs. We also assess the various theories against empirical evidence that assess their support and influence ameliorating key resource and environmental problems. Benjamin Cashore

[F&ES 857b, Urbanization, Global Change, and Sustainability 3 credits. The conversion of land surface to urban uses is one of the most profound human impacts on the global biosphere. Urban growth and associated changes in human activities on the land and in the physical attributes of Earth’s surface have profound environmental consequences, including local and regional climate change, loss of wildlife habitat and biodiversity, soil erosion, and a decline in ecosystem services. This seminar examines the interactions and relationships between urbanization and global change at local, regional, and global scales. Topics include urban land-cover change, cities and local climate, urban vulnerability, urban diets and the challenges for agriculture, and urban biodiversity. Karen Seto]

[F&ES 859b/REL 931b, American Environmental History and Values 3 credits. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of major figures, ideas, and institutions in American environmentalism. The course explores the development of environmental awareness in America as distinct historical strands with diverse ethical concerns. It begins with an examination of Native American perspectives on land and biodiversity. We then focus on writings from Thoreau and Emerson to explore early American voices in the discourse on “nature.” To investigate the emergence of conservation and forest management, readings are selected from Pinchot, Muir, and Leopold. The beginnings of urban and park planning are considered in relation to these positions on the management of nature. Next, the environmental movements from the 1960s onward are surveyed in readings from the social sciences and humanities. We then explore the major debates in environmental ethics and the broader reach for global ethics. Writings celebrating biodiversity are examined along with the emergence of conservation biology as an example of engaged environmental scholarship. Finally, new efforts to widen the interdisciplinary approaches toward environmental issues are introduced in investigating world religions and ecology as well as cosmology and ecology. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker]

F&ES 861a/REL 918a, American Indian Religions and Ecology 3 credits. This course studies selected Native American religions drawing on several approaches, namely, environmental history, religion and ecology, anthropology, geography, and religious studies. We open with critical inquiry about the use of such terms as religion, ritual, symbol, and sacred, and the use of such referents as American Indian and Native American. Course texts are used to guide an examination of prominent Native American peoples and such rituals as the Plains Sun Dance, the Columbia River Plateau Winter Dance, and rituals of the Southwest Pueblos and Dineh Peoples. The course investigates relationships evident in these complex ceremonials between identity and place, self and society, (religious) ecology and cosmology, narrative and therapy. Throughout the course we explore regional historical questions drawing on native scholarly perspectives, where available, regarding American Indian religions and the impact of the West. We examine the historical ramifications on American Indian religions through the periods of: (1) contact and encounter, (2) population decline, (3) resistance and assimilation, and (4) reinvention and recovery. We conclude with considerations of decolonization efforts as contemporary native practitioners recover and reconstruct traditions. John Grim

[F&ES 862b, Advanced Seminar in Social and Political Dimensions of Climate Change 3 credits. This seminar explores advanced topics in social and political aspects of climate change. Topics vary from year to year and may include societal impacts of climate change, vulnerability and adaptation, ethics and justice, economics, international relations, or climate change mitigation strategies. Students work individually or in small groups and focus intensively on a single topic for the term. When possible, the topic(s) that students work on are derived from real projects and developed in conjunction with outside organizations that are actively working on climate-related issues. Each year, the course may involve a trip to the annual climate change negotiations (COP XX). There, students have an opportunity to see how the topics that they studied are debated at the highest level of global environmental governance. Students also have a chance to attend numerous side events, where civil society groups, multilateral organizations, and the private sector converge to discuss the latest developments in climate policy. Students may have an opportunity to present at these events. Robert Bailis]

F&ES 863a, Sustainability in Latin America 3 credits. The concept of sustainability has acquired iconic status in the years since 1987 and the publication of the Brundtland Commission’s report, Our Common Future. Despite the simple summary—“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”—figuring out what can and should be done in specific circumstances has proven to be most challenging. Nowhere are these challenges more evident than in Latin America. Concerns about maintaining biodiversity; achieving higher standards of living while simultaneously narrowing wide gaps between the rich and poor; improving the health, education, and welfare of entire populations; devising economically efficient ways to account for valuable environmental services; creating competent means to govern and manage; building the capacity of organizations to operate more effectively; and a long list of other compelling issues all clamor for attention. The willingness of able, thoughtful, and willing individuals to engage and grapple with multiple dimensions of sustainability is essential. Garry Brewer

F&ES 869b/ANTH 572b, Disaster, Degradation, Dystopia: Social Science Approaches to Environmental Perturbation and Change 3 credits. This is an advanced seminar on the long tradition of social science scholarship on environmental perturbation and natural disasters, the relevance of which has been heightened by the current global attention to climate change. The course is divided into four main sections, the contents of which evolve from year to year. Section one addresses central questions and debates in the field: social dimensions of natural disasters; the historic evolution of anthropological thinking about climate and society; discursive dimensions of environmental degradation; and asymmetries between political power and resource wealth. Section two focuses on anthropological perspectives on perturbation, beginning with Linnaeus’s work on ethnicity and land use in Scandinavia; ethnicity and violence in the Philippines; and indigenous solutions to knowing the environment. Section three consists of the classroom presentation of work by the students. Section four concludes with recent scholarship on the politics of threats to and from nature. Prerequisite: F&ES 520a, 838a, or 839a. Three hours lecture/seminar. Enrollment limited to twenty. Michael R. Dove

[F&ES 872a/REL 870a/RLST 872a, Seminar on World Religions and Ecology 3 credits. This seminar explores the understanding of the emerging relationships of world religions to our global environmental crisis. Both the problems and the promise of these relationships are acknowledged. Religions are containers of symbolic language that often evoke nature’s processes and reflect nature’s rhythms. For many years science, engineering, policy, and law alone were considered indispensable for understanding and resolving environmental problems. We now have abundant knowledge from these disciplines about environmental issues, but still not sufficient will to change human behavior. Religion, spirituality, ethics, and values can make important contributions to address complex environmental issues. This course explores those contributions. Mary Evelyn Tucker, John Grim]

[F&ES 873a, Global Environmental History 1 credit. The dynamic relationship between environmental and social forces from the Pleistocene glaciations to the Anthropocene present: Pleistocene extinctions; transitions from hunting to gathering to agriculture; Old World origins of cities, states, and civilization; adaptations and collapses of Old and New World civilizations in the face of climate disasters; the destruction and reconstruction of the New World by the Old. In the foreground of each analysis are the issues of adaptation, resilience, and sustainability: what forced long-term societal changes? Harvey Weiss]

[F&ES 876a/REL 915a/RLST 875a, Indigenous Religions and Ecology 3 credits. This course explores how particular indigenous peoples relate to local bioregions and biodiversity. Opening with an examination of such terms as indigenous, religion, and ecology, the course investigates religious studies and ethnography related to small-scale societies and the many ways in which they relate to local bioregions and biodiversity. The course examines indigenous ethnic diversity and cultural relationships to place, and the ways values associated with physical places are articulated in symbols, myths, rituals, and other embodied practices. The emphasis on place and religious ecology in this course illustrates what indigenous peoples could bring to studies in environmental culture. Finally, this course necessarily involves questions of environmental justice, namely, the imposition of environmentally damaging projects on a people whose voice in decision making is diminished or eliminated. John Grim]

F&ES 877b/ANTH 561b, Anthropology of the Global Economy for Development and Conservation 3 credits. This seminar explores topics in the anthropology of the global economy that are relevant to development and conservation policy and practice. Anthropologists are often assumed to focus on micro- or local-level research, and thus to have limited usefulness in the contemporary, global world of development and conservation policy. In fact, however, they have been examining global topics since at least the 1980s, and little current anthropological research is limited to the village level. More importantly, the anthropological perspective on the global economy is unique and important. This course examines the topics that make up this perspective, including using a single commodity to study the global economy; world system and other 1970s theories of the world economy; the moral relation between economy and society; articulations between rural households and the global economy; rural-urban relations in the global economy; the process of becoming a commodity; the anthropology of commodities; the commons debate; credit and debt; contracting and flexible accumulation; and the metrics and mobiles of globalization. Readings for the course come from the subfields of environmental anthropology, economic anthropology, the anthropology of development, and the anthropology of conservation. Three hours lecture/seminar. Carol Carpenter

[F&ES 878a, Anthropology of Climate: Past to Present 3 credits. This is a seminar on the history of anthropological approaches to the study of climate and climate change. It begins with an overview of classical works and early anthropology on the broad relationship between climate and culture, including insights from the arts and letters. The second section concerns the impact of climatic perturbation and change on society, focusing on issues of resilience vs. vulnerability, adaptation vs. collapse, and the politics of climate disasters. Section three deals with social systems of knowledge pertaining to climate, including ideologies of climate in particular societies; national politics and the circulation of climate knowledge; and the current politics of science of climate change involving the global north and south. The final section of the course focuses on questions of methodology, in particular perspectives from ethno-climate, comparative study, and the unique status of islands, and special questions raised about the role of the scholar in studying climate. The readings are largely based on case studies and are drawn from the draft of a reader on this topic that the instructor is preparing for publication. Two-hour lecture/seminar. Taught in alternate years. Michael R. Dove]

F&ES 879b/REL 917b/RLST 872b, World Religions and Ecology: Asian Religions 3 credits. This course explores the various ways in which religious ideas and practices have contributed to cultural attitudes and human interactions with nature. Examples are selected from Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. The course examines such topics as symbols, images, and metaphors of nature in canonical texts; views of the divine as transcendent to the world; the indwelling of the sacred in the earth; the ethics of using and valuing nature; ritual practices that link humans to the natural world; and cosmology as orienting humans to the world and embedding them in place. Mary Evelyn Tucker, John Grim

F&ES 882a/ANTH 582a, The Black Box of Implementation: Households, Communities, Gender 3 credits. The implementation of development projects has been described as existing in a “black box”: development and conservation policy (even participatory policy) is often not defined to inform effective implementation (Mosse 2004), and data on actual implementation is rarely incorporated into policy. This course examines the invisibility of implementation, and the common, mistaken assumptions about implementation targets (like households, communities, and gender) that take the place of absent data in policy. The course also makes an effort to use anthropology to shed light into this black box, to allow students to think more critically about the varied and dynamic social field in which project implementation occurs. Political and economic aspects of relations within households and communities, particularly gender relations, are examined in all of their complexity, variation, and dynamism. The real focus of the course, however, is not the contents of the black box, but the political and economic relations between households, communities, and gender, on the one hand, and the world of development and conservation, on the other. How do households and communities respond to the differential opportunities and restrictions that development and conservation introduce? What are the implications of the fact that those responses are often invisible to policy makers? Three hours lecture/seminar. Carol Carpenter

F&ES 892a/ARCH 4021a, Introduction to Planning and Development 3 credits. This course demonstrates the ways in which financial and political feasibility determine the design of buildings and the character of the built environment. Students propose projects and then adjust them to the conflicting interests of the financial institutions, real estate developers, civic organizations, community groups, public officials, and the widest variety of participants in the planning process. Subjects covered include housing, commercial development, zoning, historic preservation, parks and public open space, suburban subdivisions, planned communities, and comprehensive plans. Alexander Garvin

Health and Environment

[F&ES 727a, The Future of Food 3 credits. This seminar explores significant challenges posed by the global food supply to environmental quality and human health. The primary obligation is a research paper, dissertation chapter, master’s project, or senior essay draft. We read critically 150–200 pages per week, and students should be prepared to discuss or present analyses. Challenges examined include fresh vs. processed foods, nutritional sufficiency and excess, radionuclides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, animal feeds, plastics, flame retardants, flavors, fragrances, ingredient fraud, genetic modification, waste, energy input and yield, locality, processing technologies, packaging, and carbon emissions. Corporate case histories are considered in a number of sessions. Private innovations in the production and management of food are analyzed, including trends in certification and labeling initiatives. Most sessions examine one or several foods. Examples include cow’s milk, human milk, infant formula, grapes, wine, corn, bananas, tomatoes, salmon, cod, tuna, sodas, fruit juice, water, coffee, and olive oil. John P. Wargo]

F&ES 761b, Food Security and Agricultural Development 3 credits. This seminar focuses on issues of food security in developing countries in the broader context of the changes that are occurring in the agricultural sector at the local (individual farmers, households), community, national, and global levels. As the food industry transforms, who is being included and who is being left out? What are the implications for smallholder producers and consumers? What are the relationships among agricultural development, food security, and poverty reduction? To what extent is there increasing volatility in food markets? And finally, what other factors, especially security and conflict issues, affect food security? Gender issues are integrated throughout the course topics. The course readings draw heavily on materials in economics and agricultural economics, supplemented with relevant policy documents and articles from other disciplines. Cheryl Doss

F&ES 765b, Mitigating Agriculture’s Impact 1 credit. This course examines a range of solutions that address the impacts of agriculture, focusing primarily on the environment (air, soil, water, land use, climate change, biodiversity), although social justice and human health issues are also touched upon. Examined mitigation strategies include agro-ecosystem best management practices, new technologies, and supply chain relationships, among others. Lectures focus on specific case studies as much as possible. The course is divided into four modules, each focused on a single commodity that represents a different set of impacts and mitigation strategies: beef, aqua-cultured salmon, palm oil, and fresh-sold tomatoes. Brief contextual reference to the economic and social importance of each commodity is made at the beginning of each module. By doing a deep dive in each of these modules, students gain a significant appreciation for the mitigation strategy opportunities available in the production, processing, and distribution specific to an agricultural resource type. Gordon T. Geballe

F&ES 889a, Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) 3 credits. This course focuses on fundamental aspects of risk, using environmental and health risks in the public and private sectors as its primary examples, and is designed to provide students with a broad understanding of the value of risk assessment and risk management (RA/RM) in the environmental engineering profession. Students learn how to identify potential hazards, quantify associated risks using probabilistic methods, and incorporate both probabilistic and deterministic results from environmental risk assessment (ERA) into the decision-making process after taking into consideration risk-to-risk trade-offs and societal, environmental, and economic consequences. Students learn how to apply methods and tools for qualitative and quantitative risk assessment (QLRA and QRA). Yehia F. Khalil

F&ES 891a/EMD 572a, Ecoepidemiology 3 credits. This course uses an ecological perspective to study the factors influencing the emergence, maintenance, and transmission of human pathogens. Particular emphasis is on pathogens transmitted to humans by arthropods (vector-borne) or animal reservoirs (zoonotic) like malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, rabies, etc. Students learn how human risk for these diseases can be described and predicted by understanding the ecology of pathogens, vectors, and reservoirs. The course utilizes a combination of lectures, discussion of primary literature, practical exercises on modeling and risk mapping, and guest speakers. Maria Diuk-Wasser

F&ES 893a/EHS 511a, Applied Risk Assessment 3 credits. This course introduces students to the nomenclature, concepts, and basic skills of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The goal is to provide an understanding necessary to read and critically evaluate QRA. Emphasis is on the intellectual and conceptual basis of risk assessment, particularly its dependence on toxicology and epidemiology, rather than its mathematical constructs and statistical models. Specific cases consider the use of risk assessment for setting occupational exposure limits, establishing community exposure limits, and quantifying the hazards of environmental exposures to chemicals in air and drinking water. Jonathan Borak, Cheryl Fields

F&ES 896b/EHS 503b, Introduction to Toxicology 3 credits. This course introduces students to the concepts and nomenclature of toxicology. Emphasis is placed on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of foreign toxic materials. The goal is to provide a fundamental understanding of important toxicological principles and their relevance to the more general study of human health. The course utilizes case studies that require students to apply their knowledge of toxicologic concepts and processes to refine issues and solve problems in epidemiology and public health. The course includes two short papers and one student presentation that focus on the importance of general toxicological principles as applied to specific classes and types of toxicants and exposures. Jonathan Borak, Cheryl Fields

F&ES 897b/EHS 508b, Assessing Exposures to Environmental Stressors 3 credits. This course examines human exposure to environmental stressors as it applies to environmental epidemiology and risk assessment. Indirect and direct methods of assessing exposures are reviewed and case studies are presented. Brian Leaderer

[F&ES 898a/EHS 585a, The Environment and Human Health 3 credits. This course provides an overview of the critical relationships between the environment and human health. The class explores the interaction between health and different parts of the environmental system including water, indoor and outdoor air, environmental justice, and occupational health. Other topics include exposure assessment, case studies of environmental health disasters, links between climate change and health, and integration of scientific evidence on environmental health. Students learn about current key topics in environmental health and how to critique and understand scientific studies. The course incorporates lectures and discussion. Michelle Bell]

F&ES 899b, Sustainable Development in Post-Disaster Context: Haiti 3 credits. Sustainable development is studied using the case of Haiti. Haiti suffers from chronic environmental disasters, most notably deforestation that leads to mudslides and therefore crop loss during the rainy season, and acute disasters, for example the earthquake of 2010. F&ES has been asked by L’Hôpital Albert Schweitzer in the Artibonite Valley (north of Port-au-Prince) to provide assistance to projects in villages surrounding the hospital. This course uses lectures, student presentations of scholarly work, project development, and field studies to explore our knowledge of sustainable development and to apply this knowledge. Gordon T. Geballe, Gary Desir

Industrial Ecology, Environmental Planning, and Technology

F&ES 782a/ARCH 4216a/INTS 342, Globalization Space: International Infrastructure and Extrastatecraft 3 credits. The course researches global infrastructure space as a medium of polity. It considers networks of trade, energy, communication, transportation, spatial products, finance, management, and labor as well as new strains of political opportunity that reside within their spatial disposition. Case studies include free zones and automated ports around the world, satellite urbanism in South Asia, high-speed rail in Japan and the Middle East, agripoles in Southern Spain, fiber optic submarine cable and mobile telephony in East Africa, spatial products of tourism in the DPRK, and the standards and management platforms of ISO. Keller Easterling

F&ES 788b, Applied Urban Ecology 3 credits. Ecology is being transformed from a field historically disengaged from the human built environment to one that can provide insight into the understanding, design, and management of the constructed world. Urban ecology is central in this transformation. Urban ecologists are expanding their focus from “ecology in cities,” where they studied urban flora and fauna, to the “ecology of cities,” where they study human-biological interactions while also increasing their attention to the complex interplay among people, society, and environment. This reorientation has also catalyzed action-oriented initiatives. This course examines the current developments in urban ecology and looks at the transformative role it can play in shaping and managing urban environments. To this end, we examine fundamental issues in theory and practice that challenge the current understanding of urban ecosystems and that question the relationship between science and action in urban ecology. We also look at limitations and opportunities for conducting urban ecological research as well as methods specific to urban sites. The course includes fieldwork augmented with an overview of current literature in urban ecology, focusing on issues relating to science, application, advocacy, and contemporary concepts of stewardship. The final project includes an urban ecological design proposal and supporting research paper. Alexander J. Felson

F&ES 881a, FT: Field Experience in Industrial Operations 1 credit. A series of one-day field trips designed to expose students to the various aspects of industrial ecology. In previous years, students have visited waste management facilities, utility providers, product manufacturers, clean tech start-ups, and green consultancies in New England and the surrounding regions. The field trips allow students to gain a better understanding of the concepts and themes of industrial ecology (such as material and process flows, life-cycle assessment, and closed-loop systems) in the context of existing operations. Marian R. Chertow and members of the Industrial Environmental Management and Energy Special Interest Group

F&ES 883b, Advanced Industrial Ecology Seminar: The Energy Industry 3 credits. This seminar examines in a small-course, interactive setting the industrial, technological, and industrial-ecology aspects of the energy industry. Prerequisites: two completed industrial environmental management courses, related energy courses, or related business courses, and/or permission of the instructor. William Ellis

F&ES 884b/ENAS 645b, Industrial Ecology 3 credits. Industrial ecology is an organizing concept that is increasingly applied to define the interactions of today’s technological society with natural and altered environments. Technology and its potential for change are central to this subject, as are implications for government policy and corporate response. The course discusses how industrial ecology serves as an environmentally related framework for technology, policy, and resource management in government and society. Thomas E. Graedel

F&ES 885b/ENAS 660b/360b/ENVE 360b, Green Engineering and Sustainability 3 credits. This hands-on course highlights the key approaches to advancing sustainability through engineering design. The class begins with discussions on sustainability, metrics, general design processes, and challenges to sustainability. The current approach to design, manufacturing, and disposal is discussed in the context of examples and case studies from various sectors. This provides a basis for what and how to consider when designing products, processes, and systems to contribute to furthering sustainability. The fundamental engineering design topics to be addressed include toxicity and benign alternatives, pollution prevention and source reduction, separations and disassembly, material and energy efficiencies and flows, systems analysis, biomimicry, and life cycle design, management, and analysis. Students tackle current engineering and product design challenges in a series of class exercises and a final design project. Paul Anastas

[F&ES 888a/ARCH 4226a, Ecological Urban Design 3 credits. Ecologists are increasingly interested in studying urban systems and have recently moved beyond the traditional focus on “ecology in cities” to “the ecology of cities.” This shift has catalyzed a new discourse in urban ecology, which has given rise to a number of questions: (1) How do we define urban ecosystems? (2) How do we combine science, design, and planning to shape and manage urban ecosystems? (3) How do we implement effective and adaptable experimental and monitoring methods specific to urban sites and human subjects in order to conduct viable urban ecological research? Exploring these questions requires designers and ecologists to achieve more familiarity with each others’ areas of expertise including research methods and the scientific process as well as the design process. This course focuses on the application of urban ecology to the design of cities. The course provides an overview of urban ecology and how designers (School of Architecture) and scientists (F&ES) can work in complementary ways to foster dialogue and integrate ecological research and analysis with city planning and design. The course seeks to reposition urban ecology as a practice focused not only on studying urban ecosystems, but also on a combined effort to study and reshape them. Alexander J. Felson]

F&ES 894a, Green Building: Process, Products, Perspective, and Policy 3 credits. Our built environment shapes the planet, our communities, and each of us. Green building seeks to minimize environmental impacts, strengthen the fabric of our cities and towns, and make our work and home lives more productive and fulfilling. This course is an applied course, exploring both the technical and the social-business-political aspects of buildings. Topics range from building science (hygrothermal performance of building enclosures) to indoor environmental quality; from product certifications to resilience (robust buildings and communities in the face of disasters and extended service outages). The purpose of this course is to build a solid background in the processes and issues related to green buildings, equipping students with practical knowledge about the built environment. Extensive use is made of resources from BuildingGreen, Inc., one of the leading information companies supporting green building and green building professionals. The course is primarily a lecture-discussion one with some fieldwork, substantial emphasis on research and group project work, and online individual testing. The course is strengthened by several guest lectures by leading green building professionals from across the country and across many disciplines: from architecture to material science, from engineering to green building business. The class meets once a week, with the instructor available to students during that same day. Peter Yost

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F&ES Undergraduate Courses


Ecosystem Ecology

F&ES 221/E&EB 230/EVST 221, Field Ecology A field-based introduction to ecological research. Experimental and descriptive approaches, comparative analysis, and modeling are explored through field and small-group projects.

F&ES 277b, Synthesizing Environmental Science for Policy See F&ES 733b for description.

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Biology

[F&ES 315a/E&EB 115a, Conservation Biology An introduction to the basic ecological and evolutionary principles underpinning efforts to conserve the earth’s biodiversity. Efforts to halt the rapid increase in disappearance of both plants and animals. Discussion of sociological and economic issues. Jeffrey Powell]

[F&ES 365a/E&EB 365a, Landscape Ecology See F&ES 500a for description.]

[F&ES 370a/E&EB 370a, Aquatic Ecology See F&ES 738a for description.]


Forest Biology

F&ES 260a, Structure, Function, and Development of Trees and Other Vascular Plants See F&ES 654a for description.

[F&ES 261Lb, Laboratory for Structure, Function, and Development of Trees and Other Vascular Plants]

Physical Sciences

Environmental Chemistry

F&ES 261a/G&G 261a/EVST 261a, Minerals and Human Health Study of the interrelationships between Earth materials and processes and personal and public health. The transposition from the environment of the chemical elements essential for life. Prerequisite: one year of college-level chemistry or permission of the instructor; G&G 110 recommended. Catherine Skinner

[F&ES 307b/EVST 307b, Organic Pollutants in the Environment See F&ES 706b for description.]

F&ES 327a/ENVE 327a/G&G 327a, Atmospheric Chemistry See F&ES 711a for description.

F&ES 344b, Aquatic Chemistry See F&ES 707b for description.

[F&ES 443a, Environmental Chemical Analysis See F&ES 743a for description.]

Water Resources

F&ES 367b/EVST 367b, Water Resources and Environmental Change The effects of variations in the hydrologic cycle on the global distribution of freshwater. The role of environmental change in regulating freshwater supply and quality. The influences of agriculture, industry, mining, urbanization, climate change, and energy-production alternatives on freshwater resources in the United States and abroad. James E. Saiers

[F&ES 440b/EVST 440b, Environmental Hydrology See F&ES 714b for description.]

Quantitative and Research Methods

F&ES 290a/EVST 290a, Geographic Information Systems 3 credits. A practical introduction to the nature and use of both image-based (raster) and drawing-based (vector) geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental science and management. Applied techniques for the acquisition, creation, storage, management, visualization, animation, transformation, analysis, and synthesis of cartographic data in digital form. Two hours lecture, problem sets, one major class project. No previous experience required. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 441a or b/EVST 441a or b/G&G 440a or b/MCDB 441a or b, Methods in Geomicrobiology A laboratory-based course providing interdisciplinary practical training in geomicrobiological methods including microbial enrichment and cultivation techniques; light, epifluorescence, and electron microscopy; and molecular methods (DNA extraction, PCR, T-RFLP, FISH). Prerequisite: college-level chemistry. Ruth Blake

G&G 362b/ARCG 362b/EVST 362b, Observing Earth from Space See F&ES 726b for description.

Social Sciences

Environmental Policy

F&ES 245b, International Environmental Policy and Governance See F&ES 829b for description.

F&ES 255b/EVST 255b/PLSC 215b, Environmental Politics and Law Exploration of the politics, policy, and law associated with attempts to manage environmental quality and natural resources. Themes of democracy, liberty, power, property, equality, causation, and risk are examined. Case histories include air quality, water quality and quantity, pesticides and toxic substances, land use, agriculture and food, parks and protected area, and energy. John P. Wargo

Social and Political Ecology

[F&ES 285b/EVST 285b, Political Ecology: Nature, Culture, and Power Study of the relationship between society and the environment. Global processes of environmental conservation, development, and conflicts over natural resource use; political-economic contexts of environmental change; ways in which understandings of nature are discursively bound up with notions of culture and identity. Amity Doolittle]

F&ES 384a/ANTH 382a/EVST 345a, Environmental Anthropology: From Historic Origins to Current Debates This is an upper-division undergraduate seminar on the history of the anthropological study of the environment. It is organized around a number of key themes in the field, including the nature-culture dichotomy (questioning the dichotomy, the cultural-materialist tradition), ecology and social organization (early essays by Mauss and Steward, beyond Steward, “natural” disasters), methodological debates (defense of swidden, natural science models, the bounded and balanced community), the politics of the environment (indigeneity, campaigns, and collaborations), and knowing the environment (sense of place, limits of knowledge). Each theme is examined through writings that are timely and theoretically important. Readings are grouped to stimulate critical thinking and in-depth discussion about anthropology and the environment. The core text for the course is Environmental Anthropology (Dove and Carpenter, eds., 2007, Wiley-Blackwell), written especially for this course. No prerequisites. Two hours lecture/seminar. Limited enrollment. Carol Carpenter/Michael R. Dove (alternate years)

[F&ES 422a/ANTH 409a/EVST 422a, Anthropology of Climate: Past to Present See F&ES 878a for description.]

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