Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Study Areas and Course Descriptions, 2012–2013

In course titles, a designates fall term, b designates spring term, and c designates summer. [Bracketed courses were not offered in 2012–2013.] The School reserves the right to change the prescribed course of study as necessary.

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Design and Visualization

John Eberhart and Joel Sanders, Study Area Coordinators

This study area encompasses required studios, elective advanced studios, and courses that concentrate on design logic and skills and that support design thinking and representation.

For the M.Arch. I program, required courses in this study area include a core sequence of four design studios, the first-year building project, two advanced studios, a course in formal analysis (1018a), and a four-stage sequence of courses that deal specifically with visualization methodologies. The core studio sequence progresses from spatially abstract exercises to more complex programs that require integrative thinking at various scales and situated on sites of increased complexity, while integrating ecological, landscape, and tectonic demands. In all four stages of the visualization sequence, hand, digital, 2-D, and 3-D methods are explored. The first course (1001c) of this visualization sequence is a summer course required for entering students who have not had significant prior architectural training. The next three courses (1015a, 1016b, and 1017c)—in the fall, spring, and early summer of the first year—are required of all M.Arch. I students.

For the M.Arch. II program, required courses in this study area include a core design studio (1061a), three advanced studios, and a course in computation analysis and fabrication (1062a).

Required Courses

1001c, Visualization I: Observation and Representation 0 credits. (Required of incoming M.Arch. I students with little or no academic background in architecture.) This summer course is an intensive, five-week immersion into the language of architectural representation and visualization, offering a shared inventory and basic framework upon which to build subsequent studies. Students are introduced to techniques and conventions for describing the space and substance of buildings and urban environments, including orthographic drawing, axonometric projection, perspective, architectural diagramming, vignette sketching, and physical modeling. Students work in freehand, hard-line, and digital formats. In parallel to the visualization portion of this course, an introduction to architectural history and theory focusing on principal turning points of thought and practice through to the nineteenth century is presented. George Knight, coordinator; Joyce Hsiang, Kyle Dugdale

1011a, Architectural Design 6 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, fall term.) This studio is the first of four core design studios where beginning students bring to the School a wide range of experience and background. Exercises introduce the complexity of architectural design by engaging problems that are limited in scale but not in the issues they provoke. Experiential, social, and material concerns are introduced together with formal and conceptual issues. Ben Pell, coordinator; Sunil Bald, Brennan Buck, Joyce Hsiang, Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen, Maura Rockcastle

1012b, Architectural Design 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, spring term.) This second core studio explores inhabitation through the design of the architecture and detail of enclosure, structure, circulation, and the habitable space it produces. The work of the term focuses on the simultaneous relationship of a body to both interior and exterior environments, and their mediation by the material assemblies of building. With an initial focus on the conception and production of a singular interior space, a sequence of projects gives way to increasing physical and spatial complexity by requiring students to investigate—at close range and in intimate detail—issues of structure and enclosure, organization and circulation, urban site and climate. This work forms the conceptual background for the work in the latter half of the term—the collaborative design and construction of the Building Project, an affordable house for a nonprofit developer in New Haven. Prerequisite: 1011a. Alan Organschi, coordinator; Paul Brouard, Katherine Davies, Peter de Bretteville, Adam Hopfner, Amy Lelyveld, Joeb Moore, Herbert Newman

1013c, Building Project 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, early summer.) This course examines the materialization of a building, whereby students are required to physically participate in the construction of a structure that they have designed. By engaging in the act of making, students are exposed to the material, procedural, and technical demands that shape architecture. Construction documents are generated and subsequently put to the test in the field. Students engage in collaboration with each other, and with a client, as they reconcile budgetary, scheduling, and labor constraints, and negotiate myriad regulatory, political, and community agencies. The course seeks to demonstrate the multiplicity of forces that come to influence the execution of an architectural intention, all the while fostering an architecture of social responsibility, providing structures for an underserved and marginalized segment of the community. For 2012 students enrolled in this course were required to work on the project from April 23 through June 22. For more information, see the section on the Building Project on the Web: www.architecture.yale.edu. Prerequisites: 1011a, 1012b. Adam Hopfner, director; Paul Brouard, Avram Forman

1015a, Visualization II: Form and Representation 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, fall term. No waivers allowed.) This course investigates drawing as a means of architectural communication and as a generative instrument of formal, spatial, and tectonic discovery. Principles of two- and three-dimensional geometry are extensively studied through a series of exercises that employ freehand and constructive techniques. Students work fluidly between manual drawing, computer drawing, and material construction. All exercises are designed to enhance the ability to visualize architectural form and volume three-dimensionally, understand its structural foundations, and provide tools that reinforce and inform the design process. Sunil Bald, Kent Bloomer

1016b, Visualization III: Fabrication and Assembly 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, spring term. No waivers allowed.) This course provides an introduction to the key relationships that exist among methods of drawing, physical materials, technologies of construction, and three-dimensional form making. The material and formal sensibilities developed in 1015a, Visualization II, are mined to explore drawing as a tool leading to full-scale fabrication. The generation of form through both manual and digital methods is tested through materials and technologies of fabrication. Additive and subtractive processes, repetition and mass production, and building information modeling (BIM) are introduced as tools for assembly. “Assembly” is framed as both full-scale object and “three-dimensional” analog. Exercises and workshops provide students the opportunity to work physically with a wide variety of tools and materials as well as digitally with emerging computer-driven technologies. In this course conceived as a supplement to 1013b, Building Project, students integrate drawing and model-making to develop and propose a construction that can be experienced at the human scale and be understood as an integrated architectural element. Prerequisite: 1015a. John Eberhart, Ben Pell

1017c, Visualization IV: Processing and Presentation 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, early summer. No waivers allowed.) This seven-week, intensive course introduces Building Information Modeling (BIM) alongside manual drawing to expand each student’s analytical and expressive repertoire. Fundamental techniques are introduced through short exercises and workshops leading toward a sustained study of an exemplary precedent building. Quantitative analysis is pursued through both assembly modeling and visual dissection of both the programmatic spaces and functional elements. Observational and imaginative manual drawings allow for a reconstruction of the design process and reestablish the thought patterns that formed the building’s design priorities. These discoveries then are re-presented through interactive, multimedia presentations to describe the building assembly and its design ambitions. For 2013 the course was taught from May 13 until June 28. Prerequisites: 1015a, 1016b. John Blood, John Eberhart

1018a, Formal Analysis 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, fall term; available as an elective for M.Arch. II and M.E.D. students.) This course studies the object of architecture—canonical buildings in the history of architecture—not through the lens of reaction and nostalgia but through a filter of contemporary thought. The emphasis is on learning how to see and to think architecture by a method that can be loosely called “formal analysis.” The analyses move through history and conclude with examples of high modernism and postmodernism. Reading assignments and one formal analysis are assigned each week. Peter Eisenman

1021a, Architectural Design 6 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I second year, fall term.) This third core studio concentrates on a medium-scale institutional building, focusing on the integration of composition, site, program, mass, and form in relation to structure, and methods of construction. Interior spaces are studied in detail. Large-scale models and drawings are developed to explore design issues. Prerequisites: 1011a, 1012b. Mark Foster Gage, coordinator; Peter de Bretteville, Martin Finio, Mimi Hoang, M.J. Long, Michael Young

1022b, Architectural Design 6 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I second year, spring term.) This fourth core studio, an introduction to the planning and architecture of cities, concerns two distinct scales of operation: that of neighborhood and that of the dwellings and the institutional and commercial building types that typically contribute to neighborhood. Issues of community, group form, and the public realm, as well as the formation of public space, blocks, streets, and squares are emphasized. The studio is organized to follow a distinct design methodology, which begins with the study of context and precedents. It postulates that new architecture can be made as a continuation and extension of normative urban structure and building typologies. Prerequisites: 1011a, 1012b, 1021a. Edward Mitchell, coordinator; Peggy Deamer, Makram el Kadi, Alexander Felson, Jennifer Leung, Bimal Mendis

1061a, Post-Professional Design Studio 9 credits. (Required in and limited to M.Arch. II first year, fall term.) This studio is specially designed for incoming post-professional students to introduce them to the School’s educational program and faculty. Each student is given the opportunity to examine in depth a sequence of design problems. Fred Koetter, Edward Mitchell, Aniket Shahane

1062a, Computation Analysis Fabrication 3 credits. (Required in and limited to M.Arch. II first year, fall term.) This course investigates and applies emerging computational theories and technologies through the design and fabrication of a full-scale building component and/or assembly. This investigation includes various static, parametric, and scripted modeling paradigms, computational-based structural and sustainability analysis, and digital fabrication technologies. Students work in pairs to design, analyze, and fabricate a full-scale constructed piece. John Eberhart

Advanced Design Studios (Fall)

Advanced studios are limited in enrollment. Selection for studios is determined by lottery.

1101a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Tod Williams and Billie Tsien, Davenport Visiting Professors

1102a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Diana Balmori, Bishop Visiting Professor, and Joel Sanders

1103a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Róisín Heneghan and Shih-Fu Peng, Kahn Visiting Professors

1104a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Gregg Pasquarelli, Saarinen Visiting Professor

1105a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. John Patkau, Foster Visiting Professor

1106a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Peter Eisenman, Gwathmey Professor in Practice

1107a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Tom Wiscombe, Kahn Visiting Assistant Professor

1108a, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Alan Plattus

Advanced Design Studios (Spring)

Advanced studios are limited in enrollment. Selection for studios is determined by lottery.

1111b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Greg Lynn, Davenport Visiting Professor

1112b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Pier Vittorio Aureli, Davenport Visiting Professor

1113b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Thomas Beeby, Bishop Visiting Professor

1114b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Leon Krier, Kahn Visiting Professor

1115b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Angelo Bucci, Saarinen Visiting Professor

1116b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Zaha Hadid, Foster Visiting Professor

1117b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Adib Cure and Carie Penabad, Kahn Visiting Assistant Professors

1118b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Keller Easterling

1119b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Alexander Garvin and Kevin D. Gray; Isaac Kalisvaart, Bass Distinguished Visiting Architecture Fellow

1120b, Advanced Design Studio 9 credits. Sunil Bald

1199b, Thesis 9 credits. Proposals for the Thesis option must be submitted for review and approval by the Design and Rules Committees by the Friday of Jury Week for the preceding spring term. Proposals must include an abstract, a proposal, a bibliography, a proposed schedule and adviser, a methodology statement, and the student’s current portfolio. Students with approved proposals can take an Independent Study with an instructor of choice in the fall term as thesis preparation. Keller Easterling, coordinator

Elective Courses

1211a, Drawing and Architectural Form 3 credits. This course examines the historical and theoretical development of descriptive geometry and perspective through the practice of rigorous constructed architectural drawings. The methods and concepts studied serve as a foundation for the development of drawings that interrogate the relationship between a drawing’s production and its conceptual objectives. Ultimately, the goal is to engage in a larger dialogue about the practice of drawing and spatial inquiry. Weekly readings, discussions, lectures, and drawing exercises investigate the work of key figures, such as Brunelleschi, Girard Desargues, Piero della Francesca, and Brook Taylor, in the development of orthographic and three-dimensional projection. After midterm, the course takes a more experimental approach, and students interrogate the relationship between manual and digital practice. Limited enrollment. Victor Agran

1213b, Architecture and Books 3 credits. For architects, the book has been a necessary (if not essential) tool for clarifying, extending, and promoting their ideas and projects. This seminar examines the phenomenon of the book in architecture as both an array of organizational techniques (what it is) and as a mediator (what it does). Arguably, outside of building itself, the book has been the preferred mode of discourse that architects have chosen to express their intellectual project. Because lasting impression relies partially upon durability of message, the book remains the objet par excellence among media. In addition, the book finds itself in a privileged position as an instrument of discourse. Through case studies, the first portion of this seminar examines the relationship book production has with a selection of contemporary and historical practices, including each project’s physical and conceptual composition as well as how each project acts as an agent of the architect within a larger world of communication. The second part of the seminar asks students to apply ideas in a series of three book projects. Limited enrollment. Luke Bulman

[1214a, Architectural Form 3 credits. The seminar explores the issue of Formalism as defined by writers, artists, and architects after World War II. Topics include Minimalism, Neo-Constructivism, Deconstructivism, neo-organicism, field theory, and the political aspects of form. Readings include Adorno, Greenberg, Krauss, Eisenman, Smithson, Morris, Wigley, Kipnis, and Allen. Students are expected to formulate a formal thesis in written form by curating an exhibit and writing a catalogue that justifies their choices in terms of both technique and effect. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Edward Mitchell]

[1215b, Inner Worlds: From Phenomenology to Sensation 3 credits. Since the eighteenth century, the architectural interior has been directly associated with subjectivity; an inner world bound up with psychological content—moods, sensations, and affects. After the exterior­izing treatments of universal space and the banality of Junk Space, architects interested in a post-linguistic set of effects or constrained by tighter economic conditions are reconsidering the potential of interior as a carefully curated alternate universe. Often left underdeveloped or unconsidered by architects, the design of the interior is peripheral to logics of construction, organization, and urbanism. This seminar attempts to establish a set of criteria with which to approach the design of interior spaces, by examining the transition within architectural discourse from phenomenology to sensation. Commonalities and differences between the two are discussed in the context of art, architecture, and philosophy and against the emerging neurological understanding of how the brain and the body parse aesthetic input. Given this context, students fabricate physical speculations on the contemporary interior by working through form, material, color, and pattern at 1:1 scale. Students exploit the inherent complexity of material fabrication to develop full-scale interior surfaces that produce specific and richly affective interior environments. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Brennan Buck]

1216b, Ornament Theory and Design 3 credits. This seminar reviews the major writings governing the identities of and distinctions between ornament and decoration in architecture, e.g., Owen Jones, Riegl, Sullivan, Goodhue, etc. Modernist actions against ornament are also examined. After individual student analysis of Victorian and art nouveau production, the focus is on the designing of ornament in twenty-first-century culture. Readings, exercises, individual final projects, and a portfolio are required. Limited enrollment. Kent Bloomer

[1218b, Furniture Design and Manufacture 3 credits. The final product of this design class is a finished, working, full-scale piece of furniture, related to mass production manufacturing processes. This work is also to be understood as a part of the set of courses addressing the role that the direct consideration of materials contributes to architectural design. The required materials, sequences, and programs emerge from an effort to relate the work of this class to questions of process and materiality in architecture more generally. So the attitude toward materials and their assembly should be prejudiced toward those that to some extent mimic architecture. The emphasis is on common materials joined and formed using contemporary methods and processes to serve unique purposes in unusual contexts and adapted to new programs. Admission to this course is by permission of the instructor based upon a preliminary project proposal and prior experience. Prerequisites: 1015a and 1016b. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Peter de Bretteville]

[1220a, On the Face of It: Computation and the Facade 3 credits. This seminar examines the reemerging concern with architectural representation through the discourse of geometry and computation. The building facade is the site of both performance (structural, environmental, and organizational) and politics (transparency, permeability, and fenestration). It orchestrates the building’s spatial relationships as well as engages with its social context. This seminar proposes that as architects have begun to engage with hands-on information processing, a set of sensibilities have simultaneously emerged that open up alternate modes of faciality. The dense pattern and expressed joints common to many contemporary building skins perform at multiple scales and orientations beyond front-to-back or top-to-bottom. Varying aggregations of panels and components produce relationships between the part and the whole, the one and the many, the individual and larger social structures. Initially, the contemporary state of the facade is established by examining its historical evolution and associated meanings in relation to theories of perception, representation, and figuration. Students are asked to consider the facade from the exterior as image and from the interior as performative skin. By synthesizing these two agendas and by using the Grasshopper scripting interface (tutorials and consultation throughout the term are provided—no experience or particular software facility is necessary), students redesign the facade of an existing building, reconstituting both its performance as an environment and physical barrier and its presence as a graphic surface in the city. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Brennan Buck]

1222b, Diagrammatic Analysis: Criticality after the Index 3 credits. While formal analysis is sufficient to understand the genesis of historical buildings up until the French Revolution, that approach is no longer sufficient to understand the complexity of contemporary work, which, despite formal moments, introduces new relationships. This seminar is intended to explore analytic methods that provide an understanding of the complexities of current architectural production. This seminar focuses on historical projects, such as Piranesi’s Campo Marzio, the modern architecture of Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, and contemporary buildings by OMA/Rem Koolhaas, Herzog and de Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Alejandro Zaera-Polo, and others. Students are required to produce weekly drawings and participate in reading discussions. Limited enrollment. Peter Eisenman

1224a, The Chair 3 credits. The chair has been a crucible for architectural ideas and their design throughout the trajectory of modern architecture. The chair is both a model for understanding architecture and a laboratory for the concise expression of idea, material, fabrication, and form. As individual as its authors, the chair provides a medium that is a controllable minimum structure, ripe for material and conceptual experiments. In this seminar, students develop their design and fabrication skills through exploration of the conceptual, aesthetic, and structural issues involved in the design and construction of a full-scale prototype chair. Limited enrollment. Timothy Newton

[1226b, Site + Building 3 credits. This seminar investigates buildings and their sites. Conceived as a vehicle for understanding the relationship between site and building through critical analysis, the course examines ancient, historic, and contemporary works of architecture and landscape architecture. Material includes works by Hadrian, Diocletian, Michelangelo, Raphael, Palladio, Durand, Schinkel, Lutyens, Asplund, Aalto, Wright, Mies, Kahn, Neutra, Saarinen, Scarpa, Bawa, Krier, Eisenman, Ando, and Gehry. The seminar focuses on site organization strategies and philosophies of site manipulation in terms of topography; urban, suburban, and rural context; ecology; typology; spectacle; and other form-giving imperatives. Methods of site plan representation are also scrutinized. Requirements include three significant readings, one major class presentation, and the keeping of individual class notebooks. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Steven Harris]

[1227b, Drawing Projects 3 credits. Each student admitted to the course comes prepared with a particular subject that is investigated through the media of drawing for the entire term. There is a weekly evening pin-up with group discussion of the work in progress. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Turner Brooks]

1228b, Disheveled Geometries: Toward a New Rustication in Architecture 3 credits. From the Latin rusticationem, and originally defining an unsophisticated rural mentality, the term rustication is used to describe architecture’s most extreme category of surface textures. If, historically, architectural rustication was seen as a less refined manner of shaping material that subsequently retained a rough texture, then the twenty-first-century condition would be the exact reverse. Rustication now takes more effort rather than less, and skill is measured in moving away from architectural smoothness instead of toward it. With the ability to parametrically, algorithmically, and fractally manage matter at increasingly small scales of resolution, this seminar revisits the topic of rustication, where architects design unapologetically contemporary textures that might act in the service of everything from wind dispersal, shading, insulation, water shedding, grip, power generation, physical defense, or pure aesthetic effect. Students study methods of rustication throughout history and use this research as a foundation to design and produce large-scale prototypes. Past seminars dealt with strategies involving carving textures from large homogeneous masses and strategies of complex folding, contouring, aggregation, interlocking, and effects involving new readings between texture and color. This year’s seminar focuses on membranes formed from, and of, a variety of experimental synthetic and biological sources. Students are expected to produce original work that operates at the forefront of the profession, and, accordingly, do research to locate their own work relative to that of a select group of contemporary experimental practitioners. Limited enrollment. Mark Foster Gage

[1229b, Display and Fabrication 3 credits. This seminar proposes the apparatus of display as a site for architectural investigation. Beginning with a brief survey of the history of display culture—from the development of the public museum and the department store in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to more recent interest in mechanisms of vision and surveillance—the seminar examines the changing role and increased visibility of the apparatus in defining the relationships between observer and observed in various contemporary contexts of display. At the center of this discussion is the nature of the device itself and its potential to both mediate and generate content in ways particular to small-scale and temporary installations. These issues are discussed through weekly readings and case study analyses and explored at full scale through the ongoing design and critique of display prototypes. Students develop strategies of production, material effect, and interaction to identify ways in which the flexibility of digital fabrication can enable a new engagement with conditions of excess, such as decoration and affect, that would have been previously stripped away from systems of display based on standardized production. The course culminates in a final design project and presentation. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Ben Pell]

1230a, Patternism: Computation and Contemporary Continuity 3 credits. Over the last two decades, digital form has energized Modernism’s neutral field to produce undulating surfaces tense with potential energy. Topological surfaces, deployed at an architectural scale, define spaces of constantly shifting size, proportion, and orientation. These surfaces are enabled by calculus rather than geometry and are characterized by vectors and flows more than stable points and planes. This seminar proposes that a formalism combining the continuity of topological surfaces and the articulation of tectonics, enabled by the precise modulation of computation, might catalyze a more diverse mode of formal continuity: pattern. After briefly establishing a theoretical foundation, the seminar focuses on exploiting the full potential of Grasshopper software. First through the lens of material flow (structural loads) and then through spatial experience, poles of repetition/redundancy/continuity on one hand and stocasticity/variation on the other hand are explored. By modulating the relationships between objects and spaces, the seminar investigates multilevel structural and spatial hierarchies—hierarchies of position, scale, and connection—while maintaining what Gregory Bateson called the great aesthetic unity that patterns produce. Limited enrollment. Brennan Buck

1231b, Assembly 3 credits. Digital fabrication has been theorized by Greg Lynn, Mario Carpo, Bernard Cache, and others as paradigmatic of both digital technology and contemporary commercial culture. This seminar focuses on the capacity digital fabrication opens up for architects to directly engage with manufacturing and construction techniques, to integrate fabricated mockups and material studies into the design process, and to gain greater control over the resultant construction. Using the collective design, production, and assembly of a full-scale pavilion sited on New Haven’s Green as the seminar’s framework, the course begins with a critical evaluation of the discourse surrounding digital fabrication and an intensive examination of a specific building material and its inherent physical properties and fabrication capabilities. Students individually produce design prototypes that by midterm inform a final collaborative design. The project is then developed through component fabrication and assembly studies during the second half of the term. The pavilion is finally produced in-house and assembled on the New Haven Green in May. Limited enrollment. Brennan Buck

1232a, Graphic Inquiry 3 credits. This seminar examines how architects might use a wider array of communication processes—from text to image, from moving image to network and beyond—to describe, develop, and release their ideas strategically. The inquiry includes, but goes beyond, graphic tools to explore alternate models of knowledge creation; it is akin to research but is more open-ended in terms of its methodologies and possible outcomes. Architecture in this sense is seen in the context of a wide variety of other subjects. This seminar is structured in three parts, each one looking at a different communication medium and its effects: moving image, printed pamphlet, and a single surface/function web graphic. Each of these media implies different ideas of duration, attention, audience, and distribution and is explored through a series of activities: illustrated talks, readings, precedent studies, and three projects developed by each student. Limited enrollment. Luke Bulman

1233a, Composition 3 credits. Through four short analyses and design projects, this seminar addresses issues of composition as it is manifest in three dimensions, in certain proportions, and in organizations both formal and programmatic. The four projects are based on building form, the assembly of campus-scale buildings, elevations, and building organization in plan and section. Students are asked to describe and explore explicit design intentions that form the basis of a complete design proposal. Each project involves a brief analysis of two exemplary buildings followed by the adaptation of one of the strategies to a schematic design. A final, mostly graphic report, intended to be a sort of manual for the future, summarizes the projects. Limited enrollment. Peter de Bretteville

1234a, Design Reconnaissance 3 credits. In the past decade, architectural design has become increasingly reliant on the limited form-making tools offered in standardized architectural software packages. In order to overcome such limitations, this seminar seeks to propose a new model of design research—that of the reconnaissance mission, not into physical territories but rather into other disciplines of design. The sole purpose of such research is to discover innovative methods for creating, manipulating, and fabricating new genres of form for potential use in architecture. Students undertake individually focused research on the digital tools and related expertise used in industries such as automobile styling, 3-D graphic design, sailboat design, mechanical engineering, and product design. Students research design methods and tools specific to these disciplines and convert this newfound expertise into a series of self-determined, small-scale, architectural design exercises. Experts in these tools and designers from these disciplines participate in the seminar throughout the term. Limited enrollment. Mark Foster Gage

1235b, Parts Is Parts: Component Production in Contemporary Architecture 3 credits. This seminar examines the component nature of architectural production, specifically at the interface between the customarily distinct practices of fabrication and construction. Looking at a range of historical and contemporary examples, the seminar explores ways in which constructional techniques and typologies have been both restricted and propelled by limitations of scale—often provoking new directions in design technique and production technology. Readings and case studies in the first half of the term are used to outline the history and theories of modern production practices, from 1851 to the present, and serve as the basis for a series of material studies to be produced at full scale. The course culminates in a final design project and presentation. Limited enrollment. Ben Pell

1236a, Meta-Assemblies: Squished and Embedded Surfaces 3 credits. Contemporary discourse on surface in architecture has become polarized between baroque aesthetic sensibilities, in which affect and composition are drivers, and performative approaches that deal with the societal function and instrumentalization of surface. This discourse has threads leading back to the mid-nineteenth century, when Darwin’s radical notion of natural selection invigorated the discussion of the relationship between ornament and function in human culture and architecture as well as in the wild. The debate of the close or loose relationship between aesthetics and performance, then as now, constitutes an intellectual battlefield. This seminar studies how composite, multi-material, and multilayer surfaces can exceed the polarity between technology and ornament. Conventional assemblies, characterized by stacked systems and trade specialization, are questioned in favor of meta-assemblies produced by squishing, embedding, and delaminating. Super-thin energy, lighting, and composite structural systems are blended with systems of formal and graphic articulation, with emphasis on the ability of the whole to exceed the parts and appear effortless. Study of historical precedents, research into thin-film building systems, and graphic and formal studies in Maya and ZBrush create a foundation for the production of physical prototypes. Students must situate their project in terms of the contemporary discussion of surface as well as in terms of the aesthetic and tectonic implications of meta-assemblies. Limited enrollment. Tom Wiscombe

1291c, Rome: Continuity and Change 3 credits. (Open only to M.Arch. I second-year and M.Arch. II first-year students.) This intensive five-week summer workshop takes place in Rome and is designed to provide a broad overview of that city’s major architectural sites, topography, and systems of urban organization. Examples from antiquity to the present day are studied as part of the context of an ever-changing city with its sequence of layered accretions. The seminar examines historical continuity and change as well as the ways in which and the reasons why some elements and approaches were maintained over time and others abandoned. Hand drawing is used as a primary tool of discovery during explorations of buildings, landscapes, and gardens, both within and outside the city. Students devote the final week to an intensive independent analysis of a building or place. M.Arch. I students are eligible to enroll in this course after completing at least three terms. Limited enrollment. Stephen Harby, Bimal Mendis, Alexander Purves

1299a or b, Independent Course Work 3 or 6 credits. Program to be determined with a faculty adviser of the student’s choice and submitted, with the endorsement of the study area coordinator, to the Rules Committee for confirmation of the student’s eligibility under the rules. (See the School’s Academic Rules and Regulations.)

The following courses offered elsewhere in the University may be taken for credit with permission of the instructor.

ART 110a, Sculpture Basics The concepts of space, form, weight, mass, and design in sculpture are explored and applied through basic techniques of construction and material. Various techniques of gluing and fastening, mass/weight distribution, hanging/mounting, surface/finishing, and types of materials are addressed. In addition to the hands-on application of sculptural techniques, class time is spent looking at various concepts and approaches to the understanding and development of sculptural ideas, from sculpture as a unified object to sculpture as fragmentary process. Selected readings complement the studio work. An introduction and orientation to the wood shop and metal facilities is covered. The shops and the classroom studio are available during days and evenings throughout the week. This course is recommended before advancement into Art 120a, 121b, 122a, or 125a. Enrollment limited to twelve. Materials fee: $75. Carolyn Salas and faculty

ART 111a or b, Visual Thinking An introduction to the language of visual expression, using studio projects to explore the fundamental principles of visual art. Students acquire a working knowledge of visual syntax applicable to the study of art history and popular culture, as well as art. Projects address all four major concentrations (graphic design, painting/printmaking, photography, sculpture). No prior drawing experience necessary. Materials fee: $25. Anna Betbeze, Anahita Vossoughi

ART 114a or b, Basic Drawing An introduction to drawing, emphasizing articulation of space and pictorial syntax. Class work is based on observational study. Assigned projects address fundamental technical and conceptual problems suggested by historical and recent artistic practice. No prior drawing experience necessary. Materials fee: $25. Anna Betbeze, Marie Lorenz, Samuel Messer, Robert J. Reed, Jr., William Villalongo, Natalie Westbrook, and faculty

ART 116b, Color Study of the interaction of color, ranging from fundamental problem solving to individually initiated expression. The collage process is used for most class assignments. Materials fee: $25. Anna Betbeze

ART 120a, Introductory Sculpture: Working with Wood The focus of this course is on understanding wood technology and using machines and hand tools in the context of the studio. Students are introduced to the range of what sculpture might be. Assignments are designed to foster hands-on appreciation of materials and craftsmanship, as well as initiate awareness of the aesthetic and political implications of handmade objects in a digital world. Attention is paid throughout the course to understanding and articulating form in space, and to helping students develop personal ways of working alongside, and in response to, current issues in contemporary sculpture. Group discussions and presentations complement the studio work. The shops and the studio are available during class time and during days and evenings throughout the week. Enrollment limited to twelve. Materials fee: $75. Julian Gilbert-Davis

ART 121b, Introductory Sculpture: Working with Metal This course, focused on learning how to work with metal, introduces students to the range of what sculpture might be and explores creative approaches to perception, making, and critical analysis. Assignments are designed to foster hands-on appreciation of materials and craftsmanship, as well as initiate awareness of the aesthetic and political implications of handmade objects in a digital world. Attention is paid throughout the course to understanding and articulating form in space, and to helping students develop personal ways of working alongside, and in response to, current issues in contemporary sculpture. Group discussions and presentations complement the studio work. The shops and the studio are available during class time and during days and evenings throughout the week. Enrollment limited to twelve. Materials fee: $75. Brent Howard

ART 122a, Introductory Sculpture: Alternate Mediums An exploration of how digital tools can inform the production of three-dimensional objects. The course includes workshops focused on digital photography, including digital RAW photography, video, editing, basic lighting, color correction, and ink-jet printing. The class also introduces students to some basic woodworking and welding. Students develop projects in response to assignments focused on the intersection of digital processes with a variety of different materials and subjects. Enrollment limited. Materials fee: $150. Sandra Burns

ART 125a, Mold Making and Casting This course offers instruction in the practical aspects of mold making and casting in a variety of materials and techniques. The objective is to provide students with the principles of this traditional technology and infuse these techniques into their practice and creation of sculpture. A foundation in how objects around us are reproduced is essential for the modern sculptor in a culture of mass production. Contemporary issues of art and culture are also discussed. Students are introduced to four major types of molding techniques: waste molds, piece molds, life casts, and flexible molds. Materials fee: $75. Carolyn Salas

ART 130a or b, Painting Basics An introduction to painting issues, stressing a beginning command of the conventions of pictorial space and the language of color. Class assignments and individual projects explore technical, conceptual, and historical issues central to the language of painting. Materials fee: $75. Anna Betbeze, Natalie Westbrook

ART 132a or b, Introductory Graphic Design A studio introduction to visual communication with an emphasis on principles of the visual organization of design elements as a means to transmit meaning and values. Topics include shape, color, visual hierarchy, word/image relationships, typography, symbol design, and persuasion. Development of a verbal and visual vocabulary to discuss and critique the designed world and contribute significant projects to it. Materials fee: $150. Yeju Choi, Henk van Assen

ART 210b, Sculpture as Object Introduction to concepts of design and form in sculpture. Exploration of the use of wood, including both modern and traditional methods of carving, lamination, assemblage, and finishing. Fundamentals of metal processes such as welding, cutting, grinding, and finishing may also be explored on a limited basis. Group discussion complements the studio work. The shops and the studio are available during days and evenings throughout the week. Enrollment limited to twelve. Materials fee: $75. Michelle Lopez

ART 345a and 346b, Intermediate Sculpture In this course students continue to work in response to assignments. These assignments are designed to provide further investigation into the history of making and thinking in sculpture and to raise questions pertinent to contemporary art. The opportunity exists to explore new techniques and materials while honing familiar skills. This course is designed to help students become self-directed in their work. Individual and group discussion, and visits to museums and galleries, play a significant role. Enrollment limited to twelve. Materials fee: $75. Prerequisite: Art 120a, 121b, 122a, or equivalent, or permission of the instructor. Julian Gilbert-Davis, Brent Howard

ART 355b, Silkscreen Printing This course presents a range of techniques in silkscreen and photo-silkscreen, from handcut stencils to prints using four-color separation. Students create individual projects in a workshop environment. Materials fee: $150. Prerequisite: Art 114a or b or equivalent. Open to graduate students. Marie Lorenz

ART 356a, Printmaking Instruction in a diverse range of printmaking media. Students develop work in linocut, woodcut, collograph, drypoint, and etching. Both color and black-and-white printing methods are explored. Materials fee: $150. Prerequisite: Art 114a or b or equivalent. Open to graduate students. Marie Lorenz

ART 445a and 446b, Advanced Sculpture This course provides the opportunity for a program of self-directed work in sculpture. Group discussion of student projects, and readings, slides, and video that address current art practice, are core to this class. Regular individual and group critiques monitor the progress of each independent project. Enrollment limited to twelve. Open to graduate students. Materials fee: $75. Prerequisite: Art 345a or 346b or equivalent, or permission of the instructor. Michael Queenland and faculty

DRAM 102a/b, Scene Design An introduction for all non-design students to the aesthetics and the process of scenic design through critique and discussion of weekly projects. Emphasis is given to the examination of the text and the action of the play, the formulation of design ideas, the visual expression of the ideas, and especially the collaboration with directors and all other designers. Three hours a week. Open to nondepartmental and non-School of Drama students with prior permission of the instructor. Ming Cho Lee, Michael Yeargan

DRAM 112a/b, Scene Design: Background and Practice An introductory course for all designers in conjunction with DRAM 102a/b. Ming Cho Lee, Michael Yeargan

DRAM 129b, History of Theater Architecture A survey of European and American theater architecture as it relates to cultural and technological changes through time. This course uses the writings of current and past authorities on such subjects as acoustics, space layout, and decoration to illustrate and evaluate these buildings’ many variations. Two hours a week. Open to nondepartmental and non-School of Drama students with prior permission of the instructor. Alan Hendrickson

DRAM 132a, Advanced Problems in Scene Design Criticism of design problems for plays, musicals, ballet, and opera. This course continues the work started in DRAM 112a/b, carrying it a step further and focusing on design realization. Prerequisite: DRAM 112a/b. Two hours a week. Ming Cho Lee, Michael Yeargan

  • MGT 828b, Creativity and Innovation Jonathan S. Feinstein

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Technology and Practice

Michelle Addington and Kyoung Sun Moon, Study Area Coordinators

This study area explores fundamental theories and methods of building technologies and the relationships among these technologies, architectural design, and the larger natural environment. Courses examine materials, construction, structural systems, and the environmental technologies that provide healthy, productive, sustainable, and comfortable environments. This area also covers professional practice and examines the relationship between methods of construction, procurement, and management. Advanced courses investigate specific technical systems in greater detail, survey emerging methods and technologies, and explore the relationship between building technologies and architectural design in current practice and writings.

For the M.Arch. I program, requirements in this study area include six courses that survey common technical systems used in buildings and integrate the consideration of these technical systems into architectural design through a series of projects of increasing complexity. In addition, there is a required course on architectural practice.

Required Courses

2011a, Structures I 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, fall term.) An introduction to the analysis and design of building structural systems and the evolution and impact of these systems on architectural form. Lectures and homework assignments cover structural classifications, fundamental principles of mechanics, computational methods, and the behavior and case studies of truss, cable, arch, and simple framework systems. Discussion sections explore the applications of structural theory to the design of wood and steel systems for gravity loads through laboratory and computational exercises and design projects. Homework, design projects, and midterm and final examinations are required. Kyoung Sun Moon

2012b, Structures II 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, spring term.) This course is a continuation of introductory analysis and design of building structural systems. The course introduces materials and design methods of timber, steel, and reinforced concrete. Structural behavior, ductility concepts, movement, and failure modes are emphasized. Geometric properties of structural shapes, resistances to stresses, serviceability, column analysis, stability, seismic, wind load, and lateral force resisting systems are presented. Homework involves calculations, descriptive analysis, and the building and testing of structural models. Midterm and final examinations are required. Prerequisite: 2011a. Kyoung Sun Moon

2015b, Building Technology 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first-year, spring term.) This course examines the role of material and procedure in the formation of architecture and the physical, logistical, and environmental constraints and demands that shape the processes of construction. In the first half of the term, a sequence of lectures surveys the conceptual concerns and technological factors of building: the origin and processing of the major classes of building materials; their physical properties, capacities, and vulnerabilities to physical and environmental stressors; the techniques used to work those materials; and the principles, procedures, and details of building assembly. Corresponding construction examples and case studies of mid-scale public buildings introduce students to the exigencies that so often influence decision making in the technical process and inflect (and potentially enrich) design intention—regulatory requirement, physical and environmental stress and constraint, procedural complication, labor and material availability and quality, energy consumption, and ecological impact. After spring recess and in coordination with the studio design phase of the Building Project, the course turns to the detailed study of light wood-frame construction. Five lectures with practical exercises track the stages of construction of the single-family house and supplement ongoing design development of the Building Project house. In both its direct technical application to the work in the studio and its exploration of more general themes in current construction practice, the course seeks to illuminate the ecological considerations as well as the materials, means, and methods that are fundamental to the conception and execution of contemporary building. Adam Hopfner, Alan Organschi

2021a, Environmental Design 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch I second year, fall term.) This course examines the fundamental scientific principles governing the thermal, luminous, and acoustic environments of buildings, and introduces students to the methods and technologies for creating and controlling the interior environment. Beginning with an overview of the Laws of Thermodynamics and the principles of Heat Transfer, the course investigates the application of these principles in the determination of building behavior, and explores the design variables, including climate, for mitigating that behavior. The basic characteristics of HVAC systems are discussed, as are alternative systems such as natural ventilation. The second half of the term draws on the basic laws of physics for optics and sound and examines the application of these laws in creating the visual and auditory environments of a building. Material properties are explored in detail, and students are exposed to the various technologies for producing and controlling light, from daylighting to fiber optics. The overarching premise of the course is that the understanding and application of the physical principles by the architect must respond to and address the larger issues surrounding energy and the environment at multiple scales and in domains beyond a single building. The course is presented in a lecture format. Homework, computational labs, design projects, short quizzes, and a final exam are required. Michelle Addington

2022b, Systems Integration and Development in Design 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I second year, spring term.) This course is an integrated workshop and lecture series in which students develop the technical systems of preliminary design proposals from earlier studio work. The careful advancement of structural form and detail, environmental systems, and envelope design, as well as an understanding of the constructive processes from which a building emerges, are all approached systematically, as elements of design used not only to achieve technical and performance goals but also to reinforce and re-inform the conceptual origins of the work. The workshop is complemented by a series of lectures from leading structural, environmental, and envelope consultants. Detailed technical drawings and analyses, along with the use of BIM software, are required. Martin Finio, coordinator; Anibal Bellomio, Lisa Davey, Erleen Hatfield, Robert Haughney, Kristin Hawkins, Kenneth Gibble, Christian Hoenigschmid-Grossich, John Jacobson, Laurence Jones, Laura Pirie, Craig Razza, Edward M. Stanley, Philip Steiner, Adam Trojanowski

2031a, Architectural Practice and Management 3 credits. (Required in and limited to M.Arch. I third year, fall term. No waivers allowed.) The process by which an architectural design becomes a building requires the designer to control many variables beyond the purely aesthetic. This course provides an understanding of the fundamentals of organizing and managing architectural projects and examines accompanying issues of practice and the profession. Using the project process as an armature, lectures explore the role and function of the architect, the legal environment, evolving types of practice, fees and compensation, building project teams, and planning and executing a project. Phillip Bernstein

Elective Courses

2211a, Structures and Facades for Tall Buildings 3 credits. This seminar investigates the dynamic interrelationship between technology and architecture in tall buildings. Among the various technologies involved, emphasis is placed on structural and facade systems, recognizing the significance of these systems, the separation of which in terms of their function led to modern architecture, and allowed the emergence of tall buildings. This seminar reviews contemporary design practice of tall buildings through a series of lectures and case study analyses. While most representative structural and facade systems for tall buildings are studied, particular emphasis is placed on more recent trends such as diagrid structures and double-skin facades. Further, this seminar investigates emerging technologies for tall buildings and explores their architectural potentials. Finally, this course culminates in a tall building design project and presentation. Limited enrollment. Kyoung Sun Moon

2212a, The Liquid Threshold between Order and Chaos 3 credits. This seminar explores the fine line of equilibrium between what makes a structure work and what causes collapse. How do you know a structure is at its limit without witnessing failure? With this challenge, students test their designs to destruction by making and breaking simple structures refined to their optimum to resist compression, tension, shear, and bending. After exploring the failure mechanisms of simple elements, the seminar investigates and tests more complex three-dimensional systems to develop a deeper understanding of structural form. The course combines class discussions and workshops to examine a series of projects (including some of the instructors’ own) in which failure is imminent or has occurred. Through this discussion, the class explores where structures are vulnerable and how they can be enhanced. Limited enrollment. Neil Thomas, Aran Chadwick

2215b, Architecture as Building 3 credits. This course analyzes the major buildings of this century through detailed dissection of their methods of construction. Graphic display of the major systems that make up a contemporary work of architecture allows for a reconstruction of the design process and reestablishes the thought patterns that formed the design priorities. Emphasis is on the relation of systems of structure and enclosure with the required technical systems. Limited enrollment. Thomas Beeby

[2216b, Materials and Meaning 3 credits. This seminar urges students to probe material usage, in terms of detailing, context, embedded meaning, and historical precedent. The course examines how variations in joinery affect a built work, what opportunities materials afford architects in design and construction, how architects make material selections and decisions, and what meanings material selections bring to a work of architecture. Weekly readings, one class presentation, and two built projects are required. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Deborah Berke]

2217a, Material Formation in Design 3 credits. This course presents historical, contemporary, and emerging methods of material formation from a designer’s perspective. Emphasis is placed on processes useful for custom architectural fabrication, especially those that enable students to capitalize on opportunities generated by computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Distinctions between direct and indirect making are emphasized in terms of the formal freedom various techniques afford designers. Students are encouraged to cultivate specific aesthetic interests and experiment with the translation of variations into a series of material prototypes in order to benchmark results and better inform their own design process going forward. Limited enrollment. Kevin Rotheroe

[2218b, Smart Materials 3 credits. This seminar explores the basic characteristics and families of smart materials, with a special focus on materials and technologies that have a relationship to vision. The course examines, in depth, materials and technologies such as LEDs, smart glazing, displays, and interactive surfaces, and explores some of the contemporary experiments taking place in the architectural profession. Each student is required to coherently discuss material fundamentals and comprehensively analyze current applications. The course culminates with each student focusing on a material characteristic with which to explore different means of technology transfer in order to begin to invent unprecedented approaches. There are several exploratory assignments and a final design experiment. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Michelle Addington]

2219b, Craft, Materials, and Computer-Aided Artistry 3 credits. This course reviews materials and computer-aided manufacturing processes especially suited for digitally crafting aesthetically unique architectural components and surfaces. Cross-fertilization of digital and conventional modes of making is emphasized, as this approach often generates economically viable opportunities for creative expression. This is a hands-on, project-based seminar addressing fundamental theoretical issues in the transformation of ideas into material reality via representations, hand-operated tools, and CNC-automated forming devices. Limited enrollment. Kevin Rotheroe

2220a, Studies in Light and Materials 3 credits. This seminar provides an overview of the basic characteristics and families of “phenomenological” materials, with a special focus on materials and technologies that have a relationship to light and vision. Materials and technologies, such as LEDs, smart glazing, displays, and interactive surfaces, are examined in depth, and some of the contemporary experiments taking place in the architecture profession are explored. Throughout the term, students catalog relevant properties and begin to develop a mapping between behaviors and phenomena. Students have the opportunity to interact with some of the well-known architects who are at the heart of the current experimentation. Each student learns how to coherently discuss material fundamentals and comprehensively analyze current applications. The seminar culminates with each student focusing on a material characteristic with which to explore different means of technology transfer in order to begin to invent unprecedented approaches and applications. Limited enrollment. Michelle Addington

[2221b, Ornament and Technology 3 credits. This course examines contemporary interests in digital fabrication relative to the historically complex relationship between technology and the production of ornament and decoration. The seminar surveys the history of ornament from 1851 to the present in order to identify various, and often conflicting, definitions of the term and to examine a series of diverse case studies. The intention is to outline the potential for digital fabrication to contribute to renewed considerations of the decorative in contemporary architecture, by exploring strategies of figuration, organization, and technique to which these technologies can be readily applied. The course begins with a series of weekly readings, presentations, and case study analyses, and culminates in a final design project and presentation. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Ben Pell]

[2224b, Issues in Contemporary Practice 3 credits. This course, in weekly seminars with practitioners from architecture and related fields, addresses the broad view of practice beyond core design and the practicalities of running architectural projects. Topics discussed answer such questions as what firms look for when they hire recent graduates; how clients select architects; how architects find commissions; how projects get publicized and published; what are the keys to selecting and working with good collaborators like engineers, consultants, and contractors; how to start your own practice; and how to work with owners and developers. Limited enrollment, available only to graduating M.Arch. I and M.Arch. II students. Not offered in 2012–2013. John Apicella, Phillip Bernstein]

[2226b, Design Computation 3 credits. The capabilities and limitations of architects’ tools influence directly the spaces architects design. Computational machines, tools once considered only more efficient versions of paper-based media, have a demonstrated potential beyond mere imitation. This potential is revealed through design computation, the creative application of the processes and reasoning underlying all digital technology, from e-mail to artificial intelligence. Just as geometry is fundamental to drawing, computation affords a fundamental understanding of how data works, which is essential to advance the development of BIM, performative design, and other emerging methodologies. This seminar introduces design computation as a means to enable architects to operate exempt from limitations of generalized commercial software; to devise problem-specific tools, techniques, and workflows; to control the growing complexities of contemporary architectural design; and to explore forms generated only by computation itself. Topics include data manipulation and translation, algorithms, information visualization, computational geometry, human-computer interaction, custom tooling, generative form-finding, emergent behavior, simulation, and system modeling. Using Processing, students develop computational toolsets and models through short, directed assignments ultimately comprising a unified, term-long project. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013.]

2229a, Timber and High-Performance Wood Technology 3 credits. This seminar explores recent innovations in forest management and timber construction technology and considers their implications for architectural technique and building morphology. By traversing scale, from the engineering of wood fiber in structural members to the development of a timber-structured, high-density, high-rise urbanism, and by spanning the material life cycle of wood, from silvicultural practice to the disassembly and reuse of timber buildings, students investigate newfound capacities and applications of wood as a high-performance construction material and assess its impact on both the local and global ecologies. Through examination of the history and current science of silviculture, evolving methods of timber extraction, the development and processing of structural wood products, and their application in a range of timber building assemblies, this seminar evaluates the potential of engineered wood as a primary structural material in unconventional applications and assesses its impacts—relative to alternative material systems—in terms of land use, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. In the latter half of the course, students develop research projects on selected topics in three phases: as an oral presentation, a written paper, and a quantitative assessment or development of an experimental prototype. Limited enrollment. Alan Organschi

2230b, Exploring New Value in Design Practice 3 credits. How do we make design a more profitable practice? Design practice has traditionally positioned building as a commodity in the delivery supply chain, valued by clients like other products and services purchased at lowest first cost. Despite the fact that the building sector in its entirety operates in large capital pools where significant value is created, intense market competition, sole focus on differentiation by design quality, and lack of innovation in project delivery and business models have resulted in a profession that is grossly underpaid and marginally profitable. The profession must explore new techniques for correlating the real value of an architect’s services to clients and thereby break the downward pressure on design compensation. This seminar redesigns the value proposition of architecture practice, explores strategies used by better-compensated adjacent professions and markets, and investigates methods by which architects can deliver—and be paid for—the value they bring to the building industry. Limited enrollment. Phillip Bernstein, Brian Kenet

2299a or b, Independent Course Work 3 or 6 credits. Program to be determined with a faculty adviser of the student’s choice and submitted, with the endorsement of the study area coordinators, to the Rules Committee for confirmation of the student’s eligibility under the rules. (See the School’s Academic Rules and Regulations.)

The following courses offered elsewhere in the University may be taken for credit with permission of the instructor.

F&ES 290a/EVST 290a, Geographic Information Systems A practical introduction to the nature and use of both image-based (raster) and drawing-based (vector) geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental science and management. Applied techniques for the acquisition, creation, storage, management, visualization, animation, transformation, analysis, and synthesis of cartographic data in digital form. Two hours lecture, problem sets, one major class project. No previous experience required. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 600b, Linkages of Sustainability The Earth system is made up of interdependent components—land, water, energy, biota, and nonrenewable resources, all of which have physical limits. Societies transform these resources into useable goods, and production and consumption cycles connect people and places across space and time. This team-taught course provides an overview of these linkages and explores their implications for applying and measuring the concept of sustainability. It examines the constraints to sustainability imposed by those linkages (e.g., the energy required to supply water), opportunities for their transformation, and challenges of implementing sustainability across complex social and cultural systems. Lecture and discussion. Thomas E. Graedel, Karen Seto

F&ES 755b, Modeling Geographic Space An introduction to the conventions and capabilities of image-based (raster) geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis and synthesis of spatial patterns and processes. In contrast to F&ES 756a, the course is oriented more toward the qualities of geographic space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion) than the discrete objects that may occupy such space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 756a, Modeling Geographic Objects This course offers a broad and practical introduction to the nature and use of drawing-based (vector) geographic information systems (GIS) for the preparation, interpretation, and presentation of digital cartographic data. In contrast to F&ES 755b, the course is oriented more toward discrete objects in geographical space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures) than the qualities of that space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 820b, Land Use Law and Environmental Planning This course explores the regulation by local governments of land uses in urban, rural, and suburban areas and the effect of development on the natural environment. The course helps students understand, in a practical way, how the environment can be protected through effective regulation at the local level. It introduces students to federal, state, and regional laws and programs that affect watershed protection and to the laws that delegate to local governments primary responsibility for decision making in the land use field. Theories of federalism, regionalism, states’ rights, and localism are studied. The history of the delegation of planning and land use authority to local governments is traced, leading to an examination of local land use practices particularly as they relate to controlling development in and around watershed areas. Course participants engage in empirical research working to identify, catalogue, and evaluate innovative local laws that successfully protect environmental functions and natural resources, and the manner in which towns, particularly on the coast, incorporate climate change into their planning and regulations. Nearby watersheds are used as a context for the students’ understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of local planning and regulation. Attention is paid, in detail, to how the development of the land adversely affects natural resources and how these impacts can be mitigated through local planning and subsequent adoption of environmental regulations and regulations designed to promote sustainable development in a climate-changing world. The course includes examination of the state and local response to climate change, sea-level rise, growth management, alternatives to Euclidean zoning, low-impact development, brownfields redevelopment, and innovative land use strategies. Marjorie Shansky

F&ES 835a, Seminar on Land Use Planning Land use plans and the techniques used to implement them determine where development occurs on the American landscape. Planners play a key role in determining how the needs of the nation’s growing population for housing and nonresidential development are accommodated and how natural resources and environmental functions are protected from the adverse impacts of land development. This course explores the multifaceted discipline of land use planning and its associated ecological implications, particularly related to climate change. Land use encompasses the interacting factors of land function, building design, and economic and community support. Strategic land use shrewdly identifies land purposes, incentivizes energy-efficient and climate-resilient structures, and harnesses community and market support for effective land use decision making. In doing so, land use planning possesses the capacity to maximize utility while minimizing environmental damage. In this seminar, students learn from guest speakers and related readings. Speakers include professionals involved in sustainable development, land conservation, smart growth, and climate change adaptive planning. Each session focuses on a different issue that significantly influences land use decisions in an era of necessary sustainable development in the face of global climate change. Because of its interdisciplinary nature, this course provides students the opportunity to explore the ways in which complex planning projects must be managed and the manners by which policies are developed and implemented in order to create environmentally responsible, livable, healthy, dynamic, and equitable communities. John R. Nolon

F&ES 855a, Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Areas This class provides an in-depth assessment of the relationships between urbanization and climate change, and the central ways in which urban areas, cities, and other human settlements can mitigate climate change. The course explores two major themes: (1) the ways in which cities and urban areas contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change; and (2) the ways in which urban areas can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Class topics parallel the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Chapter 12, Human Settlements, Infrastructure, and Spatial Planning, and include spatial form and energy use, land use planning for climate mitigation, urban metabolism, and local climate action plans. The class format is lecture, short break, and discussion. Karen Seto

LAW 20316,21321/F&ES 834a,b, Environmental Protection Clinic The Environmental Law Clinic is designed to introduce students to several major environmental policy questions and a variety of methods of advocating for environmental improvement and clean-energy goals. There are weekly class sessions, alternating between seminars and project team meetings. Students work in small interdisciplinary teams (with students from the Law School and occasionally other parts of the Yale community), ten to twelve hours per week (for a total of 120 hours), for a single client organization, such as a local, national, or international environmental organization, a community group, or a local, state, or national governmental entity. Students work on a specific project or series of projects that involve environmental law and policy issues, and that may include litigation, drafting legislation, participating in stakeholder working groups and international negotiations, and developing policy proposals. Students may propose projects and client organizations, subject to approval by the instructors. Enrollment limited. Prerequisite: permission of the instructors. If you would like to enroll, please send one paragraph on why you are interested in the course, as well as your résumé, to Professors Kysar (douglas.kysar@yale.edu) and Kennedy (kkennedy@nrdc.org). This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. Katherine Kennedy, Douglas Kysar, William E. Dornbos, Bruce Ho

LAW 21728, Open Source Systems: Seminar This seminar will examine the law and economics of “open source” technologies, focusing mainly on shared technical platforms in software and biotechnology. Among the themes to be considered are: (1) the characteristics of an “open” technical platform; (2) the role of legal arrangements (licenses, contracts, codes) as against informal social norms in constituting the communities that use and develop these platforms; (3) the varied normative justifications for the focus on shared information as the foundation for new ownership and innovation frameworks. Readings will be drawn mainly from contemporary legal scholarship on open source systems, access to knowledge, and the idea of the “public domain,” considered alongside parallel nineteenth- and twentieth-century arguments from political economy about ownership and innovation in the (pre-informational) industrial economy. The class will also study the legal arrangements governing several distinct open source systems (including software licenses, contractual agreements, and patent pools) and will hear from speakers on these and related issues. Prerequisite: an introductory course in intellectual property law. Self-scheduled examination. Enrollment limited to fewer than twenty. D.S. Grewal

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History and Theory

Kurt W. Forster and Emmanuel Petit, Study Area Coordinators

This study area explores the relationship between design, history, and theory through a broad range of courses in which the analysis of buildings, cities, landscapes, and texts supports the articulation and criticism of fundamental concepts, methods, and issues. Historical and contemporary projects and writings are studied in context and as part of the theoretical discourse of architecture.

For entering M.Arch. I students who have not had significant prior architectural training, the pre-first-year visualization course (1001c) includes a broad survey of Western architectural history to the nineteenth century. For all M.Arch. I students, there is a first-year required survey course of nineteenth- and twentieth-century architectural history (3011a) followed in the second year by two required courses on architectural theory (3021a and 3022b). In addition, M.Arch. I students must satisfactorily complete two of the elective courses from this study area. One of the electives should be in a non-Western subject. Note that the elective courses 1214a, 4211b, 4212a, 4213a, 4214a, 4217b, 4222a, and 4223b will satisfy one of the History and Theory elective requirements provided a research paper is required, although those listed from the Urbanism and Landscape study area cannot be used to satisfy both the History and Theory and the Urbanism and Landscape elective requirements. Courses offered outside of the School not listed below may fulfill this elective requirement provided permission from the study area coordinators has been granted.

For the M.Arch. II program, there is a second-year required course dealing with issues of architecture and urbanism (3071a).

Required Courses

3011a, Modern Architecture 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, fall term; available as an elective for M.Arch. II and M.E.D. students.) The course embraces the last century and a half’s history of architecture, when traditional fables began to yield to more scientifically conceived ideas of architecture’s role in the creation of civilizations. As architecture gained importance in advancing social and industrial agendas, it also built a basis for theoretical reflection and visionary aesthetics. The expanding print and media culture accelerated the migration of ideas and propelled architecture beyond its traditional confines. Discussion of major centers of urban culture and their characteristic buildings alternates with attention to individual concepts and their impact in an increasingly interconnected culture of design. Kurt W. Forster

3021a, Architectural Theory I: 1750–1968 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I second year, fall term; available as an elective for M.Arch. II and M.E.D. students.) History of Western architectural theory, 1750–1968, through the close reading of primary texts. Lectures place the readings in the context of architectural history; the texts are discussed in required discussion sections. Topics include discussions of theories of origin and character, the picturesque, debates regarding style, historicism, and eclecticism, Gothic Revival, questions of ornament, architectural modernism, functionalism, and critiques of modernism. Emmanuel Petit

3022b, Architectural Theory II: 1968–Present 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I second year, spring term; and in M.Arch. II and M.E.D. first year, spring term.) This course is a survey of theoretical and critical literature on contemporary architecture. It explores the texts of postmodernism, post-structuralism, and critical and post-critical discourses, as well as current debates in globalization, post-humanism, and environmentalism in the architectural discipline from 1968 to the present. Ariane Lourie Harrison

3071a, Issues in Architecture and Urbanism 3 credits. (Required in and limited to M.Arch. II third term.) Current issues in architecture and urbanism, explored through seminars and case studies introducing methods and theories of architectural research. Fred Koetter

3091a, Methods and Research Workshop 3 credits. (Required in M.E.D. first year, fall term.) This course introduces students to methods of architectural writing and research, laying the groundwork for an advanced research project. By investigating various text genres, such as surveys, journalism, manifestos, scholarly essays, critical essays, and narratives, this course studies ways of writing about architecture, urbanism, and the environment. Recent debates concerning the relationship between architectural history and theory and the questions about disciplinary and interdisciplinary boundaries are explored. Working toward a substantial research paper requirement, students are introduced to hands-on research through a series of library and archival workshops. Limited enrollment. Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen

3092a or b, Independent M.E.D. Research 3–6 credits first year, fall term; variable credits remaining terms, determined in consultation with the director of M.E.D. Studies. (Required in and limited to M.E.D. each term.) The proposal submitted with the admissions application is the basis for each student’s study plan, which is developed in consultation with faculty advisers. Independent research is undertaken for credit each term, under the direction of a principal adviser, for preparation and completion of a written thesis. The thesis, which details and summarizes the independent research, is to be completed for approval by the M.E.D. committee by the end of the fourth term. M.E.D. faculty

Elective Courses

[3213b, Architecture and Capitalism 3 credits. This seminar examines the relationship between capitalism and architecture from both a theoretical perspective—Marxism’s/neo-Marxism’s critique of culture, art, and architecture—and from an architectural perspective—architecture’s participation in, resistance to, and speculation about capitalism. The course examines different periods of architectural history from the perspective of theorists and what they had to say about cultural/architectural production and from the perspective of architects and what they had to say about their role in capitalism. The theorists examined include Marx, Ruskin, Simmel, thinkers of the Frankfurt School, Tafuri, Jameson, Slavoj Zizek, Naomi Klein, while the architects include Morris, Muthesius, Gropius, Hilberseimer, Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas. Each week an initial 45-minute lecture by the professor is followed by in-class presentations and discussion by the students. A fifteen-page paper is required at the end of the term. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Peggy Deamer]

3214b, The Construction of Exactitude: Classicism and Modernism 3 credits. This seminar critically considers modern classicism not only as a compositional design method and as an evocation of precedents, but also as a language of clarity, reduction, and economy resistant to an unquestioned avant-gardist predilection for the “new.” Beginning with the fixed principles that were the legacy of nineteenth-century French and German Neoclassicism (unity, symmetry, proportion), the seminar continues up through the Rationalism and Formalism that followed the Second World War. Issues explored include the concepts of the ruin and monumentality; the Modern Movement’s analogies to the classical; and the representation of interwar national and political ideologies. Works studied include those by architects, literary/artistic figures, and theorists such as Richardson, Garnier, Perret, Le Corbusier, Rossi, Asplund, Lutyens, Terragni, Speer, Mies, SOM, Kahn, Valéry, Gide, de Chirico, Calvino, Rowe, Krier, Eisenman, Stern, Porphyrios, and Colquhoun. Limited enrollment. Karla Britton

3216b, Case Studies in Modern Architectural Criticism 3 credits. This seminar concentrates on issues that influence the way modern buildings and their architects are perceived by critics, scholars, and the public. The careers of such architects as Frank Lloyd Wright, Eero Saarinen, Louis Kahn, Philip Johnson, Robert Venturi, and Frank Gehry provide a framework for the examination of how patronage, fashion, social change, theory, finance, and politics affect the place of prominent designers and their work in the historical record. Readings include such critics as Catherine Bauer, Alan Colquhoun, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Ada Louise Huxtable, William Jordy, Rem Koolhaas, Lewis Mumford, Colin Rowe, Vincent Scully, and Manfredo Tafuri. Responding to lectures by the instructor and visitors, students develop criteria for judging architectural quality (program, site, “message,” details, etc.), and then apply those criteria in three brief analytical papers that build toward a 2,500-word research paper investigating the elements that contributed to the “success,” “failure,” or “reevaluation” of an individual building, an architect’s career, or a body of architectural work. All written assignments are reviewed in individual conferences with the instructor. Limited enrollment. Carter Wiseman

3217a, Writing on Architecture 3 credits. The goal of this course is to train students in the principles and techniques of nonfiction writing as it applies to architecture. The course includes readings from the work of prominent architects, critics, and literary figures, as well as reviews of books and exhibitions, opinion pieces, and formal presentations of buildings and projects. The main focus of the course is an extended paper on a building selected from a variety of types and historical periods, such as skyscrapers, private houses, industrial plants, gated communities, malls, institutional buildings, and athletic facilities. Limited enrollment. Carter Wiseman

3218a, Sustainability for Post-Humans: Architectural Theories of the Environment 3 credits. This seminar poses post-humanist alternatives to the conceptual constraints and aesthetic limitations imposed by static interpretations of sustainability. Post-humanism envisions radically different boundaries than those that have traditionally governed the interaction between politics, bodies, buildings, and the environment. Grounded in analysis of texts and case studies, the seminar investigates contemporary architectural responses to post-humanism’s challenge to identity, politics, and subject formation. Limited enrollment. Ariane Lourie Harrison

[3219a, Architectural Multiplications 3 credits. This seminar investigates contemporary approaches to architecture, in which the question of multiplication is made thematic, and proposes a theoretical approach to understanding a series of buildings and books since the early 1990s, such as the Yokohama Ferry Terminal, Animate Form, the Eyebeam competition, Farmax, the Embryological House, Move, and SMLXL. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Emmanuel Petit]

3220b, Contemporary Architectural Discourse Colloquium 3 credits. Organized by second-year M.E.D. students in collaboration with the director of M.E.D. Studies, this year’s colloquium invites a series of noted architects, designers, artists, and creative entrepreneurs to examine the nature and role of contemporary collaboration. What value does collaboration have in the creative process? Why is architecture the discipline where these questions are posed? What are the defining features of current collaborative trends, such as interdisciplinary “laboratories” for incubating innovative design? How do such efforts define, reimagine, and redraw disciplinary boundaries as well as respond to them? How can the benefits of collaboration be maximized without flattening the provocative tensions that come with ego, internal disagreement, questions of leadership, and claims for authorship? The first half of the course looks at the history of collaboration within architecture, with particular focus on the relationship between Yale University’s Schools of Art and Architecture. The second half of the course focuses on evaluating cases of collaboration in aesthetic and professional contexts. The final piece of work itself is collaborative in both writing and design. While this course is mainly aimed at architecture students, a select number of spots are available to students from other disciplines and qualified undergraduates. Limited enrollment. Peggy Deamer

3223a, Parallel Moderns: Toward a New Synthesis? 3 credits. This seminar puts forward the argument that what many have accepted as the mutually exclusive discourses of tradition and innovation in the modern architecture of the first half of the twentieth century–respectively identified as the “New Tradition” and the “New Pioneers” by Henry-Russell Hitchcock in his Modern Architecture: Romanticism and Reintegration (1929)—in fact share common genealogy and are integral to its history. The seminar explores in depth key architects working in the “New Tradition” and goes on to explore its impact for postmodernism in the 1970s and 1980s. The possible emergence of a new synthesis of seeming opposites in the present is also considered. Limited enrollment. Robert A.M. Stern

3224b, Architecture: Fragment and the Absolute 3 credits. This seminar investigates the theoretical underpinnings of the diverse strands of formalism in the architectural discussion of the 1970s and early 1980s. Passing from the analysis of structural theories of form, to its semantic configurations, and to its post-structuralist displacements, the seminar sheds light on the intellectual trajectory of a specific historical period after Modern architecture and within modernism. Special emphasis is given to the discussions around the Oppositions group and to the influence of French philosophy on formalist architecture. The second half of the seminar relates the proposed topics to built architectural artifacts, and thus stresses the mutual interdependence of physical object and architectural theory. The seminar analyzes how formalist transformations build relationships to modernist precedent from which to “swerve.” Limited enrollment. Emmanuel Petit

3225b, Religion and Modern Architecture 3 credits. The design of religious architecture challenges the creative capacities of prominent architects, yet this domain has largely gone unnoticed within the field. In an inter-religious and inter-disciplinary context, this seminar offers a fresh examination of the history of modern architecture through a close analysis of a single building type—the religious building (mosques, churches, synagogues, and temples). Drawing on guest speakers, this course opens a discourse between the disciplinary perspectives of philosophy, theology, liturgical studies, and architectural history and theory on the influence religion has come to exert in contemporary civic life, and the concretization of that role in the construction of prominent religious buildings. Questions addressed include: How can the concept of the “sacred” be understood in the twenty-first century, if at all? In what contexts is it intelligible? In a pluralist society, in which the spiritual is often experienced individually, how can architecture express communal identity or tradition? How are concepts of the ineffable realized in material form? Architects discussed included Perret, Plecnik, Lutyens, Wright, Le Corbusier, Mendelsohn, El-Wakil, Tange, Kahn, Ando, Barragan, Moneo, Eisenman, Hadid, and Shim. Limited enrollment. Karla Britton

[3226b, Lateral Strategies: Architecture and Activism 3 credits. This seminar researches architecture and activism. Some of the most radical changes to the globalizing world are written not in the language of law and diplomacy but rather in the language of architecture and urbanism. The notion that there is a proper forthright realm of political negotiation usually acts as the perfect camouflage for consequential activity that resides in the unofficial currents of cultural and market persuasion. This seminar tutors spatial entrepreneurialism, impure ethical struggles, and a new species of spatio-political activism. In sequential weeks, the seminar considers these in relation to a topic and two thinkers. Activism and: piracy (Sloterdijk, De Certeau), comedy (Critchley, Goffman), entrepreneurialism (Banham, Price), law (Agamben, Balibar), organization (Meyer, Castells), aesthetics (Ranciere, Bourriaud), polity (Mattelart, Latour), sovereignty (Habermas, Retort), violence (Virilio, Guattari), ethics (Badiou, Levinas). Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Keller Easterling]

[3228b, The Autobiographical House 3 credits. Architects and artists have long built dwellings for themselves (and for surrogate clients) as showcases of their art, sites of collecting and teaching, and as retreats from professional life. From Thomas Jefferson to Philip Johnson, from John Soane to Eileen Gray and Frank Gehry, building a house of one’s own often harks back to Renaissance models while experimenting with new manifestations of the architect’s evolving role. This seminar examines key examples of buildings as well as wide-ranging readings in autobiography. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Kurt W. Forster]

3230a, Universals 3 credits. The seminar explores the pleasures, perils, and potential productivity of architecture’s love affair with, or faith in, systems of standards. From the belief that the proper combinations of geometry would actually generate transcendence in ecclesiastical architecture, to the various adoptions of a neoclassical language for the redemption of buildings or cities, to the modular systems that would allow modernism to rewrite the world, to the hidden mysteries of ISO’s (International Organization for Standardization) supposedly rationalizing decisions, episodes in the alchemy of standards feature many architectural disciples. This seminar studies the ways in which the desire for standards has created isomorphic aesthetic regimes as well as productive renovations of construction and assembly. The seminar also explores the more expansive organs of decision-making that overwhelm and dictate to the architectural discipline, trumping the internal theories of design society with universal standards of much more consequence. While the seminar revisits familiar architectural theory, it also visits some less-familiar episodes such as Eiffel’s prefabricated cathedrals designed for distant French colonies, the origin of Sweets Catalog, the context of Konrad Wachsmann’s modular systems, or ISO’s control over everything from credit card thickness to construction industry protocols. As a true seminar, the first meetings are structured around collective readings and discussions, and the final meetings focus on individual research topics. Limited enrollment. Keller Easterling

3231b, Art in Architecture: 1945–1965 3 credits. Architecture, sculpture, and painting have arguably never been so mixed up as in the recent past. While the magnetic field that links architecture to the visual arts has become a prime condition of formgiving, the status of modern art in the public realm continues to be notoriously ambivalent. Certain CIAM debates that took place between 1947 and 1956 offer valuable insights into some roots of this condition. This seminar focuses on architectural theory and practice in the Cold War era. Key works by architects like Le Corbusier, Aldo van Eyck, Alison and Peter Smithson, Max Bill, and others are examined in the light of their ideas on the “Synthesis of the Arts.” Alternating with a series of introductory classes, key texts on the dialogue of the arts by authors like Hitchcock, Giedion, Krauss, Foster, and others are discussed. In the second half of the term each student presents a written case study relating to a relevant project by any of the listed architects as well as by more recent ones like F. Gehry, Herzog & de Meuron, P. Zumthor, or others. Limited enrollment. Stanislaus von Moos

[3233b, Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates in Context 3 credits. This seminar examines a choice of projects and buildings by Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates in the light of such issues as mannerism, historicism (and neo-historicism), Modernism in architecture, as well as contemporary strategies of urban design. Students are expected to present their own analysis of a chosen built or unbuilt Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates project against the background of relevant issues in architectural and/or urban theory, social sciences, or contemporary art and to consider these architects’ own theoretical writings. Non-written forms of presentation (tapes, etc.) are also encouraged. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Stanislaus von Moos]

3237a, Human/Nature: Architecture, Landscape, Technology 3 credits. Our global environmental crisis poses the challenge of devising a new model of ecologically responsible interdisciplinary practice that brings together two disciplines—architecture and landscape architecture—that have been professionally segregated at least since the nineteenth century. The first half of the term looks at this issue from a cultural and historical perspective, tracing the ideological origins of the architecture/landscape divide to another Western polarity—the false opposition between nature and culture, human and non-human—dualisms that are deeply rooted in Western literature, philosophy, popular culture, and even notions of gender and sexuality. The seminar explores how this way of thinking has impacted design practices in America from Frederick Law Olmsted in the mid-nineteenth century to Ian McHarg and Robert Smithson in the 1960s and 1970s. During the second half of the term the focus shifts to consider contemporary trends, examining the work of a diverse group of architects, landscape architects, and artists who have been undertaking groundbreaking projects that dissolve traditional distinctions between building and environment. Three converging design directions that unite this otherwise heterogeneous group—topography, bio-computation, and ecology—are identified, and the affinities and differences between them are discussed. Limited enrollment. Joel Sanders

3239b, Launch: Architecture and Entrepreneurialism 3 credits. This seminar studies the designer as entrepreneur. Contemporary entrepreneurs usually understand not only how to capitalize a business but also how to play market networks with the viral dissemination of both objects and aesthetic regimes. While the architecture profession has absorbed many of the technologies that markets use in their population thinking, practice is nevertheless structured to support architecture conceived as singular creations. This seminar considers both historical and contemporary moments in architectural and urban design when architects conceived of buildings, building components, or formats as repeatable products—products that, in the aggregate, may have the power to create an alteration to a local or global environment. Each week, the seminar considers the work of two or three architects together with texts that provide critical and theoretical inflection. The final project is a business/design-plan wherein students serve as each other’s publicists. The architects/firms considered in the first portion of the course include Burnham and Root; Alvar Aalto; McKim, Mead & White; John Nolen; Thonet designers; the RPAA (MacKaye, Stein, Wright, Bing, Mumford, Whitaker, Chase); Jean Prouvé; Victor Gruen; Morris Lapidus; Charles and Ray Eames; Case Study Houses; Buckminster Fuller; Cedric Price; Archigram; and Emilio Ambasz. In the second portion of the course, a growing number of contemporary examples, such as Chuck Hoberman, SHoP, TED designers, Kieran Timberlake, and Jürgen Mayer, are examined. Limited enrollment. Keller Easterling

3240a, Spatial Concepts of Japan: Their Origins and Development in Architecture and Urbanism 3 credits. The seminar explores the origins and developments of Japanese spatial concepts and surveys how they help form the contemporary architecture, ways of life, and cities of the country. Many Japanese spatial concepts, such as MA, are about creating time-space distances and relationship between objects, people, space, and experiences. These concepts go beyond the fabric of a built structure, and encompass architecture, landscape, and city. Each class is designed around one or two Japanese words that signify particular design concepts. Each week, a lecture on the word(s) with its design features, backgrounds, historical examples, and contemporary application is followed by student discussion. Contemporary works studied include those by Maki, Isozaki, Ando, Ito, Kuma, and SANAA. The urbanism of Tokyo and Kyoto is discussed. Students are required to make in-class presentations and write a final paper. Limited enrollment. Yoko Kawai

3242a, The Digital Turn: A Cultural History 3 credits. This seminar discusses the present state of computer-based design and fabrication by situating today’s digital turn within the long duration of the history of cultural technologies. It assesses the technical logics of hand-making, mechanical reproductions, and digital making, focusing on the invention of architectural notations and of architectural authorship in the Renaissance. The seminar then outlines a tentative history of the digital turn from the early 1990s—from the Deleuzian fold to free-form, topology, and formalism; from mass customization and nonstandard seriality to recent developments in digital interactivity, building information modeling, self-organizing systems, and digital form-finding—questioning in particular the digital reversal of the early-modern and modernist principles of agency in architectural design and probing the import and consequences of these trends for contemporary practice. Students test these interpretive patterns by developing a case study of their choice (of a media object, object, building, software, or technology). Limited enrollment. Mario Carpo

3243b, Cold War Urbanism: The Case of Berlin 3 credits. Berlin’s precarious status between East and West has made this city into a prime urbanistic laboratory ever since reconstruction after World War II began. After a brief period of East-West collaboration, East Berlin became the capital of the newly founded German Democratic Republic in 1949, whereas West Berlin turned into a de facto part of West Germany and developed into a showcase of capitalist prosperity and pluralism. The seminar examines the diverging urbanistic strategies embodied in such key sites as Karl-Marx-Allee and Alexanderplatz in East Berlin or Kaiser-Friedrich-Gedächtniskirche, Südliche Friedrichstadt, or the reconstruction of the Hansaviertel in the West as a background to the seminar’s main topic: the Internationale Bauausstellung in Berlin, 1984–86 (IBA). The controversial promotion of the “Critical Reconstruction” of the traditional city as a system of closed blocks that became an official dogma after the reunification of the two Germanys in 1989 is discussed together with the ideas on alternative scenarios that had preceded it. Limited enrollment. Stanislaus von Moos

[3245a, Architecture and Utopia 3 credits. This seminar examines the odd coupling of architecture and utopia: while utopias are properly imaginable, they architecturally occupy “no place”; while utopian thought demands social suppleness, architecture fixes people and places; while utopian philosophy is entirely speculative, architecture demands formal precision. What unites them is their shared occupation with power: they both satisfy the need for their originator to tell people how to live. The seminar also examines the very diverse ways in which utopias have been historically conceived, both in relation to what they are critiquing—social disorder and despotism, industrial degradation, capitalist hegemony—and in relation to how they are evaluated: Tafuri’s scathing critique versus Jameson’s admiration, for example. The first part of the seminar examines the historical, architectural projects that constitute our understanding and definition of “utopia.” The second part is devoted to contemporary examinations of the concept of utopia: texts and projects that extend the debate about the validity of the term in an age of globalization, technocracy, and virtuality. Students are asked to do weekly readings with written responses; an in-class presentation; and a 15-page paper elaborating on the presentation topic. Not offered in 2012–2013. Peggy Deamer]

3246a, From Open City to Postmodern City: Architecture and Urbanism in Italy, 1945–1980 3 credits. The seminar examines the complex relationship between architecture and urbanism in Italy in the second half of the twentieth century. From the neorealist city in post-WWII Rome to the presentation of a postmodern city in the 1980 Venice Biennale, the seminar explores the ways that Italian architects and theorists proposed architectural practices and urban studies as a single or interdependent conceptual process. Weaving theoretical arguments with design strategies, the seminar—structured as a series of chronological case studies—traces how Italian architects and theorists articulated architecture and urban form in their attempt to address the themes of reconstruction, context, tradition, territory, disciplinary autonomy, consumerism, ideology, and history that made the Italian discourse one of the protagonists in the architectural debates of the second half of the twentieth century. Focusing on primary sources, students have the opportunity to study magazines, seminal theoretical works, and the catalogues of exhibitions that constituted the main vehicles of the Italian architectural discourse in this period. Limited enrollment. Marta Caldeira

[3248b, Schinkel and the Creation of a New Urban Topography 3 credits. The Berlin architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, widely traveled in Europe and in close touch with architects from France to Russia, England, and Italy, helped reshape the city of Berlin by means of numerous inserts and partial expansions, creating new types of public buildings, spaces, and parks. Schinkel’s pictorial invention—his panoramas, theaters, and residences—reconfigured the scenario of the city. This seminar attempts to grasp his ideas of topography, landscape, and culture at a time of swift transformation of the European city. Students are required to give in-class presentations and write a substantial paper. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Kurt W. Forster]

[3249b, Exhibiting Architecture 3 credits. This seminar traces the legacy of radical architecture exhibitions used by architects as laboratories to test new formal, spatial, and technological ideas throughout the twentieth century. Using the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library’s holdings on modern prints and manuscripts as source material, students learn to conduct primary archival research while working on exhibition installations and concepts conceived by leading modern architects (e.g., Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe) as well as by groups of architects (e.g., Archigram, Superstudio, Utopie) at various institutional, cultural, and historical settings. As a final project, students work collectively toward a publication and an exhibition on the topic. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen]

3251a, Spheres: History and Theories of the Spherical Function in Architecture 3 credits. In architecture as in other intellectual disciplines, spheres and the attribute of circularity do not simply constitute one species of forms among others; they have always held a special status in the way they have been associated with the visionary and the spiritual, the atmospheric, and the sublime, as well as with the paradigmatic and the autonomous. It appears that a number of analogies can be drawn between the epistemology and the aesthetics of spheres, hinging on the notion of “interiority.” This seminar attempts to categorize and understand the different connections between the morphology of sphericality in architecture and the modern history and theories associated with it. It becomes apparent quite rapidly that the subject of “spheres” sits less comfortably in architecture than it traditionally does in philosophy or in art. While the philosophy and architecture of roundness has often been tidily inscribed in the path of humanism, spherical architecture has a trajectory that runs parallel to the ambitions of “modernization” and, accordingly, has been reenergized in the present-day debates in the dialectic between humanism and the post-human. This seminar examines the projects and theories of spherical architecture from the twentieth century to the present, unravels recurring themes of these discussions, and builds up to a “spherological” theory. In the first half of the seminar, the theories of Emil Kaufmann, Hans Sedlmayr, Gaston Bachelard, Manfredo Tafuri, Jean Baudrillard, and Peter Sloterdijk are studied; in the second half of the seminar, particular architectural and urban projects are analyzed in relation to these theories. Limited enrollment. Emmanuel Petit

[3252b, Exhibitionism 3 credits. Art and environment are interdependent. This course explores the complex relationship between artistic practices and gallery design, reciprocal terms that shape a spectator’s visual and physical encounter with works of art. The first part of the class provides a historical overview of the development of exhibition spaces in conjunction with parallel chapters in the history of art including the Renaissance palace, the nineteenth-century museum, and the Modernist white cube. The second part considers the critique launched by postwar artists and critics around questions of autonomy, embodiment, and politics that resulted in a range of techniques from installation to performance that actively transform spaces of display. The class concludes by speculating about the future of gallery and museum architecture as curators respond to market pressures (global branding, star-architecture) and the mandate to exhibit new artistic mediums (video, digital, interactive, and performance). Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Joel Sanders]

3253b, Critical Theory: Culture, Art, and Architecture 3 credits. This seminar examines the ideas of critical theory as handed down from the Frankfurt School (which gave us Critical Theory with a capital “C” and capital “T”) in the 1930s and transformed into American critical theory of the 1980s and 1990s. The Frankfurt School critical theorists—concerned with elaborating Marx’s intimations of “superstructure” and analyzing the workings of culture within capitalism—were interested in how art, as a cultural production, operates as a system that can support or thwart, depending on its deployment, the workings of capitalism. Because art is, seemingly, the activity that is the least connected to the workings of the economic “base,” its role as a possible critique of capitalism is difficult to assess, and the principal members of the Frankfurt School—Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse, Benjamin, and later Habermas—never agreed upon an “aesthetic” position. This fact makes the debate regarding art’s potential resistance to capitalist culture all the more contemporary and lively as well as helps explain how the debate continued as critical theory emerged in America in the 1980s and 1990s in a broader context of a critique of representation. Although the figures associated with postmodern critical theory—Barthes, Foucault, Lacan, Derrida, Deleuze, Spivak, among others—were not associated with the Frankfurt School, they nevertheless addressed the same issue of how cultural production subsumes and deflects capitalism. This seminar examines the question of architecture through the lens of art, which itself is examined through the lens of culture. Limited enrollment. Peggy Deamer

3254b, Though a Glass House, Deeply 3 credits. This seminar takes as its principal focus the Glass House, both the iconic residence and the campus it spawned, designed by Philip Johnson and constructed between 1949 and 1995. Few architectural works have generated as much scholarly, critical, and popular writing, beginning with Johnson’s own 1950 essay and continuing well into the present day with psychoanalytic, poststructural, queer, and other contemporary readings. This seminar reads the Glass House against other salient works of architecture and landscape architecture, including the Farnsworth House, Sir John Soane’s House, the treasury of Atreus, and the gardens at Stowe, to further open frameworks of analysis. The Glass House is explored not only as an artifact—one that is deeply, even endlessly coded—but also as a cipher. Each week, students discuss buildings and places that relate to the Glass House and the theoretical issues of that particular seminar. Students develop fluency with respect to the objects of analysis along with broad exposure to frameworks through which they may be understood. The final paper constitutes an original piece of scholarship that contributes to our understanding of this enigmatic place. Henry Urbach

3255b, Latin American Modern 3 credits. This seminar course explores the complexities of the self-conscious construction of modern architecture in Latin America as it developed through debates over how modernist theories and forms could be reshaped from their European origins to create a viable means of expression for local conditions and cultural patterns. Rather than presenting “Latin America” as an essentializing category that homogenizes the entire region, the course employs the term as a framework to encourage the exploration of comparative case studies, thereby illuminating moments of intra-regional dialogue and exchange, or shared particularities in the local inflections of an international language of modern architecture and urban design. The course begins with the presentation of Latin American national identities on the global stage as seen through pavilions at international expositions, and continues with a mixture of country-specific case studies and thematic explorations. In addition to the weekly readings, the course includes the close analysis of a number of key architectural works, as researched and presented by students. Helen Gyger

3257b, Techno-Sensations: Architecture, Technology, and the Body 3 credits. Since the Enlightenment, the introduction of new technologies has expanded the capacity of the human senses: audiovisual devices from the camera obscura to iPhones have enhanced the eye and ear while infrastructures like plumbing and HVAC have catered to the needs of the flesh. This class considers the architectural consequences of these technological developments and their impact on our sensory experience of space. Looking at this subject from a sociohistorical perspective, the course considers how a series of technical milestones transformed architecture and the human sensorium from the Enlightenment to the Digital Age. Topics include the symbiotic relationship between optics and the development of the camera obscura, the panorama, and the panopticon; the impact of cinema and television on the modernist window; the impact of plumbing and climate control on domestic hygiene; the birth of modern acoustics as a response to metropolitan noise; the influence of listening devices on the modern workplace; and the impact of two generations of digital devices—desktop computers and mobile handheld devices—on human interaction in public and private space. After charting these historical developments, students speculate about the future: how can architects harness new technologies to craft immersive multisensory environments that engage sight, hearing, and touch? Joel Sanders

3299a or b, Independent Course Work 3 or 6 credits. Program to be determined with a faculty adviser of the student’s choice and submitted, with the endorsement of the study area coordinator, to the Rules Committee for confirmation of the student’s eligibility under the rules. (See the School’s Academic Rules and Regulations.)

The following courses offered elsewhere in the University will fulfill the History and Theory elective requirement and may be taken with the permission of the instructor.

DRAM 129b, History of Theater Architecture A survey of European and American theater architecture as it relates to cultural and technological changes through time. This course uses the writings of current and past authorities on such subjects as acoustics, space layout, and decoration to illustrate and evaluate these buildings’ many variations. Two hours a week. Open to nondepartmental and non-School of Drama students with prior permission of the instructor. Alan Hendrickson

HSAR 143b/RLST 188b, Introduction to the History of Art: Buddhist Art and Architecture, 900 to 1600 Buddhist art and architecture of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Tibet from the tenth century to the early modern period. Emphasis on cross-regional engagements including the impact of Islam. Mimi Yiengpruksawan

HSAR 243b/ARCG 243b/CLCV 160b, Greek Art and Architecture Monuments of Greek art and architecture from the late Geometric period (c. 760 B.C.) to Alexander the Great (c. 323 B.C.). Emphasis on social and historical contexts. Milette Gaifman

HSAR 422b, Architecture, Identity, and Faith in Britain, 1851–1951 Architectural, religious, and cultural movements in Britain from the Great Exhibition of 1851 to the Festival of Britain in 1951. Introduction to British architecture and theological discourse; revivalism, institution building, empire, and innovation; notions of holiness, the senses, gender, and ritual; reconciliation, conflict, memorialization, and debates about the afterlife. Ayla Lepine

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Urbanism and Landscape

Alan Plattus and Elihu Rubin, Study Area Coordinators

In this study area, a broad range of courses explore the aesthetic, economic, social, and political influences on the spatial form of urban places and the urban, suburban, and rural landscapes that form our design ecology.

For the M.Arch. I program, required courses in this study area include an introduction to urban design (4011b), an introduction to planning and development (4021a), and the satisfactory completion of one of the elective seminar courses from this study area. Note that the elective course 3237a will satisfy the Urbanism and Landscape elective requirement, although it cannot satisfy both the History and Theory and the Urbanism and Landscape elective requirements. Courses offered outside the School not listed below may fulfill this elective requirement provided permission from the study area coordinators has been granted.

Required Courses

4011b, Introduction to Urban Design 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I first year, spring term.) This course is an introduction to the history, analysis, and design of the urban landscape presented with weekly lectures and discussion sections. Emphasis is placed on understanding the principles, processes, and contemporary theories of urban design, and the relations between individual buildings, groups of buildings, and the larger physical and cultural contexts in which they are created and with which they interact. Case studies are drawn from New Haven and other cities. Elihu Rubin, Andrei Harwell

4021a, Introduction to Planning and Development 3 credits. (Required in M.Arch. I second year, fall term.) This course demonstrates the ways in which financial and political feasibility determine the design of buildings and the character of the built environment. Students propose projects and then adjust them to the conflicting interests of financial institutions, real estate developers, civic organizations, community groups, public officials, and the widest variety of participants in the planning process. Subjects covered include housing, commercial development, zoning, historic preservation, parks and public open space, suburban subdivisions, and comprehensive plans. Alexander Garvin

Elective Courses

4211b, Intermediate Planning and Development 3 credits. This seminar examines the interaction of property development and planning with local market conditions, financing alternatives, government policy, and the political context at the community level. During the first part of the term, students learn how to analyze a specific neighborhood (in New York City) by using fundamental planning techniques and examining national trends within that neighborhood. Topics include housing, retail, and office development; zoning; historic preservation; transportation; business improvement districts; and building reuse and rehabilitation. In the second part of the term students prepare recommendations for the neighborhood that will meet the conflicting interests of financial institutions, real estate developers, civic organizations, community groups, public officials, and a wide variety of participants in the planning and development process. The end product is a printed book presenting the results of their work. Prerequisite: 4021a, STCY 176b, or equivalent course work. Limited enrollment. Alexander Garvin

4212a, American Cultural Landscapes: An Introduction to the History of the Built Environment 3 credits. After a brief review of Native American and colonial settlements, this lecture course surveys the growth of towns and cities between 1800 and 1920, then examines the shift between 1920 and the present, when residential and commercial activities move away from city centers into diffuse, automobile-dependent metropolitan regions. Students complete one brief writing assignment and one fifteen-page paper. Dolores Hayden

[4213a, Gender, Territory, and Space 3 credits. This seminar explores women’s and men’s everyday experiences of built environments and the city and considers how gender (along with race, class, age, and sexual orientation) affects the design and use of a range of spaces from the most private to the most public. The main focus is on the United States from the late nineteenth century to the present, but other countries offer examples of built projects fostering full citizenship or practices of spatial segregation that deny basic civil rights. Readings are drawn from architecture, history, gender studies, and geography. Students are required to present papers. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Dolores Hayden]

4214a, Built Environments and the Politics of Place 3 credits. Call it the built environment, the vernacular, everyday architecture, or the cultural landscape, the material world of built and natural places is intricately bound up with social and political life. This research seminar explores research methods and sources for writing the history of the built environment, including maps, aerial and ground photographs, planning documents, landscape analysis, and GIS. It includes readings from history, geography, anthropology, and architecture as well as readings on narrative and graphic strategies for representing spaces and places. Students present papers. Sections from longer theses or dissertations in progress are welcome. Dolores Hayden

4216a, Globalization Space: International Infrastructure and Extrastatecraft 3 credits. This lecture course researches global infrastructures as a medium of transnational polity. Lectures visit the networks of trade, communication, tourism, labor, air, rail, highway, oil, hydrology, finance, and activism. Case studies travel around the world to, for instance, free trade zones in Dubai, IT campuses in South Asia, high-speed rail in Saudi Arabia, cable/satellite networks in Africa, highways in India, a resort in the DPRK, golf courses in China, oil-financed development in Sudan, and automated ports. These investigations begin in transnational territory where new infrastructure consortia operate in parallel to or in partnership with nations. Not only an atlas or survey of physical networks and shared protocols, the course also considers their pervasive and long-term effects on polity and culture. Infrastructures may constitute a de facto parliament of global decision making or an intensely spatial extra statecraft. Each week, readings, with both evidence and discursive commentary, accompany two lectures and a discussion section. A short midterm paper establishes each student’s research question for the term. A longer final paper completes the requirements of the course. Limited enrollment. Keller Easterling

[4217a, Suburbs 3 credits. American downtowns have declined in size and influence since 1920 as suburbs have come to dominate urban regions. After considering the history of diverse suburban landscapes, this seminar explores definitions of sprawl linking impoverished inner-city areas to growth on metropolitan fringes. Representations of suburban built environments in photography, films, and literature are examined. A research paper of 20–30 pages (or an alternative documentary or public humanities project) is required. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Dolores Hayden]

4219b, Urban Research and Representation 3 credits. Every day, architects and urban designers make proposals that shape the public and private realms of the city. This seminar sets out to contextualize the social and political ramifications of these interventions; to intensify the designer’s tool kit of deep, sociohistorical research of site and place; and to cultivate a reflexive practice that considers seriously the social responsibilities of both the architect and the urban researcher. In the classroom, and in the field, this seminar introduces a diverse set of methods for studying the urban environment, from the archival and visual to the observational and ethnographic. Limited enrollment. Elihu Rubin

4221a, Introduction to Commercial Real Estate 3 credits. This seminar introduces commercial real estate. It does not require any prior knowledge of finance, accounting, or taxation policies. Commercial real estate is income-producing property that is built, financed, and sold for investment. This course examines five basic types of commercial real estate (office, industrial, retail, multifamily, and hotel) from the standpoints of the developer, lender, and investor. Principles of location, financing, timing of market cycles, leasing, ownership structure, and external factors are explored. Students are expected to evaluate assets, partnership interests, and other positions such as debtor interests through valuation measurement, which requires the use of some simple mathematics. An HP-12C calculator or laptop computer with Excel for use in class is required. Students also examine commercial deeds, leases, partnership agreements, and other legal documents. Each student selects a building or development site within New Haven County for a due diligence analysis of zoning, real estate taxes, deeds, liens, market supply and demand, projected income and expenses, and availability of debt. In addition to out-of-class assignments, a brief exercise is included during each class. Limited enrollment. Kevin D. Gray

4222a, History of Landscape Architecture: Antiquity to 1700 in Western Europe 3 credits. This course presents an introductory survey of the history of gardens and the interrelationship of architecture and landscape architecture in Western Europe from antiquity to 1700, focusing primarily on Italy. The course examines chronologically the evolution of several key elements in landscape design: architectural and garden typologies; the boundaries between inside and outside; issues of topography and geography; various uses of water; organization of plant materials; and matters of garden decoration. Specific gardens or representations of landscape in each of the four periods under discussion—Ancient Roman; medieval; early and late Renaissance; and Baroque—are examined and situated within their own cultural context. Throughout the seminar, comparisons of historical material with contemporary landscape design are made. Limited enrollment. Bryan Fuermann

4223b, History of British Landscape Architecture: 1600 to 1900 3 credits. This seminar examines the history of landscape architecture and of the idea of nature in Britain from 1600 to 1900. Topics of discussion include Italian and French influences on the seventeenth-century British garden; the Palladian country house and British agricultural landscape; Capability Brown’s landscape parks as national landscape style; garden theories of the picturesque and of the sublime; Romanticism and the psychology of nature; the creation of the public park system; arts and crafts landscape design; and the beginnings of landscape modernism. Comparisons of historical material with contemporary landscape design are emphasized throughout the term. The collection of the Yale Center for British Art is used for primary visual material, and a trip to England over spring break, partially funded by the School, allows students to visit firsthand the landscape parks studied in this seminar. Limited enrollment. Bryan Fuermann

[4226a, Ecological Urban Design 3 credits. Ecologists are increasingly interested in studying urban systems and have recently moved beyond the traditional focus from “ecology in cities” to “the ecology of cities.” This shift has catalyzed a new discourse in urban ecology, which has given rise to a number of questions: How do we define urban ecosystems? How do we combine science, design, and planning to shape and manage urban ecosystems? How do we implement effective and adaptable experimental and monitoring methods specific to urban sites and human subjects in order to conduct viable urban ecological research? Exploring these questions requires designers and ecologists to achieve more familiarity with each other’s areas of expertise including research methods and the scientific process as well as the design process. This seminar focuses on the application of urban ecology to the design of cities. The course provides an overview of urban ecology and how designers and scientists can work in complementary ways to foster dialogue and integrate ecological research and analysis with city planning and design. The course seeks to reposition urban ecology as a practice not only focused on studying urban ecosystems but also on a combined effort to study and reshape them. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Alexander Felson]

[4227b, Ownership/Clientship: A Global Review of Real Estate 3 credits. This seminar examines the ownership of commercial and institutional real estate globally, changing patterns of ownership since 1900, and the impact of ownership on the quality and type of real estate projects built. The course examines the history of family ownership up to the present day; the tremendous growth in private equity, both institutional and third-party; the rise of developers as owners; the establishment of commercial real estate as a legitimate asset class for investment; and the powerful influence of sovereign funds on capital allocation in the world of commercial real estate. Included are discussions on the history of public equity and syndication markets; how tax and other regulations have influenced property development; the financing and development of new towns and large-scale developments; the development of commercial real estate assets by railroads, timber companies, and other commercial enterprises; the role of corporations in developing properties for their own use; and institutional nonprofit “clientship.” Students are expected to produce an individual research paper requiring primary research and direct contact with a major owner of commercial real estate projects, tracing the ownership and development history of a specific, large-scale commercial real estate project ($100MM or more). In addition, periodic analysis of company financial statements and other documents is required. This course requires some basic mathematics and the use of a financial calculator or laptop computer in class. Limited enrollment. Not offered in 2012–2013. Kevin D. Gray]

4229a, Disurbanism: Critical Readings on the Contemporary City 3 credits. The seminar examines critical readings and projects associated with what is loosely called “Disurbanism,” borrowing from the original visions of the Soviet avant-garde, in order to explore both the utopian and dystopian aspects of these writings and works. The course analyzes how the prospects of an attenuated and diffuse urbanism have shifted from a utopian critique of both the bourgeois and early capitalist industrial cities to the requirements for a redefinition of City itself as it has evolved into a vast metropolitan network enabled by the automobile and electronic media. Disurbanism’s dystopian incarnation, the disappearance of the City, and the subsequent account of the loss of cultural values and the critical discourse surrounding a denatured aesthetics of the sublime are also explored. Students are expected to present material and participate in discussions of the readings as well as submit a final paper. Limited enrollment. Edward Mitchell

4230a, Topics in Chinese Landscape, Architecture, and Urbanism 3 credits. This seminar introduces major themes in the history and theory of the Chinese built environment in relation to the core typologies of Chinese architecture and the history of the city of Beijing. Specific buildings, gardens, and junctures in the city’s development (important historical, cultural, and architectural markers) are used as an armature for building a layered understanding of this city both as it was, is now, and is fast becoming. Topics considered include: Beijing as the apotheosis of the walled imperial city type, the identification and mapping of this system’s persistent structures, the module of the courtyard and the many scales at which it is used in the traditional city (house, temple, city), the garden, pre-1949 Western and Republican influences on the city, post-1949 transformations of home and city, the structures of contemporary Beijing, as well as the issues impacting Beijing’s future. Limited enrollment. Amy Lelyveld

4231b, City-Making on the Arabian Peninsula 3 credits. From eighth-century Baghdad to twenty-first-century Masdar, the Middle East has been approached, from within and without, as a susceptible terrain for creating cities. This seminar considers the histories and mythologies of city-making on the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on urban planning since the early twentieth century. Modern city-making is discussed as a globally induced building boom, delivered by figures like American oil men in Saudi Arabia and Sir Norman Foster in Abu Dhabi. A regional survey includes an inspection of Gulf cities (Abu Dhabi, Aramco company towns, Doha, Dubai, Jubail, Kuwait, and Riyadh) and their earliest attempts at modern urbanization. Arising themes and particularities are discussed. Historical context, mostly in the first half of the term, provides students the means to analyze forces and ideologies shaping the newest cities and mega-projects in the region and beyond. The course is not so much a geographical study as an investigation of the pervasive contemporary forces in urbanism and globalization. Whenever possible, the week’s discussions focus on a particular Gulf city as the exemplification of chosen themes. Beyond just sociology and urbanism, reading and discussion materials include primary historical documents and historical and contemporary journalism. Limited enrollment. Todd Reisz

4232b, Wild Urbanism 3 credits. Vast landscapes of postindustrial cities have gone wild. Sites strewn with weeds growing out of gritty remnants of productive pasts lay fallow. Most people see these landscapes as empty, blighted, worthless. Are they really? This seminar’s premise calls into question the dismissal of urban wilds while acknowledging the dilemma of what to do with them. The investigation involves wrestling with the definition of urban wilderness, or urban wilds emerging from varied vantage points, including art and design, geography, and science. Collective readings and individual research explore the potency of charismatic wilds reshaping the urban landscape. Students are asked to actively engage in group discussions of readings and to produce an individual visual essay on a selected, disciplinary vehicle that crafts a definition of urban wilds. Each student is asked to choose among varied vantage points that range from artists’ and designers’ work to landscape theory, urban ecology, and other postindustrial cities as comparative case studies. Julie Bargmann

4299a or b, Independent Course Work 3 or 6 credits. Program to be determined with a faculty adviser of the student’s choice and submitted, with the endorsement of the study area coordinator, to the Rules Committee for confirmation of the student’s eligibility under the rules. (See the School’s Academic Rules and Regulations. Available for credit to fulfill the M.Arch. I Urbanism and Landscape elective requirement with the approval of the study area coordinators.)

The following courses offered elsewhere in the University will fulfill the Urbanism and Landscape elective requirement and may be taken for credit with the permission of the instructor.

EVST 346b, Urbanization and the Environment in China and India Study of contemporary urbanization processes in China and India, with a focus on environmental challenges and sustainable development. Energy, food, water, and land-use systems; manufacturing, industry, and technology; cultures and lifestyles. Introduction to conceptual and analytical tools for assessing the effects of urbanization. Karen Seto, Angel Hsu

F&ES 802b/MGT 682b, Valuing the Environment This quantitative course demonstrates alternative methods used to value environmental services. The course covers valuing pollution, ecosystems, and other natural resources. The focus of the course is on determining the “shadow price” of nonmarket resources that have no prices but yet are considered valuable by society. Taught every other year. Three hours lecture. Robert Mendelsohn

HIST 131Jb, Urban History in the United States, 1870 to the Present The history of work, leisure, consumption, and housing in American cities. Topics include immigration, formation and re-formation of ethnic communities, the segregation of cities along the lines of class and race, labor organizing, the impact of federal policy, the growth of suburbs, the War on Poverty and Reaganism, and post-Katrina New Orleans. Jennifer Klein

HSAR 238a/ARCG 238a/NELC 107a, Buried Cities: Thera, Pompeii, and Herculaneum Study of three ancient cities buried by volcanic eruptions—Thera in c. 1530 B.C. and Pompeii and Herculaneum in A.D. 79—with emphasis on their architecture, wall paintings, and small finds in cultural and historical context. Karen Foster

HSAR 788b, The Temple in Southern Asia The emergence of the Indian temple, as a monument fashioned through the medium of stone, in the fifth century marked a critical moment in the history of world architecture. The temple, as it evolved over the course of the first millennium, became both a highly complex architectural form and a supremely symbolic monument that worked at the levels of both ritual and space. This seminar examines the materiality and meanings of Indian temples through architectural form, sculptural imagery, and religious contexts. Readings include a range of scholarly essays on Indian architecture, religion, philosophy, and architectural theory as well as primary textual sources (all accompanied by English translations). Class sessions consist of both discussions and hands-on workshops that may better allow the group to interrogate the nature of the architecture through an exploration of the processes of its making and its potential as a medium. In addition, we consider the agency of the temple’s various audiences, including patrons and architects, sculptors and stonemasons, and a wide range of devotional communities. Tamara Sears

HUMS 423a/HSAR 264a/MMES 124a, Byzantion, Constantinople, Istanbul ​Byzantion, Constantinople, Istanbul, one city by three names, straddles Europe and Asia. The life and monuments of one of the world’s most interesting and beautiful cities from antiquity to the present, Homer to Pamuk, and church to mosque to secularism. Robert Nelson

HUMS 444b, The City of Rome ​An interdisciplinary study of Rome from its legendary origins through its evolving presence at the crossroads of Europe and the world. Exploration of the city’s rich interweaving of history, theology, literature, philosophy, and the arts in significant moments of Roman and world history. Virginia Jewiss

LAW 21016, Community and Economic Development Credit/fail. CED is one of the most interdisciplinary law school clinics in the country. In addition to law students, the clinic is open to students from the Schools of Management, Divinity, Forestry & Environmental Studies, Public Health, and Architecture with prior approval from a Law School faculty member. CED is also unusual in that it offers law students the chance to do pro bono transactional lawyering and policy work, rather than litigation. CED focuses on issues of neighborhood revitalization, education, social entrepreneurship, sustainable development, financial access, and financial inclusion as they relate to community and economic development. Students in CED represent and partner with community organizations, nonprofits, banks, local government, and small businesses. They work in regulatory, transactional, business, policy research, development and advocacy, and strategic capacities.

Students will examine both private and public sector activities, as well as hybrid approaches to development issues including: formation and governance of for-profit and not-for-profit entities (primarily nonstock corporations and LLCs); program design, strategic planning and decision making, and negotiating and drafting contracts; development employment and other policies; structuring real estate transactions; assessing the financial feasibility of proposed projects; securing funding from federal, state, local, and private sources; resolving zoning and environmental issues; negotiating local politics and facilitating collaborative problem-solving efforts. CED has a commitment to engaging students in local work, which can then be used to inform policy development at the local, state, and federal levels. Students will gain skills in client contact, memo preparation, regulatory agency contact, administrative agency contact, and negotiation. Depending upon the particular project, students will be exposed in grating depth to banking, finance, land use, business, and policy research, design, and advocacy.

The current working groups are: Housing Development, Community Banking, Food Policy, and Community Development Organizations. As work develops in new areas, additional groups will form based on need and interest. While we try to accommodate individual preference, we cannot guarantee that you will be assigned to your first-choice group if you sign up for CED.

The class seminar will meet once a week for two hours. Permission of the instructors required. Enrollment limited to twelve. J.L. Pottenger, Jr., S.M. Hudspeth, J.T. Marshall, C.F. Muckenfuss, L.P. Nadel

LAW 21118, Urban Legal History: New Haven Under what conditions do residents of a city succeed in cooperating to mutual advantage? This seminar will explore this question by focusing on the physical development of New Haven from 1638 to the present. Readings and class sessions will address, among other topics, the initial Nine Squares layout and colonial land allotments; the dynamics of land subdivision and private development (such as the Hillhouse subdivision); land assembly by Yale and others; the street network, the Green, and other public lands; such public works as the Farmington Canal, the planting of elm trees, and the interstate highways; and evolving controls on building quality and land use. Special attention will be given to New Haven’s nationally conspicuous efforts, since 1940, to provide public housing, renew neighborhoods, and nurture a nonprofit housing sector. Paper required. A third-year student will not be eligible to seek Supervised Analytic Writing credit. Enrollment limited to sixteen. R.C. Ellickson

MGT 548a, Real Estate Matthew Spiegel

MGT 895a, International Real Estate Kevin Gray

SOCY 183a/ER&M 283a, Urban America Introduction to urban sociology and to the study of American urban society over the past half century. Emphasis on the economic, political, and cultural dimensions of urban growth and inequality; processes of class, racial, and ethnic group formation; urban social problems and policy; and local community organization and politics. Marcus Hunter

SOCY 310b/EAST 410b, Urban Development in China Diverse models of urban development in China during the past thirty years, from global and Asian perspectives. Prerequisite: a course on China after 1949 or extended residence in the People’s Republic of China. Xiangming Chen

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