2009-2010 Fox International Fellows
Outgoing from Yale University

To Sidney Sussex College of Cambridge University, England

behmAmanda Behm
PhD, Histor
Project Title: "Historians of Empire and Imperial History in Britain, 1880-1935"

In the late nineteenth century, British imperial history arose as a discrete academic discipline and profession; separate, indeed, from general modern history, a new and controversial field in its own right. Moreover, it did so amidst moments of pitched intellectual and political crisis.  While colonial nationalists assailed existing rationales of British rule, and while the generation’s most charismatic politicians clashed over competing visions of the British nation and empire in front of a dramatically expanded electorate, Britons confronted and redefined their role as metropolitan citizens of an overseas empire. Indeed, that overseas empire itself became a unique object of study. Amanda’s project asks why, on academic and political fronts, imperial history emerged at this time and took widely varied shapes among different groups. By analyzing the varied contemporary responses to these problems, she hopes to promote a richer understanding of the contested development of ideas on imperial citizenship, governance and political economy in the years both preceding and well past the First World War.

Future Plans: Amanda’s future plans include a career in academic writing and teaching.

Atisha Kumar
Graduated B.A., Political Science
Project Title: "From Dictatorships to Democracies? Political Determinants of the Direction of Migration Flows"

To El Colegio de México, Mexico City

Matthew A. Blomerth
Graduated MA, International Relations
Project Title: "A House Divided: Exploring Mexico's Energy Policy Debate"

Matthew aims to explore the controversy surrounding energy sector reform in Mexico. The debate over oil industry reform has long been a ‘third rail’ of Mexican politics. Fierce disagreement rages between proponents of maintaining a nationalized oil industry with very limited private sector involvement and an increasingly loud chorus of dissidents who have proposed that private sector firms, including major multinational corporations, be allowed to reenter the Mexican market after being largely excluded for over seven decades. Until recently, the public’s hostility to foreign involvement in domestic oil production, stemming from a long-standing mistrust of foreign intervention, prevented political leaders from advocating reform. However, the specter of growing inefficiency at a time when oil revenues account for approximately forty percent of the Mexican federal budget has prompted Mexico’s president, Felipe Calderón, to take the risky step of promoting an ambitious privatization program that would open the door to heavy foreign investment.

Future Plans: Matthew is an Eagle Scout, polo player, and scuba diver. He plans to begin studies for an MBA at the University of Chicago's Booth School of Business in the fall of 2010.

konoveAndrew Konove
PhD, History
Project Title: "Making Change: Money, Consumption, and Economic Development in Mexico, 1750-1850"

Andrew’s research focuses on the relationship between monetary crises and social and economic change during Mexico's transition from colony to republic.

By the second half of the eighteenth century, a crisis of small change had hit colonial Mexico. Because the Crown refused to allow the production of copper coins in New Spain, colonists had resorted to making their own currency, called tlacos, which the poor could use to purchase basic staples.  Andrew’s project follows the debates about copper coinage from the second half of the eighteenth-century, when Bourbon reformers first suggested that the lack of small change was preventing economic growth, to the mid-nineteenth century, when the republican government's disastrous experiment with copper coins, which had brought widespread inflation and deprivation, finally came to an end.  By looking at money from the perspective of both policymakers and consumers, this project seeks to shed new light on Mexico's frustrated economic development in the nineteenth century.  

Future Plans: Andrew hopes to pursue a career in academia.

To the Freie University, Berlin and Moscow State University

benedykcinskiMichal Benedykcinski
Graduated B.A., History and International Studies
Project Title: "European Energy Security: The German – Russian Connection"

Michal hopes to study the development of the European energy security strategies in relation to one of its main suppliers, Russia. Germany and Russia share a rich history of cooperation in the energy sector and are major forces behind the energy security negotiations on the European continent which makes them ideal destinations for this type of the project. Through archival research at FU Berlin and MSU, visits to the headquarters of major energy corporations, and interviews with senior executives, political activists, academics and government officials responsible for implementing energy policy, Michal will endeavor to answer the following questions:

  1. Does the European Union have a collective energy security strategy? 
  2. If so, what does this strategy consist of and how does it prioritize between security, commercial and environmental concerns?
  3. Have there been any changes in strategy over time?

Europe can take steps to reduce or at least delay growing Russian influence by diversifying sources of gas supplies and investing in additional storage capacity. While diversification of supply sources and transit routes in the short run might lead to the additional costs from a construction of additional energy-supply infrastructure, in the long run it pays dividends of the increased security of energy supply, and increased autonomy in formulating both domestic and foreign policy.

Future Plans: Michal hopes to combine an academic career with a consulting career as an expert advisor to public and private sector on the energy diplomacy. Ultimately, he hopes to develop innovative solutions to energy security problems faced by developing economies.

* spending one semester at each unversity

To Fudan University, Shanghai

fonsecaLucineida Fonseca
Graduated B.A., History
Project Title: "Chocolate City and 'The Land of Myth and Legend': Narratives of African Immigrants in the People’s Republic of China"

There has yet to be a comprehensive inquiry into the state of Africans living in China. China’s economic poverty has historically made it a nation of emigrants, rather than immigrants. While richly diverse in terms of culture and language, in terms of color, China has remained one of the most homogenous nations in the world. In recent years, as economic and political cooperation has increased between China and the African continent, African immigrants have flocked to Chinese cities, seeking better opportunities, better lives. Cities like Guangzhou in southern China have seen the rise of a large African merchant class and the number of incoming immigrants continues to rise exponentially. Taxi drivers and local Chinese have coined the city of Guangzhou Chao-keli Shi or Chocolate City in reference to the more than 20,000 Africans currently living in the city of a little over a million. Further research into these communities is imperative to our understanding of how we will live together in a world of increased movement. Luci’s project attempts to probe into the lives and experiences of these immigrant communities, focusing on the legal implications they pose for China’s development as a nation-state. 

Luci is the founder of the Youth Forum on China-Africa Relations at Yale. She enjoys windsurfing and scuba diving in shipwrecks.

Future Plans: After pursuing a JD/MBA, Luci plans to work in poverty alleviation and institutional development.

Scott Moskowitz
Graduated MA, East Asian Studies
Project Title: "New Media, New World?"

Scott’s research is focused on journalism education in China and specifically the way universities and young journalists are responding to the challenges (and opportunities) that new media presents to traditional social and political discourse.

Future Plans: Scott plans to pursue a career as a journalist and media scholar.

To the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris(Sciences Po), France

Sara Rahman
Graduated B.A., History
Project Title: "Feminism and the Family: Discourses on Reproductive Justice and Family Planning in France since the 1980s"

Sara will focus her research on public perceptions of the State’s role in protecting women’s reproductive freedoms since the establishment of the Ministry for Women’s Rights in 1981.

In 1981, François Mitterrand became the first Socialist president of the Fifth Republic of France. Consistent with campaign promises, he established the Ministry for Women’s Rights, a major breakthrough for French feminists, and appointed prominent feminist politician Yvette Roudy as Minister. Mme. Roudy managed to balance Mitterrand’s priority of raising France’s birth rate with feminist aims to expand women’s reproductive freedoms, passing several key reforms in France’s family planning policy. Sara will track changes in public opinion regarding key topics such as state subsidization of contraception and abortion, maternity rights, and the tension between motherhood and work. She hopes to use her research to outline possible methods of directing American family planning policy so that the American public prioritizes and values reproductive justice.

Future Plans: Sara plans to pursue a career in international women’s law.

To Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Mehran Gul
Graduated M.A., International Relations
Project Title: "The India-Pakistan Peace Process"

sudhofSoren Sudhof
Graduated B.A., Ethics, Politics, and Economics
Project Title: "National Security Policies, Economic Growth, and Regional-Central Disputes in India"

Soren will work with think tanks, academics, and government officials in New Delhi to understand difficulties in setting national policies that are dependent on regional cooperation (or even implementation) to be effective. The 26/11 terrorist attacks in Mumbai revealed serious problems in the national emergency response infrastructure, and the endemic smuggling across all of India's porous borders creates further security risks that cannot be addressed exclusively centrally. However, regional governments' interests often compete with central priorities, and local political parties are often more concerned with local economic growth than national security. This results in ineffective systems. Corruption and the rent-seeking behavior of officials at all levels of government is a substantial part of the problem, and thus inevitably Soren  will also seek to better understand the fundamental ethics that drive public participation and shape citizens' perception of their future economic and political roles.

Future Plans: After completing the project, Soren will head back to the U.S. to start work at a management consulting firm.

To Tel Aviv University, Israel

Margaret Goodlander
Graduated B.A., Senior, History
Project Title: "Reconsidering the Camp David Accords"

As the United States enters a new era of international leadership, pressing questions about America’s role in the Middle East remain unsolved. During Jimmy Carter’s presidency, the world witnessed the eruption of great diplomatic successes across the greater Middle East; alongside these political advances, there remained barriers in sustaining peace, security, and cooperation among Israel and its neighbors. The 1979 Camp David Accords and the resulting Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty represents one of the greatest triumphs in Middle Eastern diplomacy, yet ultimately the treaty has proven insufficient in securing lasting peace between its principal participants.

Maggie sees understanding the successes, failures, and implications of the most formidable step in the peace process of the modern Middle East as an essential component of her academic and personal development. Further exploring the consequential history of the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty might shed light on how Israel ought to proceed as it forges renewed commitments to peace with Egypt and Jordan and new agreements with Syrian, Lebanon, and Palestinians.

Future Plans: Maggie will pursue a career in foreign affairs and law.

robinsonSara Robinson
Graduated B.A., Political Science
Project Title: "The Evolution of a Social Movement: A Study of Israeli Peace Activism from 1989 to the Present"




To The University of Cape Town, South Africa

afsahiAlexander Afsahi
Graduated B.A., History
Project Title: "Sport, Stipend and Salvation: Volunteer Retention Rates in Community Based Health Organizations in Southern Africa"

Alex’s research focuses on Grassroot Soccer Inc. (GRS), an organization that trains African soccer stars, coaches, teachers, and peer educators in a soccer-themed HIV prevention curriculum. The curriculum serves as a platform for deeper conversations about the dangers, myths and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and the ways individuals can protect themselves.

Alex will analyze the attitudes and motivations of GRS’ volunteer coaches, the lifeblood of the program. With his research Alex hopes to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between volunteer health educators and community-based public health programs.

Future Plans: As a member of Yale’s soccer team Alex helped the team win its first Ivy League championship in fifteen years. He hopes to combine his love of history, sports, teaching kids, and traveling by pursuing a PhD in 20th century European history and teaching at the high school level.

To University of Tokyo, Japan

shatilBenjamin Shatil
Graduated MA, International Relations

Benjamin was a Paul Mellon Fellow from Clare College, Cambridge, whilst at Yale. He was the recipient of the Yale University prize for International Relations in 2009.

Future Plans: Benjamin plans to maintain academic and professional links to East Asia, with a particular focus on security and strategy in regional relations.

To the University of São Paulo, Brazil

ZelekEileen Castilla Zelek
Graduated B.A., Latin American Studies/Ethnicity, Race, & Migration
Project Title: "Brazil-China Relations: Development during the Post-Cold War Period and a Glimpse into the Future"

Since the mid-1990s, Brazil has followed a diversified foreign agenda, both under former President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and now under Lula Inacio da Silva’s government. China is a crucial partner in Brazil’s vision of establishing a “new geography in international trade.” Indeed, the Lula administration considers China to be Brazil’s most promising political ally and business partner. Despite progress in joint-action, Brazil’s euphoria over its partnership with China has recently diminished for several reasons. Eileen plans to analyze the nature and potential of relations between Brazil and China, two of the so-called BRIC nations, especially in light of the current global financial meltdown. Eileen also will examine the implications of the Brazil-China strategic partnership for the United States, as well as its influence on the world’s two other fastest growing developing economies, Russia and India.

Future Plans: Upon returning from Brazil, Eileen plans to attend law school.

2009-2010 Fox International Fellows
Incoming to Yale University

From Boğaziçi University, Istanbul

JefroudiMaral Jefroudi (spring)
PhD, Contemporary History
Project Title: "The Making of a Revolution: Writing the Lived History of the First Years of the Iranian Revolution"

The literature on the Iranian Revolution takes the events in the history of the revolution as bricks building up the “natural” leadership of the Islamist powers. While the official history of the Iranian Revolution dismisses the power struggles at the street level and also at the level of “home” and constructs a linear evolution; alternative histories break the silence through memoirs and other forms of narratives. The years before the consolidation of the revolution, about 1978-1981, point to an era of solidarity, success, and at some part a feeling of security in those narratives. Maral’s project is to write a history of those years of the making of the revolution. Her research will focus on the political implications of the existence of such a “golden era” of the Iranian Revolution and multiple memories that it invokes.

Future Plans: Maral would like to pursue an academic career as an instructor and a researcher focusing on Memory Studies and the History of Social and Political Change, especially in the context of the Middle East.

From Sidney Sussex College of Cambridge University, England

allcockThomas Tunstall Allcock
PhD, History
Project Title: "Lyndon Johnson, Thomas Mann, and the Alliance for Progress"

Appointed assistant-secretary of state for inter-American affairs in December 1963, and shortly after named special assistant to the president and Alliance for Progress coordinator, Thomas Mann was a powerful force in the creation of Latin American policy, yet little in-depth research has been conducted into his career and influence. When Mann does receive attention, it is usually for the creation of 'The Mann Doctrine', seen as the point at which the idealistic goals of the Alliance for Progress established by John F. Kennedy were replaced by a focus on U.S. economic and security interests.

Thomas’ research aims to provide a more detailed and nuanced understanding of an experienced and talented diplomat, as well as using his 20 year government career to assess the changes in Latin American policy witnessed throughout this period.

Future Plans: Thomas hopes to continue his academic career in a university position that would incorporate both teaching and pursuing his own research interests.

guestRupert Guest (fall)
MPhil, International Relations
Project Title: "Visions of Kosovo in Serbia's Euro-Atlantic Integration"

Richard Holbrooke, the Clinton Administration’s Balkans envoy, once framed Serbia’s choice as Europe or Kosovo? And if you choose Kosovo, you lose both. Ten years after NATO’s Operation: Allied Force, the validity of this statement remains unproven. Seen from Washington as a vehicle to suppress the violence of the 1990s, integration of the Former Yugoslavia into the EU has been slow, inconsistent and ineffective in answering outstanding questions of sovereignty.

This research aims to understand how policymakers in Washington, Brussels and Belgrade construct the relationship between acceptance of Kosovo’s independence and Serbia’s progression into Euro-Atlantic structures. Europe’s lack of political will and coherence has ensured that conditionality has not formally addressed Serbia’s attitude towards Kosovo’s independence. Such a bargain has been rendered impossible by the intransigence of key power-brokers such as Spain towards recognition.

The USA’s frustration with the EU’s efforts has come into sharper focus with the new Democratic Administration. This has been at the foundation of discussions over the creation of a US Envoy for the Balkans and Biden’s May2009 visit to the region. It is thus an appropriate time to analyze the likelihood of European integration resolving this frozen conflict.

Future Plans: Rupert plans to pursue his interest in the political situation in the Balkans, before beginning a career in international finance.

From Freie University, Berlin

rytzHenriette Rytz
PhD, Political Science
Project Title: "Toward a Framework for the Analysis of Ethnic Interest Group Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of Cuban-American 'Power'"

Henriette’s research explores the influence of ethnic interest groups on U.S. foreign policy. Ethnic interest groups representing migrant communities identify both with their country of origin and their country of settlement. Based on this hybrid identity, members ascribe themselves a certain expertise and interest in shaping the relations between the two states they relate to. However, even within a political system which is very favorable to interest group influence, such as the system of the United States, not all groups are equally successful. Henriette’s research seeks to explore under what conditions ethnic interest groups succeed in influencing U.S. foreign policy towards their country of origin. A framework for the analysis of this phenomenon will be developed which will then be tested by applying it to the case of the Cuban-American community and its political representation.

Future Plans: Henriette plans to pursue a career in international politics. She aspires to work either at the nexus of academia and politics or as a practitioner in international politics.

trebeschChristoph Trebesch
PhD, Economics
Project Title: "Resolving Sovereign Debt Crises: The Role of Creditor Composition"

Christoph’s project focuses on the resolution of sovereign debt crises, in particular the role of creditor composition in debt renegotiations.

Financial crises can severely affect economic prosperity. In his research, Christoph analyses the resolution of financial crises, in particular, of sovereign debt crises. He is mainly interested in the role of creditor composition for crisis resolution and related debt negotiations between governments and foreign banks and bondholders. A key hypothesis is that creditor heterogeneity may result in longer debt renegotiations, thus delaying crisis resolution and, possibly trigger larger “haircuts” (creditor losses). Christoph also aims to understand whether crises involving a majority of US creditors differed from cases with mostly European creditors. The cornerstone of his econometric analysis will be a novel dataset on creditor characteristics in crisis situations. Ultimately, his project intends to contribute to the academic literature as well as the ongoing debate on a new international financial architecture.

Future Plans: Christoph plans to pursue a career in academia or in an international organization.

From Fudan University, Shanghai

xuFei Xu
PhD, Law
Project Title: "Intellectual Property and Public Interests: Copyright Protection on Cyberspace"

Fei’s research focuses on the development of digital technology and the protection of public interest and intellectual rights. Her research addresses questions such as how we can balance the interests of copyright owners and the interest of the public in the internet age ? How can a copyright owner prove the exact amount of damages or unlawful income of the infringer? How do judges decide indemnity for online infringements? When the copyright protection of music and films conflict with the development of new technology, how can we balance the rights of music and movie pictures copyright owners, and that of the new technology innovators and the new media users? What is the future of the internet, and what is the future of the entertainment industry and new technology industry?

Future Plans: Fei, a PhD candidate at Fudan University , is also a judge in the Chinese court. She plans on continuing to work as a judge and contributing to the development of cyberspace policy in China.

zhuangHui Zhuang
PhD, History
Project Title: "Protestant Philanthropy Enterprise in Shanghai (1901-1954): Rethinking of Evangelism in China"

Hui’s research will focus on the Chinese Mission to Lepers (1926-1954). The mission was launched by Chinese Protestant priests and laymen in 1926 with the aim of ridding China of leprosy. In the beginning, it was sponsored mainly by the American Mission to Lepers (now American Leprosy Mission) and was later interrupted by the Pacific War. After building the National Leprosium of China in 1936, it received financial subsidies from all governments in Shanghai, including Common Settlement, French Concession, KMT government, Japan-controlled Shanghai Municipality, and even the Communist Regime in Shanghai after 1949. The Mission ended in 1954 when the Leprosium was taken over by the government. Hui’s research tries to tell the story about the strife and survival of a Christian Philanthropy organization in Shanghai and the people involved.

Future Plans: Upon completion of his PhD, Hui plans to continue to work for academic exchange and mutual understanding between China and America.

From the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), France

cavannaThomas Cavanna
PhD, History
Project Title: "The US Foreign Policy towards India and Pakistan in the 1970s"

Thomas plans to analyze US Foreign Policy in the Indian sub-continent during the 1970s, with a special focus on India and Pakistan.

His study starts at the end of the 3rd Indo-Pakistani conflict (December 1971), with the split of Pakistan and the new status of India as the great regional power. The 1970s are a mix of relative indifference, limited US attempts to take into account the new Indian domination, mutual misunderstandings, mutual distrust, and changing priorities, following the US changes of strategy and the dramatic changes of regimes both in India and Pakistan. Thomas’ study ends with the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviets (December 1979), which led the US to look for a new alliance with Pakistan and enter an era of increasing tensions with the USSR. Thomas plans to analyze the relations between the three countries through the following questions: Indo-Pakistani rivalry, the Cold War and the great powers’ rivalry (USSR, China…), the views of the successive US Presidents and Administrations (Nixon-Kissinger-Ford, Carter-Brzezinski), the nuclear race, democracy standards, military and economic supply.

Future Plans: Thomas plans to become a professor in France or abroad.

From Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

chalakkalKavitha Chalakkal
PhD, Law
Project Title: "International Legal Framework for Conservation of Wild Animals with Special Reference to Migratory Species"

Kavitha’s study focuses on the issues and emerging concerns under international wildlife law, especially the international migratory species law. Her study intends to look into the economic and institutional factors that bring the species under threat as they are the principal destructive process at work now in the modification or loss of species' habitats. The study will try to examine the problem of conservation from legal and institutional perspectives, in order to identify opportunities for an expanded approach to conservation of species. The major focus of Kavitha’s work will relate to implementation aspects of the relevant conservation laws. This will mainly compare the issues in the translation of the precautionary approach into operational measures in the specific field of wild animal conservation and natural resource management as well as issues of sustainable development, poverty eradication, and livelihoods as they relate to the regime. The work is inter-disciplinary in nature since the role of scientific and technological development plays a key role in conservation issues. In the process, Kavitha will make an effort to analyze and understand some of the key questions that are part of the current discourse both among scholars and at the intergovernmental level.

Future Plans: Kavitha plans to pursue a career as a professor of law and to explore the link between academics and applied international law in order to use her research for concrete impacts in international wildlife law.

From Moscow State University, Russia

biserovGleb Biserov
PhD, Economics
Project Title: "Public-Private Partnership in Stimulating Technological Innovations: Cross-National Comparison"

In his research, Gleb will analyze those types of public-private partnership projects which are aimed at advancing infrastructure for successful technological innovation, i.e., primarily, PPPs in technology parks creation, and also in science-industry collaboration and technology-transfer programs. In Russia, a majority of those projects are still state-financed. A thin layer of public-private projects includes BTO projects in technology parks infrastructure, “naukograd” (science-technology city) development programs, and business incubators. Gleb will find and analyze samples of projects of this kind in the US and several European countries.

Future Plans: After obtaining his PhD, Gleb plans to combine a career in Russian Government with further academic research.

gulempinchenkoOxana Gulempinchenko (fall)
PhD, History
Project Title: "Political Battle in the USA on Health Care Reform during the Clinton Administration (1993-2000)"

Oxana’s research focuses on the role of the executive power, political parties and interest groups in the political battle on health care reform during the Clinton Administration. Throughout the 20th century health care reform was in the foreground of congressional debates in the USA and it remains a top priority today. In 1992 Clinton won the presidential election with his program “Putting People First”, in which he promised to pay attention to the needs of the middle class and to solve crucial problems in the American health care system: expanding access to health insurance and reducing costs. In 1993 the Special Task Force headed by Hillary Clinton worked out the Health Security Act. The effort resulted in a political struggle and eventually the attempt at reform failed. In the ensuing years of the Clinton presidency the political battle continued, and during the second term several progressive laws in that sphere were enacted. Oxana will analyze the political battle on health care reform during the Clinton Administration and trace the interaction of different political institutions in relation to health care debates.  

Future Plans: Oxana plans to pursue an academic career in teaching.

From The University of Cape Town, South Africa

moyoAdmark Moyo
PhD, Law
Project Title: "Reconciling Child Participation and Parental Responsibilities in Custody Decision-Making under African Customary Law"

Parental separation or divorce has troubled families for centuries. Being an adult solution to adult problems (marital disputes), divorce traditionally leaves children with no say over their destiny. Indeed, stakes are usually so high that child participation is an ancillary matter at divorce. Children are not consulted and when they are, the consultation is merely tokenistic. In response to the apparent reluctance (in both the private and public spheres) to elicit children’s views on matters that affect them, the last thirty years have registered an unprecedented upsurge of scholarship on children’s right to be heard or to decide. The United Nations-led body of jurisprudence, with its emphasis on the need to regard the child as an autonomous bearer of rights, poses enduring problems to adult conceptions of the family. This is particularly so in African societies; where emphasis on group solidarity, obedience and respect means that children are less assertive. Further, child custody largely depends on whether lobola (bride wealth) has been paid or whether the child is marital. Against this background, it is fitting to consider not only the extent to which children have the autonomy to choose their custodian but also the extent to which parents, or others with parental responsibility, have the right to overrule the wishes of children below the ‘age’ of discretion or to force them to do what is in their best interests.

Future Plans: Admark hopes to speak for those without a voice, even if it means losing the support or company of those who have always supported him in many other contexts. He plans on working for regional or world bodies such as the UN as an advocate of children’s rights and later join civil society for the same cause.

tshivhaseAifheli Tshivhase
PhD, Military Law
Project Title: "Military courts in a democratic South Africa: In search of a model for their judicial independence"

Military courts in a democratic South Africa: In search of a model for their judicial independence.

The independence of South African military courts is questionable in light of the new Constitution. Problems relating to judicial independence and the right to be tried by an independent and impartial tribunal can be identified at various levels in the hierarchy of military courts. Aifheli’s research project investigates ways of achieving an appropriate degree of judicial independence of military courts in South Africa. It will attempt to find comprehensive solutions on ways of improving the judicial independence of these courts.

Aifheli was awarded a prestigious Abe Bailey travel Fellowship to tour England in 1999. He is also very active in both civilian and military life.

Future Plans: Aifheli plans to return to his academic position at the University of Cape Town where he hopes to establish himself as an outstanding scholar in military law.

From the University of Tokyo, Japan

ideHiroko Ide
PhD, Law and Politics
Project Title: "The Effect of Deliberation on Participation: Comparative Study in the US and Japan"

Hiroko plans to conduct experiments to examine the effects of deliberative discussions. Whereas deliberation requires understanding opposing sides, participation is often facilitated by one-sided partisan enthusiasm. Contrary to this apparent tension between deliberation and participation, Hiroko’s fieldwork on citizen deliberations in Japan has found that randomly selected participants of deliberative meetings increased their intent to participate in future deliberations, if not voting. To test two hypotheses generated to explain the difference between the Japanese case and the suggested tension, Hiroko is planning a comparative study of deliberative experiments in the US and Japan.

Future Plans: Hiroko plans to pursue an academic career in fields related to political psychology.

ishisoneMichiko Ishisone
PhD, International Study
Project Title: "Political Economy of Copper in Zambia: A Closer Look at Distributional Structure"

Rather than utilizing their resources for economic growth and socio-economic development, many African countries with abundant natural resources have suffered from economic depression. This phenomenon is called the “Resource Curse” or the “Paradox of Plenty.” Over the last few years, the rising demands for natural resources in emerging countries have stimulated the market price. Furthermore, due to the remarkable increase in oil and mineral prices in recent years, some African countries have experienced greater economic growth than ever before. However, the quality of life in extractive communities remains unchanged or has deteriorated despite the country’s prosperity. Michiko is interested in researching the distributional structure of natural resources within a country by conducting a case study on copper mining in Zambia. In particular, her research will focus on the historical relationship between local livelihoods and mineral resources in the mining community of Copperbelt.

Future Plans: Michiko plans to pursue a PhD in International Study with specialization in natural resource issues of Africa.

From the University of São Paolo, Brazil

moraesGabriela Bueno de Almeida Moraes
LL.M., International Law
Project Title: "Deforestation in the Amazon Forest and the Role of the International Community"

Gabriela’s research is an analysis of environmental policy and international law regarding deforestation and the prevention of further depletion in the Amazon Forest. Although national efforts have been made to protect the area, deforestation and fires continue to destroy the forest’s biodiversity, causing irreversible damage to the primary vegetation and local communities. Considering that approximately 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions is from deforestation, special attention will be given to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries) proposal. Gabriela will also focus on environmental policies that involve international cooperation and its feasibility bearing in mind Brazilian legislation.

Future Plans: Gabriela plans on teaching International Law and pursuing a PhD in International Environmental Law.




Yale Alumni

"The Fox Program helped me to better understand the American culture and people... and probably what is most important is that participation in this Program has made me more open-minded and helped me to look at the history, politics, and economics of my native country from different angles."

Anastasia Obydenkova
from Moscow State University to Yale