YLS Course: Urban Legal History
Urban Legal History:The Development of New Haven Robert Ellickson
Yale Law School Spring 1998


1. BASIC MATERIALS
A. Sources

Prepared by Robert Ellickson, with help from Tina Forbush, August 1996

Bibliography on New Haven

Primary Legal Materials
Charter and Ordinances of the City of New Haven, Connecticut, and Special Acts. 1784-present.

City Year Book of the City of New Haven. 1860s-1940s. Yearly compilations of public documents and the reports of the heads of all city departments. Includes reports of City Engineer's, Public Works and Parks Departments.

Dexter, Franklin B., ed. New Haven Town Records (New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1919). A three-volume set of exhaustive, indexed records on early New Haven. Volume I: 1649-1662. Volume II: 1662-1684. Volume III: 1684-1789.

Hoadly, Charles J., ed.Records of the Colony and Plantation of New Haven, 1638-1649 (1857). A compilation of all of the records kept by the early colonists. Indexed by subject.

Journal of the Board of Aldermen. 18OOs-present. Journals report all important aldermanic decisions, including various ordinances.

Atlas of New Haven, Connecticut (1888). Mult-page volume showing buildings, lots, and owners. Copies are available at the Historical Society and the Sterling Library Map Room.

Atlas of New Haven, Connecticut (1911). See entry above. Law Library Closed Stacks: ZG A+65 +1911. Ask at Circulation Desk.

Lyman, Jr., Dean B. An Atlas of Old New Haven: or "The Nine Squares" as Shown on Various Early Maps (1929). Law Library Closed Stacks: Maps New H +1929. Ask at Circulation Desk.

Sanborn Maps for 1888, 1901, 1924, and 1973. Invaluable. Available in the Sterling Map Room.


Austin, Robert. New Haven Negroes (1940). A valuable, if dated, historical overview.

City Directories, commercially published since the mid- I 800s. Each volume purports to list all householders in New Haven, with address, nature of employment, and whether a "boarder" or a householder. Editions published in the early 1900s include sections that list each street's householders. The Law Library has some volumes. The New Haven Public Library has more.

Dreis, Thelma A. A Handbook of Social Statistics of New Haven, Connecticut (1936). A comprehensive compilation of statistics, primarily from the 1930 Census of Population and a sample survey. Includes numerous maps portraying statistical variations by ward..

New Haven History

Atwater, Edward W. History of the City of New Haven (1887). Once seen as the authoritative text on New Haven, now considered dated and faulty in places.

Blake, Henry T. Chronicles of the New Haven Green, 1638-1862 (1909).

Brown, Elizabeth Mills. New Haven: A Guide to Architecture and Urban Desinn (1976). Superb commentary on New Haven's history, buildings, and neighborhoods.

Cappel, Andrew J. "A Walk Along Willow: Patterns of Land Use Coordination in Pre-Zoning New Haven (1870-1926)," 10 1 Yale L.J. 617 (199 1).

Elwood, John P. "Rethinking Government Participation in Urban Renewal: Neighborhood Revitalization in New Haven," 12 Yale L. & Pol'y Rev. 138 (1994).

Garvan, Anthony. Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial Connecticut (195 1). Offers a controversial theory of the origin of New Haven's Nine Squares.

Gilbert, Cass and Olmsted, Frederick Law. New Haven: Report of the Civic Improvement Commission (1910). An assessment of the urban planning needs of New Haven.

Kutz, Christopher. Democracy in New Haven: A History of the Board of Aldermen 1638-1988 (1988). An account of the evolution of New Haven's formal political institutions. More recent, but less analytical, than Dahl's Who Governs?

Levermore, Charles H. The Republic of New Haven, A History of Municipal Evolution (1886).

Osterweis, Rollin G. Three Centuries of New Haven, 1638-1938 (1953). Despite its age, generally considered to be the decisive text on pre-Depression New Haven. Osterweis seldom stresses issues of physical development.

Seymour, George Dudley. New Have (1942). A selection of early 1900s speeches, editorials and writings, compiled by one of New Haven's most forceful advocates of city planning.


Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American Ci1y (1961). A political-science classic. A painstaking study of the history of New Haven politics, especially the distribution of political power in 1955-1960, the period when Mayor Richard Lee and Development Administrator Edward Logue spearheaded redevelopment efforts.

Domhoff, G. William. Who Really Rules? New Haven and Community Power Reexamined (1978). Challenges Dahl's thesis that Lee and Logue made the key redevelopment decisions, and instead. sees the Chamber of Commerce and Yale as key players. Includes original research on the evolution of highway and renewal plans in the 1941-1955 period, relying in part on the Maurice Rotival papers now kept in Sterling Memorial Library's Manuscripts and Archives.

Hasbrouck, Sherman. Transformation: A Summary of New Haven's Development Program Report for the Masters of Urban Studies Program at Yale, 1965. Summarizes New Haven's physical development 1950-1965, including overviews of the Oak St., Church St., Long Wharf, Downtown, Wooster Square and Dixwell projects.

Lowe, Jeanne R. Cities in a Race with Time 405-551 (1968). Ajournalist's case studies of urban renewal in various cities. Primarily valuable for its discussion of New Haven's social-services initiatives and redevelopment efforts in the Wooster Square and Dixwell neighborhoods.

Miller, William Lee. The Fifteenth Ward and the Great Society (1966). An intellectual alderman's view of events of 1963-65. Written for a popular audience. Especially useful source on the implementation of school busing in New Haven. Contains some information about renewal and poverty programs. Miller nicely portrays the ideological currents of the era.

Polsby, Nelson W. Community Power and Political Theory (2d ed. 1980). Polsby's first edition, published in 1963, supported Dahl's thesis that power in New Haven was pluralistic. Polsby expanded the second edition to include a critique of Domhoffs thesis that a power elite ruled New Haven in the 1950s. Polsby does not delve into the details of particular renewal projects.

Powledge, Fred Model City: A Test of American Liberalism (1970). Ajournalistic account of how the renewal dream faded in New Haven in the late 1960s. Includes material on the riot of 1967, the rise of black militancy, the movement to increase citizen participation, and Mayor Lee's retirement in 1969. Powledge believes that New Haven's programs failed on account of inadequate resources.

Talbot, Allan R. The Mayor's Game: Richard Lee of New Haven and the Politics of Change (1967). A rich, readable account of events from 1951 to 1965. Includes details on the Oak Street, Church Street, Wooster Square renewal projects, and also touches on highway siting, school integration, and Community Progress, Inc. (an important 1960s social welfare agency). Talbot greatly admires Lee.

Wolfinger, Raymond T. The Politics of Progress (1974). Published after Dahl's and Polsby's books, this work completed the urban-renewal trilogy by Yale-associated poetical scientists. Excellent source on the Oak Street and Church Street renewal projects. While a graduate student in the late 19050s, Wolfinger worked briefly for both Logue and Lee. Despite its publication date, the book mainly focuses on events of 1957-59. At Lee's request, Wolfinger delayed publication until after Lee was out of office.

Selected Personal Papers Available in Sterling Library's Manuscripts and Archives Room

Hillhouse, James. Major New Haven figure in late 1700s and early 1800s. Instrumental in moving city burial ground, planting elms, promoting Farmington Canal, and developing the area north of the Nine Squares.

Lee, Richard. Mayor of New Haven during the most ambitious period of redevelopment.

Logue, Edward. Head administrator of Lee's redevelopment program.

Rotival, Maurice. Architect of 1940s and 1950s city plans for New Haven.

Seymour, George Dudley. A force behind New Haven's 1910-1930 City Beautiful movement.


Akagi, Roy Hidemichi. The Town Proprietors of the New England Colonies (1924).

Banfield, Edward C. The Unheavenly City Revisited (1974).

Blackmar, Elizabeth. Manhattan for Rent, 1785-1850 (1989).

Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. Women Before the Bar (1992). On litigation in Colonial New Haven.

Einhorn, Robin L. Property Rules: Political Economy in Chicago, 1833-1872 (1991).

Fainstein, Susan S., et al. Restructuring the City: The Political Economy of Urban Redevelopment (rev. ed. 1986) Includes a long essay on New Haven.

Frieden, Bernard J. & Lynne B. Sagalyn. Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities (1989).

Hartog, Hendrik. Public Property and Private Power: The Corporation of the City of New York in American Law, 1730-1870 (1983).

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961). A classic.

Martin, John Frederick. Profits in the Wilderness: Entrepreneurship and the Founding of New England Towns in the Seventeenth Century(1991).

Mills, Edwin S. & Bruce W. Hamilton, Urban Economics (4th ed. 1989).

Monkkonen, Eric H. America Becomes Urban: The Development of U.S. Cities and Towns 1780-1980 (1988).

Moudon, Alice Vernez. Built for Change: Neighborhood Architecture in San Francisco (1986).

Musgrave, Richard A. & Peggy B. Musgrave. Public Finance in Theory and Practice (5th ed. 1989).

Peterson, Paul E. City Limits (1981).

Reps, John W. The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States (1965).

Rosen, Christine Meisner. The Limits of Power: Great Fires and the Process of City Growth in America (1986).

Rosen, Harvey. Public Finance (3rd ed. 1992).

Rybczynski, Witold. City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World (1995).

Teaford, Jon C. The Municipal Revolution in America: Origins of Modem Urban Government, 1650-1825 (1975).

______.The Rough Road to Renaissance: Urban Revitalization in America, 1940-1985 (1990).

______.The Twentieths-Century American City (2d ed. 1993).

______.The Unheralded Triumph: City Government in America, 1870-1900 (1984). Superb source on the period covered.

Warner, Sam Bass. Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870-1900 (1962).


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