In Metro Broadcasting v. FCC, 497 U.S. 547 (1990), the Supreme Court upholds the FCC's affirmative action policies, arguing that in contrast to state programs, federal affirmative action programs need only bear a substantial relationship to important governmental interests. Shortly thereafter, in July, the author of the opinion, Justice Brennan, retires from the Court after 34 years. He is replaced by David Souter.