Congress prohibits the department of Health Education and Welfare from threatening to withhold federal funds to force school districts to bus students beyond the schools nearest their homes as a means of achieving racial integration.

In Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229 (1976), the Supreme Court holds that a law or government policy does not violate the Equal Protection Clause even if it has discriminatory effects unless it can be proved that it was motivated by a purpose or intention to discriminate against a racial group. The Court upholds the use of a qualifying exam for police officers despite allegations that the test was racially biased.