The Supreme Court hears its third round of arguments in Brown­ this time concerning remedies.

May 31
On the last day of the Term, the Supreme Court hands down Brown II, 349 U.S. 294 (1955), ordering that desegregation occur with "all deliberate speed."

In response to Brown II, White Citizen's Councils are formed by businessmen and professionals to oppose desegregation. Lynchings resurge.

Emmett Till, a black teenager from Chicago, is murdered for saying "Bye, baby" to and allegedly whistling at a white woman while visiting relatives in Mississippi. The case quickly attracts national attention. In September, an all-white jury finds his alleged assailants not guilty of murder.

On December 1, Rosa Parks refuses to relinquish her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white passenger. She is arrested for violating municipal laws and ordered to appear for trial four days later. She is convicted and ordered to pay a fine of $10. When she refuses to pay, she is jailed.

On the 5th, the Montgomery Bus Boycott begins, inspired by Rosa Parks and led by Martin Luther King, Jr. It continues through 1956. The boycott gives King a position of leadership within the national civil rights movement and demonstrates that nonviolent methods of protest could be effective.