December
In Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), the Supreme Court upholds Fred Korematsu's conviction for violating Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34, which required the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. Justice Black's majority opinion announces for the first time that all restrictions that curtail the civil rights of a racial group must be subjected to "the most rigid scrutiny." Nevertheless, he justifies the internment as a necessary military measure taken during a time of war. The Attorney General of California, Earl Warren, announces his support for the policy.