Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1875, prohibiting discrimination in inns, theaters, and other places of public accomodiation. It is the last federal civil rights act passed until 1957.

Between 1875 and 1905 several states in the North and West pass their own civil rights statutes, forbidding discrimination in public accommodations. These states include: Iowa, New Jersey, Ohio, Colorado, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Rhode Island, Washington, California, Wisconsin, and Connecticut.

In United States v. Cruishank, 92 U.S. 542 (1875), the Supreme Court narrowly construes the civil rights enforcement laws passed in 1870 and 1871, dismissing indictments against whites for the massacre of hundreds of blacks in a dispute over election results. The Court finds no evidence that the wrong done was based on race.