The mission of the Foreign Policy Office (APA) of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) could not from its founding be considered a replica of the development of the Foreign Office, but is restricted in a very definite manner. From the entire foreign policy complex the following concrete problems have been selected:
The German-English Relationship, the North Eastern Region, the South Eastern Region (Danube Region) along with boundary peoples holding interests in these regions, and Soviet Russia.
With the realization that the entire present day foreign policy is tied together in the closest manner with the question of foreign trade, a definite division was established to deal with this subject. Thus the following divisions were set up in the APA.:
England, the North, the South-East Region, the Near East, Foreign Trade, and the Press.
1. England: The attempts to find persons in England who had the desire to understand the German movement date back to 1929. Our English agent R. in Berlin made possible my first trip to London in 1931. There a number of connections were made which worked out well in a practical fashion to bring about a German-English understanding. Above all was Group Leader W., member of the Air General Staff, who was firmly of the belief that Germany and England must stand together in the defense against the Bolshevist danger. These different voicings of opinions had the result that the circle in the English Air General Staff enlarged and the Flying Club became a center of German-English understanding. In 1934 Group Leader W. came to Germany where he was received by the Fuehrer (Hitler). The utterances of the Fuehrer had the result to further strengthen these already favorably inclined policies, and since this time this cordiality has not been broken. The Air General Staff always inquired of us what they could state to refute the anti-German elements in London in a manner favorable to us. The German arguments were then applied in a corresponding manner. In contrast to certain English persons who would speak out very fervently for Germany, only to speak the contrary some months later, this staunch group, namely, the Air General Staff which was run by the younger officers, had proven itself to be a solid and conscious support in all changing situations. Not least in this influence was the great speech of Baldwin of the previous year in which he promised Germany the right to air protection. The English periodical "The Airplane" which is printed under the guidance of the Air General Staff, began to express against Bolshevism in an always increasing sharper tone, 'and always declared, when there was agitation against German militarism, that one could today feel well pleased if Germany had a strong air force to combat the Asiatic barbarism. The English ministers who did not wish to adopt this point of view were sharply criticized. In the change of foreign ministers the pro-French candidate for foreign office was not selected, but rather the ex-Minister of Air, Samuel Hoare. who till this day still keeps up his personal contacts with the Air Ministry. Upon his request a memorandum on the spiritual foundation of national socialism, inspired by us, was translated to him; it being his desire to understand our movement more fully.
During the reign of MacDonald this feeling of cordiality was supported through the private secretary of MacDonald, Mr. Badlow whom I also met in 1933 and with whom I had extensive discussions. Since this time he has constantly been informed through us, and has had more than one heated difference of opinion with MacDonald over this subject.
A resulting activity of this connection with the British Air General Staff was the establishment of a liaison between our Air Ministry and the British fliers. However, before it was possible for us to reveal our armament, W. revealed to me on official stationery of the British Air Ministry, a representative of the airplane motor factory which was engaged in producing motors for the British Air Force, and which said representative I later met here in Berlin. Since the German industry itself had attained production capacity by now, this almost official British offer for German air arming could not be fully accepted. However, the Chief of our England Division (Kapitaenleutnant Obermueller, reserve) took two representatives of the German Air Ministry to London and himself undertook several trips to London. He was the first German to receive an invitation from the vice-Air Marshal to view the British Air Force and British air strength. The APA had placed an automobile at the disposal of this same Air Marshal in which to tour Germany when he was in Germany last year. A firmer bond has also been accomplished between our English Division and Henry Deterding and his associates. Misunderstandings in matter of taxes pertaining to the German possessions of Deterding could be removed, thus preventing a change of management in respect to Deterding and the Shell Works whereby Germany would have lost some large contracts.
At the close of last year we received the message that the King of England has expressed himself to be very dissatisfied over the official press agency. The visit of the Duke of Kent to Munich had made matters still worse pertaining to the King's views on the press agency. Consequently we one day received the request from London to make possible that our English agent take a trip to London in order to orient the Duke of Kent in every detail pertaining to national socialism in order to convey this information to the King. R. went with me to London exactly as requested and there had an over three hour long unobserved conference with the Duke of Kent, who then conveyed this to the King of England. One can assume that this instruction has served its purpose and exerted a definite strengthening pressure for change of cabinet and head it in a direction of closer cordiality for Germany.
A number of Englishmen were invited to the Party Day of 1934, of which some at least portrayed a favorable attitude towards Germany. Above all was Captain McCaw, semi-official counsel of the English Ministry of War and liaison man between other ministries. McCaw was previously adjutant to Lord Kitchener, and as we ascertained, has worked for a German-British understanding in official quarters. Besides, there was also the truly enthusiastic adjutant of the Duke of Connaught (uncle of the English King), Archibald Boyle, who was called upon all matters of foreign policy by the Air Transport Ministry, and who worked for the same purpose. To these important contacts may be added a great number of other connections with British politicians, officers, and members of Parliament.
It naturally is to be understood that other personalities of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) had important connections in England and have utilized them. In conclusion I believe I can say that the England Division of the Foreign Policy Office (APA), in spite of many difficulties and counter-currents upon which I will not enter any further, has done its duty in the special purpose of helping to create a German-English understanding.
2. Northern Division: The winning over of the Scandinavian countries to the side of Germany appears as a foregone necessity for future German foreign policy, but the necessity is also as great to prevent the Scandinavian countries from making a clean entry into the circle of anti-German countries. The political possibilities towards these Marxist governments were extremely difficult. Trade policies, according to my belief, have suffered most through sins of omissions, hence the APA restricted itself more to the cultural political field. For this purpose it expanded the Nordic (Scandinavian) Society. This formerly small society has grown to be a decisive bond in the German-Scandinavian relationship since its support by the APA two years ago. The society's leader, Lohse is selected by the APA. The offices in all sections [Gau] are headed by corresponding section chiefs [Gauleiter]. Trade groups and other organizations and branches of the party which have dealings with Scandinavia have come to agreement so that almost all of the traffic between Germany and Scandinavia today passes through the hands of the Nordic Society. The society has to date celebrated in Germany all memorial days of great Nordic scientists and artists (Hamsun, Holberg, Heidenstam) and has brought a number of Nordic conductors to Germany, as well as having furthered Nordic literature. Through its periodical "The North" [Der Norden] thoughts have been exchanged. Finally, personal relations were increasingly favored through conventions. Especially was the Convention of 1935 a complete success. This convention met under the sanctity of the Scandinavian ministers in Germany and the German ministers in Scandinavia, as far as it applied to the Nordic Music Conclave as the main purpose of the convention. The committee was composed of the authoritative Nordic Music Society. Fourteen sold out concerts and over 200 Scandinavian visitors attest to the success of the convention.
Thereupon the First National Finnish Art Exhibition came to Germany, followed by the request of the Finnish Government to the APA to hold a German exposition in Helsinki in 3/1936. These psychologically valuable affiliations have undoubtedly loosened the tension in many circles and it would do well for a clever trade policy to make use of this loosened tension, as for example, the trade treaties between England and Finland expire in 1936. The Chief of the Northern Division is my private secretary, Thilo von Trotha.
3. Southeast (Danube-Region): Since the Fuehrer (Hitler) has reserved Austria for his own, the APA has relayed on to the responsible places any reports from Austria, and has not dealt in Austrian politics. Relations with Hungary were immediately established. The APA invited Premier Gombos to Berlin in 1933 for a private visit where he was presented to the Fuehrer. The Fuehrer took him along to Erfurt to observe a review of the SA. Specific discussions were undertaken with Hungary to convince her of the futility of her demands for 100% revision of boundaries. Finally in August of 1935 I spoke with his excellence von Angian and made clear to him that although we well understood her own interests, the necessity that Hungary must decline its revision demands upon Yugoslavia and Rumania and address its demands to Czechoslovakia. One can assume that the Hungarians are now ready to realize the necessity of the boundary revisions as proposed.
Exceptionally long and drawn out discussions were in process with Rumania because definite measures were necessary, not because we did not wish to be intervening in Rumanian affairs without being called, but because we had to await the attitude of the Party as a result of the King of Rumania sending a friend to Berlin. Here on Rumanian soil a bitter battle was going on between the pro-French Titulesco and Jewish elements on one side against the anti-Jewish elements on the other side. The King is well aware of the fact that in the end his support of Bolshevism may cost him his throne. However, he is so intimidated by the threats of France, so as not to call for an election, and hopes only that the powers of the people, which are mounting against Titulesco, are so strong that he can support himself upon the will of the people. In order to create unity of expression the APA suggested formation of a large German-Rumanian Chamber of Commerce in Berlin. The profits of this business were not to benefit any private associates, but were to go to those groups that worked for a German-Rumanian understanding. Because of a false report of Herr von Neurath to the Fuehrer (Hitler) in which it was stated as though the action were taken in the name of the Fuehrer, the work was delayed and hindered and finally stopped, even though all of the ministers concerned had agreed to the plan. Through this many costly months were lost and the APA was forced to try other means. Since it was not possible to work with money, many conferences were arranged between the coming Premier Goga. Finally, an agreement which had been considered impossible, was concluded between Goga and the anti-Semitic leader Cuza. Cuza, upon my wish, deleted several points from his program, after which he informed us that it was necessary in the interest of his fatherland (Rumania) and a German-Rumanian understanding that he comply with my wish, as he had recognized in me an unyielding anti-Semite. I have informed the Fuehrer of the complicated later relationships in numerous reports. Germany is fighting France and Bolshevism in Rumania, and when affairs have progressed so as to warrant further discussion, the King of Rumania will invite me to a visit to discuss the matter further.
Feelers have been sent out to Belgrade through Rumania. Here also exists the possibility of splitting the "lesser entente," but as far as I can ascertain, Yugoslavia is not considering withdrawal from this alliance singly under certain guarantees, but will withdraw together with Rumania. The work in Rumania has to a part been undertaken by Herr Duckwitz, but especially by Party-Member Schickedanz.
The Near East: Next it was necessary that the position of the national socialistic movement be secured not only within the confines of the Party but also in public life. This was the more so necessary since the old Rapallo Treaty was constantly being discussed in the universities in numerous lectures. In relation with this was the Near East Ideology of Moeller van dem Brock which exerted its influence deep within the Party. The APA proceeded in the most tenacious fashion to prevent the proponents of the Rapallo school from coming to the universities, although this was not always possible. he APA prevented that instructional lectures of the School of Rapallo and Moeller van dem Brock were held within the Party and other societies. Through the Reich Ministry for the Furtherance of German Literature were issued many sharp criticisms over the eastern ideology of Moeller van dem Brock to all government and party offices. Furthermore, Dr. Leibrandt, the Chief of the Near East Division delivered several speeches on this matter to Party Conventions, student societies, and so forth. It was this activity which caused the APA to make enemies with many governmental offices until the Fuehrer in his speech of May 21 set forth the authenticity of this work and forced a withdrawal of those who opposed this activity of the APA. From there on the Near East Division has pursued the entire current Russian political activity, collected and examined current Russian reports, made an exact study of the minority feelings in Russia and contacted anti-Soviet circles, although only for purposes of study. The Near East Division has supplied other divisions, namely the English Division with necessary material about Russia, as well as making available to the Press Division material for "Dem Voelkischen Beobachter" [official Nazi Party newspaper].
Foreign Trade: In all these political connections the question of foreign trade played an important part. Reluctantly one must say that it was just in this field, according to my view, that much opportunity has been lost. First of all, the Manchuko Incident, which came to the attention of the Fuehrer, was without question sabotaged in the worst fashion by the Foreign Offices in Berlin and Tokio. Still, it is of significance that the form of the reciprocal trade treaties which were written up by the Foreign Trade Division serve as models for many other governmental treaties. In many instances the division was able to establish order when things had been greatly neglected, as the German-Finnish Discussions (for which the chief of the Foreign Trade Division received the Finnish decoration), the German-Norwegian Wal Agreement, and a great number of other questions. Problems dealing with the foreign trade of Germany and the middle east (Turkey and Iran) were also attacked. One may say today that a very cheerful cooperation has been established in this field between the representative of the Foreign Office and our Foreign Trade Division. The German-Rumanian question was tackled by our Foreign Trade Division during all this time, but unfortunately did not produce the desired results. The Foreign Trade Division produced a stimulus for German industry on the question of German-Russian credit. As things stood, greedy circles in heavy industry threatened the interests of the medium and small industries whom they were willing to sacrifice for the tempting Soviet business. Seventy million marks would have been lost in this deal because Russia would not accept the decisions of the Board of Arbitration, while heavy industry was willing to forego this sum. Through the intervention of the APA the situation was changed. Shortly thereafter the Board of Arbitration again met and acknowledged the claims of little and medium business, and divided among the several categories, thus saving the German Reich 70 million marks.
The Foreign Trade Division worked under the theory, that the question of foreign trade would be a rapid development, and therefore formulated exact recommendations in the discussions. The recommended foreign trade drafts, as were recommended in these discussions, were not refuted by Wagemann nor Josias Stamp in London. Opposition, however, has arisen in the Reich Ministry of Commerce, which apparently, ho ever, has not given the matter a very exact examination. Thus the matter rests German foreign trade has not progressed, and the forced taxation by means of export duties of over 700 million marks for German industry in 1935 can only be considered an emergency measure and not a fundamental policy. Here again the APA recommends to the Fuehrer to give these proposals a trial.
Party Member Daitz has worked with initiative on questions of foreign trade. Party Member Malletke, who has proven himself to be a far-seeing associate, has conducted the daily administration and the examination of all problems.
The Press: The Press Division of the APA is comprised of persons who together master all the languages that are in use. Daily they examine approximately 300 newspapers and deliver to the Fuehrer, the deputy Fuehrer, and all other interested offices the condensations of the important trends of the entire world press. I know that these press reports are highly praised by all who constantly follow them. The Press Division furthermore conducts an exact archives on the attitudes of the most important papers of the world and an exact archives on the most important journalists of the world. Many embarrassments during conferences in Germany could have been avoided had one consulted these archives (case of Leumas. Nurnberg. 1934; case of Dorothy Thompson; and others). Further, the Press Division was able to arrange a host of interviews as well as conducting a great number of friendly foreign journalists to the various official representatives of Germany. Hearst then personally asked me to often write about the position of German foreign policy in his papers. This year five continuous articles under my name have appeared in Hearst papers all over the world. Since these articles, as Hearst personally informed me, presented well founded arguments, he begged me to write further articles for his papers.
The Press Division of the APA was able to step into a position of arbitration in the conflict which arose between the representatives of the foreign press in Germany and the Office of Propaganda because of the general attack that the Minister of Propaganda, Dr. Goebbels had made upon the combined world press in 7/1934. Thus from the combined press representatives it was able to select and take care of those who were of a pro-German opinion, or at least conducted themselves in a neutral manner. Because of the willingness to cooperate that the Press Division under the skillful guidance of Dr. Bomer showed the foreigners, the Press Division has won a position of honor, and can today claim to have a truly personal and factual knowledge of world journalism.
In general the APA has attempted in the last 1 1/2 years to establish contact between diplomacy and the world press in Germany. For this purpose the APA held a Beer Party [Bierabend] each month. On each of these evenings a prominent representative of the party or government spoke about the work of his division. The most prominent national socialists spoke at these gatherings (Goering, Rust, Todt, Schirach, Hierl, Dr. Gross, Frau Scholtz-Klinck, Frank, Ley, and others) . These evenings were constantly attended by the majority of the diplomatic representatives. We could always count on having at least 350 to 400 visitors. Since we invited a great number of representatives of the German ministries and party offices in the last year, a hefty traffic has developed. Many items which later appeared in the papers can be accredited to the personal clarification of a national socialistic party member who attended these evenings. The APA furthermore conducted a great number of foreigners to the labor battalions [Arbeitsdienst] or acquainted them with other establishments. That has been a bit of work that has constantly been going on so that the APA here too has experience to answer all questions which may arise.
The School of Instruction [Das Schulungshaus]: The 2 1/2 year work of all those active in the APA has given them a very exact picture of the practical workings of foreign policy and foreign trade. It has also enabled them every bit of knowledge which can be obtained from a national socialistic point of view in order to accurately judge the questions of foreign policy at all. In order to also develop potential and interested capable powers arising from the people and develop them as successors in the movement of national socialism the Foreign Policy School of Instruction [Aussenpolitisches Schulungshaus] was founded in Dahlem in 1935. Students from all over Germany who displayed an interest in foreign policy were assembled at this school. They were here instructed and schooled through lectures and cooperative work similar to seminars. Into this school were drawn the Hitler youths, SS, and the plan exists to have persons who will later travel abroad as representatives of large German concerns undergo an extensive course of instruction. Furthermore, the foreign Policy School of Instruction should also examine those students which the Academic Student Exchange is sending abroad. Lectures at the school were given by a number of German economists, as well as the Japanese and Chinese military attaches. The Chief of the APA himself lectured there.
The administration of the APA as well as the School of Instruction rest in the hands of Party Member Knauer, who in his youth was party to the March on Coburg.
In conclusion I may well say that these 2 1/2 years were rich in experiences and have tested people in their capacity to perform work. These 2 1/2 years have led to the elimination of one or another incompetents, but at least a dozen people have become so enriched through experience that they can be a great help to the Fuehrer in the field of their enterprise.
The lack of necessary and sufficient means naturally prevents a complete exploitation of the entire activity, which surely would be desired. But in spite of this one can say that the most humanly possible was accomplished here with sacrifice, sense of duty, and energy.