Jerusalem’s Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1764: Citations, Borrowings, & Concordances
The “Invitatorio y Himno â 4, con VVs. Trompas i Baxo a N[uestra] S[eñora] de Guadalupe,” (1764) is found in Leg. C.c.9, No. 1 (AM0605), followed by the “Ocho Responsorios para los Maytines de la Aparición de Ntra Sra de Guadalupe, ŕ 4, con violines, ôboés, trompas, ôrganos, y bajo,” Leg. C.c.9, No. 2 (AM0606). The instrumental parts and some of the choral parts are contained in Leg. C.c.10, No. 2. There is an additional responsoryfor soprano, violins, and continuo, “Motete del 2º Nocturno . . . a solo con violines y baxo. A Nª Sª de Guadalupe,” that was written out by Jerusalem in 1764 and then discarded. It contains the comment, “No sirve” (It doesn’t work). This aborted movement is scored for soprano, two violins, and accompaniment (Leg. C.c.10, No. 3).
Invitatory: “Sancta Maria Dei genitrix virgo” (Holy Mary, virgin mother of God)
This is drawn from Jerusalem’s Matins for the Assumption, Legajo C.c.6. There is a concordant version in Puebla Cathedral (Legajo 68, No. 3). The title page for the Invitatory and hymn for the Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe (C.c.9) notes at the bottom of the page that this material is also applicable to the Matins for Our Lady of the Pillar (“e para el Pilar”).
Hymn: “Quem terra pontus sidera” (Whom earth, sea, and stars)
This was drawn from Jerusalem’s earlier work, Matins for the Assumption (Legajo C.c.6). The borrador for the Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe even states that one can find the borrador for the hymn in the Matins for the Assumption: “El Borrador del Hymno está en con [sic] el Ynvitº de los Maitines de la Asunción de N. S. (The sketch for the hymn [is located] with the Invitatory for the Matins for the Assumption of Our Lady). He revised this hymn later in Matins for the Conception in 1768 (Legajo C.c.10 / AM0607). A reduced version of the hymn is found in the Puebla cathedral (Legajo 68, No. 7), but it contains only the music for the odd-numbered verses.
Responsory 1: “Vidi speciosam” (I saw her, fair as a dove)
This responsory is the oldest of the set, dating from Jerusalem’s compositions for Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe in 1756 (Legajo E.b.2, No. 2 / AM0514). He later reused it in the Matins for the Conception (Legajo C.c.10). A concordant version in the Puebla cathedral (Legajo 68, No. 3) clarifies that this responsory was utilized as Responsory 1 for: the Matins for the Virgin of Guadalupe; the Matins for the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin; the Matins for the Octave of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin; and even the Matins for Santo Domingo (but with a new text “Euge, serve bone”).
Responsory 2: “Quae est ista quae ascendit” (Who is this that arises as Aurora rises up?)
According to the score this responsory is derived from an aria: “Este Responsorio es de el Mt~ro Jerusalem sacado de una Area que Comienza propicia estrella; vease entre los borradores sueltos” (This Responsory by Maestro Jerusalem [is] taken from the aria that begins ‘Propitia estrella’ [Fortunate Star]).
Responsory 3: “Quae est ista quae processit sicut sol” (Who is she who comes forth like the sun)
The title page of the borrador indicates that this is derived from the first nocturn of Jerusalem’s Matins for Our Lady of the Pillar. A concordant version, Legajo E.b.2, No. 3 (AM0515), dated 1760, clearly states that it was used as the processional for the Matins for the Apparition: “para la procesión de la Aparición.”
Responsory 4: “Signum magnum apparuit in caelo” (A great sign appeared in heaven)
This responsory contains many motivic references to the other responsories; most likely it was one of the last to be composed. Jerusalem seems to be drawing upon his “borrowed works” for motivic material, and the responsory serves to tie together the entire cycle.
Responsory 5: “Quae est ista quae progreditur” (Who is she who goes forth)
The end of this responsory’s borrador indicates that it was drawn from Jerusalem’s villancico “Todos pueden alegar” (All are able to claim), and further states that the music can be found among the loose sheets: “Este Responsorio es del Mt~ro Jerusalem; sacado de una Area qe comienza Todos pueden alegar &c. Vease entre los Voradores sueltos.”
Responsory 6: “Elegi et sanctificavi locum istum” (I have chosen and sanctified this place)
The following year Jerusalem used this responsory again in his Matins for Our Lady of Guadalupe of 1765; that it is in the same place in Nocturn 2 is clear from its title page: “Motete 3º del 2º Nocturno para los Maitines de Nª Sª de Guadalupe. Composizion a 4 con ripienos, tromp[a]s i bajo, conp[ues]to por Dn. Ignazio Yerusalem, Mº de Cap[ill]a deste Metropol[i]t[a]na Yglesia de Mexico. año de 1765,” Legajo E.b.1 (AM0511 & AM0515).
Responsory 7: “Felix namque” (Happy are you indeed)
This appears to be freshly composed for The Matins for the Virgin of Guadalupe; it is not in any other service in the Mexico cathedral, but it has motivic material from the older “borrowed” responsories, implying it was a later work. A concordant version of this responsory is found in Puebla cathedral (Legajo 68, No. 5) as the fifth responsory in Matins for the Immaculate Conception; there is another concordant version in the Guadalajara cathedral.
Responsory 8: “Beatam me dicent omnes” (All generations shall call me blessed)
This work is actually by Giácome (or Jacob) Rust. The borrador bears the ascription: “Responsorio Octavo de N.S. de Guadalupe, a Solo con violines, viola, oboeses, trompas &c. Del Sigr. Giácome Rust.” Jerusalem used this same piece by Rustwith attributionas Responsory 5 for his Matins for the Assumption (Legajo C.c.7).
Professor Craig Russell of California Polytechnic State University is steeped in the music of Spain and the Hispano-American world. He has published over seventy articles on eighteenth-century Hispanic studies, Mexican cathedral music, the California missions, and American popular culture. Early in 2009 Oxford University Press is releasing his most recent book, From Serra to Sancho: Music and Pageantry in the California Missions. He has contributed twenty-six articles to the newest edition of The New Grove Dictionary and collaborated with Chanticleer on four compact disks, two of which received Gramophone award nominations (Mexican Baroque and Our American Journey). On their most recent recording, The Mission Road, Dr. Russell accompanies Chanticleer on his baroque guitar. His compositions are released on Naxos and have been widely performed in Europe, Australia, and the USAincluding concerts dedicated to his compositions in Carnegie Hall, the Kennedy Center, the Sydney Opera House, and Disney Hall in Los Angeles.
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