51. At the end of this sentence, and the next, runes have been lost through damage: the text is supplied from the later manuscript text of the narrrative in The Dream of the Rood, in the Vercelli Book. See Ritual and the Rood, 180-81, for an edition and commentary on the Old English text.
52. Ibid., 181.
53. Ibid, 181-82, for the original text and further discussion.
54. See Zech 12:10, cited in John 19:37 and Rev 1:7.
55. I Peter 2:24: cf. Isaiah 53:5, 1 John 3:5
56. See Ritual and the Rood, 153-60.
57. For the apertio aurium ceremony in which the Gospels were “passed on” see Ritual and the Rood, 144-46.
58. On inculturation, see ibid., 223-79, with further bibliographical references.
59. For use of the phrase aqua et sanguis (see John 19:34) to denote Baptism and Eucharist, see Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, ed. W.M. Lindsay (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911), 1:6, xix [De Officiis], pars. 39-40; Veglianti, Dizionario, 1194-1202: “Sangue e aqua”; and also Ritual and the Rood, 123.
60. Luke 1:78: “in which the rising Sun has come from on high to visit us.” This morning phenomenon can still be seen at Bewcastle, where the cross-shaft is in situ. Shortly before and after the Summer solstice, the sun appeared to rise to the northeast of the cross-shafts and then, climbing to its zenith, swung southwards in the course of the morning. See John E.Wood, Sun, Moon and Standing Stones (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), 59, fig. 4.2, and, for Christ as Oriens, see Robert B. Burlin, The Old English Advent: A Typological Commentary (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1968), 98-104.
61. Ritual and the Rood, 282.
62. On such stones, see Wood, Sun, Moon and Standing Stones.
63. On sermo humilis, see Erich Auerbach, Literary Language and its Public in Late Latin Antiquity and in the Middle Ages (Bollingen Series 74; New York: Pantheon Books, 1965), 25-81.
64. See Matt 24:28: “where the body is, there will the eagles be,” as discussed in Ritual and the Rood, 143-46.
Éamonn Ó Carragáin was born in Co. Tipperary, Ireland, in 1942. He has taught medieval English literature at Trinity College, Dublin, the Queen’s University of Belfast, and, since 1972, at University College, Cork, from which he has recently retired (2007). He has published widely on medieval English literature, and on the relations between that literature and visual images. He is particularly interested in the relations between Anglo-Saxon England and the city of Rome, and in the ways in which Anglo-Saxons imitated or cited the city of Rome in their liturgies, art, and literature. He has published Ritual and the Rood: Liturgical Images and the Old English Poems of the “Dream of the Rood” Tradition (British Library and Toronto University Press, 2005), and, with Carol Neuman de Vegvar, Roma Felix: Formation and Reflections of Medieval Rome (Ashgate, 2008). He is at present writing a book on The Mind of an Anglo-Saxon Reader: The Vercelli Book as a Context for “The Dream of the Rood.”
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