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Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects


  Case radiograph

Contributor: Stephen Marshalko, MD PhD
 

Echo studies


Echo LPLA Echo SA

Echo 4C Echo A2C

Another case


Echo Doppler

Comments

Muscular VSDs, representing 20% of isolated VSDs, are completely surrounded by muscle and may be in the inlet, trabecular, or outlet portion of the interventricular septum. Muscular VSDs can be multiple, and have been described as having a "swiss-cheese" appearance.

Muscular VSD's can be reliably depicted by careful echocardiography, particularly with color doppler imaging.



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