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Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects

  Case radiograph

Contributor: Stephen Marshalko, MD PhD

Echo studies

Echo LPLA Echo SA

Echo 4C Echo A2C

Another case

Echo Doppler


Muscular VSDs, representing 20% of isolated VSDs, are completely surrounded by muscle and may be in the inlet, trabecular, or outlet portion of the interventricular septum. Muscular VSDs can be multiple, and have been described as having a "swiss-cheese" appearance.

Muscular VSD's can be reliably depicted by careful echocardiography, particularly with color doppler imaging.

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