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Apical Ventricular Septal Defects

  Case radiograph


Echo studies

Echo Echo

Echo Echo


Muscular VSDs, representing 20% of isolated VSDs, are completely surrounded by muscle. Occasionally some may be located at the interventricular septal apex.

Though stethoscopically audible even when small, defects in this location may be difficult to detect by two-dimensional echo imaging alone. Color doppler imaging is particularly helpful in their detection.

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