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Anatomy of Ventricular Septal Defects


  Case radiograph

 

Ventricular septal defects occur anywhere along the ventricular septum and their size and location determine the clinical manifestations. When viewed from right ventricular aspect, VSDs can be described as located at inlet, muscular, perimembranous, or outlet portions of the septum. The defects can be single, multiple or associated with other congenital heart disease. While exact prevalence is not precisely known, the defects comprise between 15 - 30% of all congenital heart disease. Etiology is not known, but is likely multifactorial and different for the different types of VSDs. Rates for congenital heart disease among siblings of children with VSDs are between 0.5% and 2% .

Embryologically, VSDs occur when there is a delay in closure of the ventricular septum beyond the first seven weeks of organogenesis. VSDs are more common in premature infants than full-term. Certain types of VSDs are found in persons of specific heritage, for example doubly committed subarterial VSD are more common in patients of Asian descent.

General comments...

Hemodynamics...

Natural history...

Clinical presentations...

Diagnosis...

Treatment...


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