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Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition

Research material for the development of Tangled Roots includes history and sociology texts as well as analytical and evaluative essays. Other sources also used include documents from relevant time periods, biographies and interviews.

Sources listed here are published texts and essays, which have been used in developing information and ideas for the project. Titles listed include sources of general information and more specific areas of concentrated research.

Information on the biographies, documents and interviews is available on other sections of this site.

African American History

Adams, Virginia M. ed. On The Altar of Freedom. Boston: University of Massachusetts. 1991.

Bennett, Lerone Jr. Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America. Chicago: Johnson, 1969

Berlin, Ira, Marc Favreau and Steven F. Miller, eds. Remembering Slavery. New York: New Press, 1998

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone, The First Two Centuries Of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998

Brut, Linda. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973

Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.

Dodd, William E. The Cotton Kingdom. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1919.

Fogel, Robert William. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1989.

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow. New York: Vintage, 1995.

Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Knopf, 1998.

Microsoft. Encarta Africana. © 1999 Microsoft Corporation

Permot, M.M. ed. After Freedom. New Jersey: The Burlington County Historical Society, 1987.

Stewart, Jeffrey C. 1001 Things Everyone Should Know About African American History. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery. Rev. ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1994.

Irish History

Berlatsky, Joel. "Roots of Conflict in Ireland: Colonial Attitudes in The Age of the Penal Laws." EIRE-IRELAND. Vol. XVIII, No. 4.

Cahill, Thomas. How the Irish Saved Civilization. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

Conroy, John. Belfast Diary. Rev. ed.Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.

Davis, Richard. "Nelson Mandela's Irish Problem: Republican and Loyalist Links with SouthAfrica." EIRE-IRELAND. Vol.XXVII, No.4, Winter 1992.

Elstob, Mark. A Trip to Kilkenny. London: Stockton, 1778.

Fry, Peter and Fiona Somerset. A History of Ireland. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1988.

Kiberd, Declan. Inventing Ireland. London: Random House, 1995.

Kissane, Noel. The Irish Famine. Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 1995.

MacManus, Seamus. The Story of the Irish Race. New York: Devin- Adair, 1921

Miller, Kerby and Paul Wagner. Out of Ireland. Niwot: Rinehart, 1997.

Moody, T.W. and F. X. Martin.The Course of Irish History. Boulder: Rinehart, 1994.

Mullalla, James. A View of Irish Affairs Since the Revolution of 1688. Dublin: T. Henshall, 1795.

Poirteir, Cathal., ed. The Great Irish Famine. Chester Springs: Dufour, 1995.

Irish in America History

Clark, Dennis. Hibernia America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Coffey, Michael and Terry Golway. The Irish in America. New York: Hyperion, 1997.

Dooley, Brian. Black and Green, The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland & Black America. London: Pluto Press, 1998

McCaffrey, Lawrence J. The Irish Catholic Diaspora in America. Rev. ed. Washington: Catholic University, 1997. Murphy, Richard C. and Lawrence J. Mannion. The History of the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick in the City of New York, 1784 to 1955. New York: J.C. Dillon Company, Inc. 1962

O'Grady, Joseph P. How the Irish Became Americans. New York: Twayne, 1973.

Quinn, Peter. "Introduction: An Interpretation of Silences" EIRE- IRELAND. Vol. XXXII, No.1, Spring 1997.

Shannon, William V. The American Irish. New York: Macmillan, 1963.

Van Dussen, D. Gregory. "American Methodism's Christian Advocate and Irish Catholic Immigration, 1830-1870." EIRE- IRELAND. Vol.XXVI, No.4, Winter 1991.

Religion and Related Activities of Religious Groups

Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 1972.

Burkett, Nancy H. Abby Kelley Foster and Stephen S. Foster. Worcester: Commonwealth Press, 1976.

Danforth, Mildred E. A Quaker Pioneer.New York: Exposition Press, 1961.

Davis, Cyprian.The History of Black Catholics in the United States. New York: Crossroad, 1996

Biographical Dictionary of Irish Quakers. Cornwall: Hartnolls Ltd., 1997.

Hatton, Helen E. The Largest Amount of Good. Kingston &Montreal: McGill -Queens University Press,1993.

Holden, David E. W. Friends Divided. Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 1988.

Moore, R. Laurence. Religious outsiders and the Making of America. London: Oxford University, 1987.

Pratt, David H. English Quakers and the First Industrial Revolution. New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1985.

Wigham, Maurice, J. The Irish Quakers. Dublin: Historical Committee of The Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, 1992.

Related American History—Ideas and Events

Dennison, George M. The Dorr War. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 1976.

Handlin, Oscar. Boston's Immigrants. Rev. ed. Boston: Harvard, 1991.

Jensen, Malcolm C. America in Time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.

Keller, Morton. The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Lopate, Phillip, ed. Writing New York. New York: Literary Classics of the United States, 1998.

Related Writing on Race and Ethnicity in America

Allen, Theodore W. The Invention of the White Race. London: Verso, 1994.

Brodkin, Karen. How Jews became White Folks. London: Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Chideya, Farai. The Color of Our Future: Our Multiracial Future. New York: Morrow & Co.,1999.

Gates,Henry L.and Cornell West. The Future of the Race. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.

Hacker, Andrew. Two Nations. New York: Ballantine Books. 1992.

Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Whiteness of a Different Color. Cambridge: Harvard, 1998.

Jenkins, Richard. Rethinking Ethnicity. London: Sage Publications, 1997.

McCall, Nathan. What's Going On. New York: Vintage Books, 1997.

Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark. New York: Vintage, 1993.

Roediger, David R., ed. Black on White. New York: Shocken Books, 1998.

Williams, Patricia J. Seeing a Color Blind Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.