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Gilder Lehrman Center Online Documents

The Gilder Lehrman Center's online document collection contains over 200 individual items, including speeches, letters, cartoons and graphics, interviews, and articles. This page lists the complete collection. The documents are organized by author, date, subject, and document type.

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    Gilder Lehrman Center Index of Online Documents



Adams, Henry, Testimony of Henry Adams regarding the Negro Exodus. Senate Report 693, 46th Cong., 2nd Sess., part 2, pp. 101-111. From Herbert Aptheker, editor, A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), p. 715.

Adams, John Quincy, Argument of John Quincy Adams, before the Supreme Court Delivered on February 24, and March 1, 1841.

Adams, John Quincy, John Quincy Adams to Arthur Tappan (7/15/1845) Gilder Lehrman Collection, 3891.

Alabama, Jim Crow Laws The Code of Alabama, v.1. 1923. Atlanta.

American Anti-Slavery Committee, Slavery and the International Slave Trade in the United States of America London: Thomas Ward And Co. 1841. Anti-Slavery collection. Yale University.

American Anti-Slavery Committee, Proceedings of seventh annual meeting (Excerpts) New York, 1840. Anti-Slavery collection: 18th-19th century. From the Library of Society of Friends. Yale University. Microform.

Americans of African Heritage—1990's Map.

Americans of Irish Heritage—1900's Map.

Barker, Joseph, Speech of Joseph Barker (Part 1) Proceedings of the American-Anti-Slavery Society at its second decade. New York, 1854.

Barker, Joseph, Speech of Joseph Barker (Part 2) Proceedings of the American-Anti-Slavery Society at its second decade. New York, 1854.

Berkley, George, The Querist. 1735. Published in Dublin in three parts, 1735, 1736, 1737.

Bog Trotters Cartoon courtesy of the Nick Robinson Collection, National Museum of Ireland

Boston Evening Transcript, Burning of the Charlestown Convent Boston Evening Transcript, 12 August, 1834

Boston Evening Transcript, Great Meeting at Faneuil Hall Boston Evening Transcript, 12 August, 1834.

Boston Evening Transcript, The Convent Boston Evening Transcript, 12 August, 1834.

Boston Evening Transcript, The Outrage Boston Evening Transcript, 13 August, 1834.

Boston Globe, In This City Boston Globe. v. 64, n. 39, February 18, 1882.

Boston Globe, Ryan's Home Boston Globe. v. 64, n. 39, February 18, 1882.

Catholic World. A Monthly Magazine, Our Established Church v. 9, N. 53. New York: The Catholic Publication House. August, 1869.

Catholic World. A Monthly Magazine, The Philosophy of Immigration v. 9, N. 53. New York: The Catholic Publication House. August, 1869.

Catholic World. A Monthly Magazine, The Sanitary and Moral Condition of New York City v. 9, N. 53. New York: The Catholic Publication House. August, 1869, p. 553-566.

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, Chapter I (Excerpt from theTransactions of the Central Relief Committee...) Transactions of the Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends during the Famine in Ireland. Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996).

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, Chapter V (Transactions of the... of the Society of Friends...) Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996).

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, From the Irish Relief Committee, Richmond, Virginia Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996).

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, Introduction (Transactions of the... of the Society of Friends...) Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996).

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, Irish Relief Committee, Brooklyn, New York (Excerpt) Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996).

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, Minute...respecting affording assistance to fishermen Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996).

Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends, Report from James Alcock...respecting the present state of the fishermen... Dublin: Edmund Burke Publisher, 1852. (1996). [not finished; check tables]

Chicago Daily Tribune, Tribune Answers Over 10,000 Calls on Fight The Chicago Daily Tribune, v. 74, n. 81, April 6, 1915.

Chicago Daily Tribune, When a Feller Needs a Friend (Cartoon) The Chicago Daily Tribune, v. 74, n. 81, 82, April 6, 1915.

Chicago Defender, Afro-Americans Must Keep on One Side of Sidewalk Chicago Defender, March 6, 1915 v. 10, n. 10.

Chicago Defender, Checking Migration Chicago Defender, v.14, n. 32, August 9, 1919.

Chicago Defender, Defender's Legal Helps: Discrimination Chicago Defender, June 6, 1914, v. 9, n. 23.

Chicago Defender, Ghastly Deeds of Rioters Told Chicago Defender, v. 14, n. 31, August 2, 1919.

Chicago Defender, Seeking the Cause Chicago Defender, v. 14, n. 32, August 9, 1919.

Chicago Defender, The Only Cure (Cartoon) Chicago Defender, v. 14, n. 32, August 9, 1919.

Christian Science Monitor, Hoover Fought to Aid Farmers, Borah Recalls v. 20 n. 290, November 3, 1928.

Christian Science Monitor, The So-called Foreign Vote v. 20 n. 291, p. 18, November 5, 1928.

The Civil Articles of Lymerick Dublin: Robert Thornton, 1692.

Clay, Cassius M., Letter from Cassius M. Clay Proceedings of the American-Anti-Slavery Society at its second decade. New York, 1854.

The Colored American, Cinque and Heroes of the American Revolution The Colored American. March 27, 1841

The Colored American, Meetings of the Liberated Africans The Colored American. May 22, 1841.

The Colored American, On Cingues The Colored American. October 19, 1839.

The Crisis, Along the Color Line: Economic The Crisis, v. 1, n. 1, November, 11, 1910.

The Crisis, Along the Color Line: Political The Crisis, v. 1, n. 1, November 11, 1910.

The Crisis, Opinion (Nov. 11, 1910) The Crisis, v. 1, n. 1, November 11, 1910.

The Crisis, The 'Jim Crow' Car The Crisis, v. 1. n. 5. March 11, 1911.

The Crisis, A French Directive, XVIII (May, 1919), p. 16-18.

The Crisis, The Real Cause of Race Riots, IXX (December, 1919), p. 56.

The Crisis, Madonna. Photographed by Battey, (Image), IXX (December, 1919), Cover.

The Crisis, Advertisement [Madame C.J. Walker], (Image), IXX (November, 1919), p. 359.

The Crisis, Advertisements ["Colored Dolls," etc.], (Image), IXX (November, 1919), p. 358.

The Crisis, Advertisement [Real Estate], (Image), IXX (November, 1919), p. 354.

The Crisis, Men of the Month, (Image), IXX (November, 1919), p. 341.

The Crisis, Advertisements [Howard University, etc.], (Image), IXX (November, 1919), p. 351.

The Crisis, Contents Page, Dec. 1919 (Image), The Crisis, IXX (December, 1919), p. 37.

Darusmont, Frances Wright, Direction of American Genius... Views of Society and Manners in America; in a Series of Letters from that Country to a Friend in England, during the Years 1818, 1819, and 1820. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821. 310-315. December, 1819.

Dickson, William, LL.D., Mitigation of Slavery, In Two Parts. Part I: Letters and Papers of The Late Hon. Josua Steele, p. 1-7, 132-136, 177-183. Part II: Letters to Thomas Clarkson, Esql M.A., p. 193, 338-353. (London, 1814).

Dooley, Brian, Excerpts from Black and Green. The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland and Black America. Pluto Press: London, 1998.

Douglass, Frederick, A Call for the British Nation to Testify Against Slavery Exeter Western Times, 5 September 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 352.

Douglass, Frederick, A Few Facts and Personal Observations of Slavery Ayr (Scot.) Advertiser, March 26, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 195.

Douglass, Frederick, A Simple Tale of American Slavery Sheffield Mercury, September 12, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 398.

Douglass, Frederick, American Prejudice Against Color Cork Examiner, October 27, 1845. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 59.

Douglass, Frederick, American Slavery and Britain's Rebuke of Man-Stealers Bridgwater Times, September 3, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 363.

Douglass, Frederick, American Slavery, American Religion, and the Free Church of Scotland American Slavery: Report of a Public Meeting Held at Finsbury Chapel, Moorfields, to Receive Frederick Douglass, the American Slave, on Friday, May 22, 1846 (London, 1846), 3-24. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 269.

Douglass, Frederick, An Account of American Slavery Glasgow Argus, January 22, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 131.

Douglass, Frederick, Baptists, Congregationalists, the Free Church, and Slavery Belfast News Letter, December 26, 1845 and Belfast Northern Whig, December 25, 1845. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I.

Douglass, Frederick, British Influence on the Abolition Movement in America Renfrewshire Advertiser, April 25, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 215.

Douglass, Frederick, Charges and Defense of the Free Church Anti-Slavery Soiree: Report of the Speeches Delivered at a Soiree in Honour of Messrs. Douglass, Wright, and Buffum . . . (Dundee, 1846). 21-29. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 171.

Douglass, Frederick, Country, Conscience, and the Anti-Slavery Cause New York Daily Tribune, 13 May 1847. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. II, p. 57.

Douglass, Frederick, Emancipation is an Individual, a National, and an International Responsibility London Patriot, May 26, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 249.

Douglass, Frederick, England Should Lead the Cause of Emancipation Leeds Times, December 26, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 474.

Douglass, Frederick, Farewell to the British People Farewell Speech of Mr. Frederick Douglass, Previously to Embarking on Board the Cambria, Upon His Return to America, Delivered at the Valedictory Soiree Given to Him at the London Tavern, on March 30, 1847 (London, 1847). Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. II, p. 19.

Douglass, Frederick, I Am Here to Spread Light on American Slavery Cork Southern Reporter, October 16, 1845 (Supplement). The Frederick Douglass Speeches, 1841-1846, p. 39.

Douglass, Frederick, Intemperance and Slavery Truth Seeker, 1: 142-44 (1845-46). Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 55.

Douglass, Frederick, Intemperance Viewed in Connection With Slavery Glasgow Saturday Post, February 21, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 165.

Douglass, Frederick, International Moral Force Can Destroy Slavery Renfrewshire Advertiser, March 28, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 183.

Douglass, Frederick, Irish Christians and Non-Fellowship with Man-Stealers Dublin Evening Packet and Correspondent, October 4, 1845. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 34.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Francis Jackson (January 29, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 135.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Gerrit Smith (June 4, 1851) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. V, p. 186.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Henry C. Wright (December 22, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 199.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Horace Greeley (April 15, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 144.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Richard D. Webb (February 10, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 137.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to the Editor of the London Times (April 3, 1847) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 233.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Thomas Auld (September 3, 1848). Foner, Philip (ed). Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999, p. 111.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to Thurlow Weed (December 1, 1845) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 123.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William A. White (July 30, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 181.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (April I6, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 149.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (February 26, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 138.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (January 1, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 125.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (January 27, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 129.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (May 23, 1846) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 165.

Douglass, Frederick, Letter to William Lloyd Garrison (September 29, 1845) Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 120.

Douglass, Frederick, Monarchies and Freedom, Republics and Slavery Bristol Mercury and Western Counties Advertiser, April 3, 1847. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. II, p. 52.

Douglass, Frederick, My Experience and My Mission to Great Britain Cork Examiner, October 15, 1845. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 36.

Douglass, Frederick, My Opposition to War Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 261.

Douglass, Frederick, Our Paper and Its Prospects The North Star, December 3, 1847. Foner, Philip (ed). Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. New York: International Publishers, 1950. Vol. I, p. 280.

Douglass, Frederick, Send Back the Blood-Stained Money: An Address Delivered in Paisley, Scotland, on April 25, 1846. Renfrewshire Advertiser, May 2, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 240.

Douglass, Frederick, Slavery and America's Bastard Republicanism Limerick Reporter, November 11, 1845. The Frederick Douglass Speeches, 1841-1846, p. 76.

Douglass, Frederick, Slavery As It Now Exists in the United States Bristol Mercury and Western Counties Advertiser, August 29, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 341.

Douglass, Frederick, Slavery in the Pulpit of the Evangelical Alliance London Inquirer, September 19, 1846 and London Patriot, September 17, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 407.

Douglass, Frederick, Temperance and Anti-Slavery: An Address Delivered in Paisley, Scotland on March 30, 1846. Renfrewshire Advertiser, April 11, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 205.

Douglass, Frederick, Texas, Slavery, and American Prosperity Belfast News Letter, January 6, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 118.

Douglass, Frederick, The Cambria Riot, My Slave Experience, and My Irish Mission Belfast Banner of Ulster, December 9, 1845 and Belfast Northern Whig, December 9, 1845. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 86.

Douglass, Frederick, The Free Church Connection With the Slave Church Arbroath (Scot.) Guide, February 14, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 156.

Douglass, Frederick, The Free Church of Scotland and American Slavery Dundee Courier, February 3, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 144.

Douglass, Frederick, The Free States, Slavery, and the Sin of the Free Church Renfrewshire Advertiser, March 28, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 186.

Douglass, Frederick, The Horrors of Slavery and England's Duty to Free the Bondsman Somerset County Gazette, September 5, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 371.

Douglass, Frederick, The Relation of the Free Church to the Slave Church Renfrewshire Advertiser, March 28, 1846. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. I, p. 189.

Douglass, Frederick, The Skin Aristocracy in America Coventry Herald and Observer, 5 February 1847. Blassingame, John (et al, eds.). The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One—Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Vol. II, p. 3.

Douglass, Frederick, and Richard T. GreenerFrederick Douglass and Richard T. Greener on the Negro Exodus, 1879. From Herbert Aptheker, editor, A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), p. 724.

Dublin Journal, A Proclamation Dublin Journal, June 2, 1798

DuBois, W.E.B., The Negro Mind Reaches Out (excerpts) The New Negro, An Interpretation New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1925, p. 385.

Du Bois, W.E.B, Returning Soldiers, The Crisis, XVIII (May, 1919), p. 13.

Du Bois, W.E.B., The Social Equality of Whites and Blacks, The Crisis, XXI (November, 1920), p. 16.

Du Bois, W.E.B., The Talented Tenth, from The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative Negroes of To-day (New York, 1903).

Fitzhugh, George, Negro Slavery Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society. Richmond: A Morris, 1854.

Fitzhugh, George, The Two Philosophies, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society. Richmond: A Morris, 1854.

Fletcher, John, Proemial Studies on Slavery, in Easy Lessons. Miami: Mnemosyne, 1969. First published Natchez, 1852.

Fletcher, John, Publisher's Preface Studies on Slavery, in Easy Lessons. Miami: Mnemosyne, 1969. First published Natchez, 1852.

Fletcher, John, Wayland on conscience... Studies on Slavery, in Easy Lessons. Miami: Mnemosyne, 1969. First published Natchez, 1852.

Forsyth, John, However unjust...the slave trade may be, it is not contrary to the law of nations 1839. Africans Taken in the Amistad. U.S. 26th Cong., 1st Sess., H. Exec. Doc. 185. (New York: Blair & Rives, 1840). 57-62.

Fraser's Magazine, War with America a Blessing to Mankind "War with America a Blessing to Mankind," Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country, v. 23, n. 136, 1841. 494-502

A Freed Negro's Soliloquy Anti-Abolition Tracts.—N. 6, 1866. Yale University.

Furman, Richard, Exposition of the Views of the Baptists Relative to the Coloured Population... Charleston, 1823. Reprinted in Rogers, James A. Richard Furman: Life and Legacy. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1985. 274-286. December 24, 1822

Garrison, William Lloyd, Boston, April 1, 1847. Letter to Elizabeth Pease. Merrill, Walter (ed). The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison. Vol. III: No Union With Slave-Holders 1841-1846. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, 1973, p. 474.

Garrison, William Lloyd, Youngstown, (Ohio,) August 16, 1847, Letter to Helen E. Garrison. Merrill, Walter (ed). The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison. Vol. III: No Union With Slave-Holders 1841-1846. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, 1973, p. 510.

Garrison, William Lloyd, October 20, 1847, Letter to Helen E. Garrison. Merrill, Walter (ed). The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison. Vol. III: No Union With Slave-Holders 1841-1846. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, 1973, p. 531.

Home of Irish immigrants, Catherine O'Brien Hanlon and Michael Hanlon Photograph courtesy of Rose Mary Madden Noonan of Southport, Connecticut.

Horsmanden, Daniel, The New-York Conspiracy, or a history of the Negro plot (Excerpt) New York: Southwick & Pelsue, 1810.

Hotten, John Camden, ed. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality. . . (New York: G. A. Baker & Co., Inc., 1931), p. 438-450.

Irish House of Commons, Extract of a Letter... The London Chronicle, from Thursday, January 2 to Saturday, January 4, 1800, Vol. 87.

Irish House of Commons, Irish House of Commons, Monday, Feb. 17 The London Chronicle, Monday, Feb. 17, 1800, Vol. 87.

Irish House of Commons, Irish House of Commons, Monday, Feb. 26 The London Chronicle, Wednesday, Feb. 26, 1800, Vol. 87.

Irish House of Commons, Irish House of Commons, Tuesday, March 11, Excerpt The London Chronicle, January 3 - March 18, 1800, Vol. 87.

Irish House of Commons, Irish House of Lords—Commons The London Chronicle, From THURSDAY, February 13, to SATURDAY, February 15, 1800, Vol. 87.

Jefferson, Thomas, Thomas Jefferson Letter to Joseph C. Cabell (2/6/1820) Ford, Paul Leicester, ed. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. 12 vols. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1905. 154-5.

Jefferson, Thomas, Thomas Jefferson Letter to Robert Walsh (1/22/1820) Ford, Paul Leicester, ed. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. 12 vols. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1905. 156.

Johnson, John H., Testimony of John H. Johnson regarding the Negro Exodus. From Herbert Aptheker, editor, A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), p. 722.

Kale, Kale to John Quincy Adams (1/4/1841) In Simon Baldwin. "The Captives of the Amistad." Reprinted in Papers of the New Haven-Colony Historical Society. Vol. IV. 1888. 354-55.

King, Charles R., ed. The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, Comprising his Letters, private and Official, his Public Documents and his Speeches. Vo. 6, 1816-27. (New York: G. P. Putman's Sons, 1900), p. 399-419, passim.

Keeling, Mrs. Violet, Testimony of Mrs. Violet Keeling, 1883, Senate Report No. 579, 48th Cong., 1st Sess.; testimony dated February 18, 1884.

Lincoln, Abraham, Emancipation Proclamation

Locke, Alain, Forward The New Negro, An Interpretation New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1925, p. ix.

Louisiana, Constitution, State Constitution of Louisiana, 1898, Suffrage and Elections.

The Louisiana (New Orleans) Standard New Orleans Mass Meeting, 1888, The Louisiana (New Orleans) Standard, August 25, 1888, in Congressional Record, 50th Cong., 1st Sess., appendix, pp. 8993-94.

Louisiana Negro Convention, [Concerning the Negro Exodus], 1879. From Herbert Aptheker, editor, A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), p. 714.

Magoon, E.L., William C. Preston, The Inspired Declaimer Living Orators in America. New York: Baker and Scribner, 1850. 347-363.

Maryland Land Office, New Ireland Established in Maryland Land Commissioner's Office, Certificate of Survey, Records of Certificates and Patents, (folios 36 and 37, Liber 22)

Matthews, Mary Ann, interviewer, Conversation with Larri Mazon December 9, 1998.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Conversation with Mary Walsh June 29, 2000.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Conversation with Rev. Dr. Frederick J. Streets February 2, 1999.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Conversation with Rev. Hopeton Scott November 11, 1998.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Conversation with six De La Salle Christian Brothers December 3, 1999.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Conversation with Steve and Peggy Corcoran June 15, 2000.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Harry Payne Interview October 23, 1999.

Matthews, Mary Ann, Interview with Stephanie Bryant August 1, 2003.

Matthews, Mary Ann, W. Warren Harper Interview January 29, 2000.

The Military Articles of Lymerick Dublin: Robert Thornton, 1692.

Mill, John Stuart, The Spirit of the Age (Excerpt) 1831; reprint ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942. 90-93.

Mississippi Code, Unlawful Marriages, Poll tax, Education Annotated Mississippi Code, v. 1, 1927. Indianpolis.

Nast, Thomas, The American River Ganges (Cartoon) Harper's Weekly. New York: September 30, 1871. Courtesy of HarpWeek.

Nast, Thomas, The Day We Celebrate (Cartoon) Harper's Weekly, New York: April 6, 1867. Courtesy of HarpWeek.

Nast, Thomas, The Ignorant Vote—Honors are Easy (Cartoon) Harper's Weekly, v. 20. N. 1041. New York: December 9, 1876. Courtesy of HarpWeek.

Nast, Thomas, No Church Need Apply (Cartoon) Harper's Weekly, May 8, 1875.

Nast, Thomas, Would You Marry Your Daughter to a Nigger? (Cartoon) Harper's Weekly, July 1, 1868.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, The Tenth Annual Report of the NAACP for the year 1919.

National Conference of Colored Men of the United States, Proceedings of the National Conference of Colored Men of the United States (Selections). From Herbert Aptheker, editor, A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), p. 723.

Niagara's Declaration of Principles, 1905

New York Commercial Advertiser, The African Captives New York. 28 August - September 25, 1839.

New York Herald, Liberation of O'Connell New York Herald. v. 10. n. 273. whole n. 3873. October 3, 1844.

New York Journal of Commerce, Narrative of the Africans New York Journal of Commerce. October 10, 1839

New York Morning Herald, The Captured Africans New York Morning Herald. September 18, 1839. p.2.

New York Morning Herald, The Case of the Captured Negroes New York Morning Herald. September 9, 1839.

New York Times, Another Day of Rioting New York Times, v. 12, 16 July, 1863. Numbers 3680 - 3685.

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