After reviewing forest certification in four regions – Asia-Pacific, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe – our symposium committee selected four countries from each region (16 total) on which to base case studies (see box). Countries were selected based on the length of time certification was underway, the amount of land certified, the presence of forest dependent communities, and other factors. Either certified forest management or chain of custody certification systems are present in all case-study countries, some have both. Some countries have experienced more than one type of certification system. Each country chosen is home to forest-dependent communities, and these communities have the potential to contribute to regional and national forest policy.

Case Study Countries



Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia,
Solomon Islands
Zambia, South Africa, Uganda, Gabon

Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Russian Federation

Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico