Yale University



A-Z Index

CGP Biographic Database (CBIO): Instructions for Use

I. Purpose of CBIO
II. Categories of Individuals Included in CBIO
III. Glossary of Common Khmer Terms
Source Codes (material used to compile the Database)
Huridocs Codes (coding system for some entries)

This database contains records on over 19,000 people. Each record contains up to 40 information fields, each clearly related to a source. Most but not all of the records are of individual members of the Khmer Rouge movement (some are records of their victims). Many of these people are now dead, and many Khmer Rouge were also victims of the Khmer Rouge leadership's purges. The database also includes the names of many people who are still alive in Cambodia, both victims and perpetrators.We want this database to be accessible to future officers of any tribunal that may be convened to examine and judge the case against surviving members, and in particular the top leaders, of the Khmer Rouge movement. We also want Cambodians and international researchers to be able to use this database to seek information about their relatives or friends who may have joined the Khmer Rouge or may have fallen victim to them, or both.

1. Anyone who was a member of a Khmer Rouge district (srok) committee or of a higher rank.
2. Leaders of large labor units (chalat) or other important institutions (e.g., prisons)
3. Anyone who led an important Khmer Rouge military unit, i.e., a company (kong anousena thom) or a higher-level unit.
4. Anyone who is reported to have killed, raped, maimed or tortured anyone or likewise been killed, raped, maimed or tortured in specific incidents for which we have the individual's name and either the place or date of the incident.
5. All individuals named in the book of documents entitled Pol Pot Plans the Future.
6. All individuals named in the Cornell Catalogue of Tuol Sleng confessions (approximately 4000 victims) or in the Tuol Sleng' List of Prisoners arrested in 1976' (approximately 1500 victims).


Geographic Terms:
Center - mochhim
Zone - phumipeak
Province - khet
Region - damban
District - srok
Subdistrict - khum/sangkat,sahakor
Village - phum

Civilian and Party Terms:
Chief - protean
Committee - kana
Secretary - lekha
Mobile work groups - chalat
Village militia - chhlop
Grandfather - Ta
Grandmother - Yiey

Military Terms:
General Staff - akea senatikar
Division/Brigade - kong pul
Regiment - kong voreasena thom
Battalion - kong voreasena touch
Company - kong anousena thom
Platoon - kong anousena touch
Squad - puok

Military Ranks:
Commander-in-Chief - akea me benhchiakar
Chief of the General Staff - protean akea senatikar
General - odom seney
One Star, etc. - phkai muoi
One Stripe, etc. - sak muoi


1. BK, HPP - Ben Kiernan, How Pol Pot Came To Power
2. BK, PPR - Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime
3. BK, EZM - Ben Kiernan, Cambodia: Eastern Zone Massacres
4. RJ, CDC - Raoul Jennar, Les Clés du Cambodge
5. DC, TCH - David Chandler, The Tragedy of Cambodian History
6. DC, BNO - David Chandler, Brother Number One
7. MV, CAM - Michael Vickery, Cambodia, 1975-1982
8. MV, KAM - Michael Vickery, Kampuchea
9. EB, WWO - Elizabeth Becker, When The War Was Over
10. SH, KOR - Stephen Heder, Kampuchean Occupation and Resistance
11. SH, PPKS - Stephen Heder, Pol Pot and Khieu Samphan
12. SH, RCP - Stephen Heder, Reflections on Cambodian Political History
13. KJ, CRD - Karl Jackson, Cambodia, 1975-1978
14. TC, CPP - Tim Carney, Communist Party Power in Kampuchea
15. CE, RDD - Craig Etcheson, The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea
16. NC, BE - Nayan Chanda, Brother Enemy
17. SH, JAP - Stephen Heder, 1980 Japanese Interviews
18. BK, CB - Ben Kiernan and Chanthou Boua, Peasants and Politics in Kampuchea
19. DC, BK - David Chandler and Ben Kiernan, Revolution and its Aftermath in Kampuchea
20. BK, GD - Ben Kiernan, Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia
21. PPP - David Chandler, Ben Kiernan, and Chanthou Boua, Pol Pot Plans the Future

1. 1976 Toul Sleng Entry List (translation) BK-TS-76
2. Ben Kiernan Interviews (no. + transcript translation page no.) BKI
3. Ben Kiernan Card File on KR (in alpha order) BK-CF
4. Tuol Sleng Catalogue of Confessions (Cornell University) CU-TS

These lists are not complete. More versions of HURIDOCS codes and terms are available. The information was condensed from forty-seven pages for convenience and to avoid confusion. The information presented is what was most likely used for CBIO entry. (The list of index terms is a complete list.)

Type of Event
01 Deaths and killings
01.51 Summary execution including judicial execution of prisoners of conscience
01.52 Killing in armed conflict between government and opposition forces
01.53 Killing by abuse of power in a legal process through the excess use of force by public officials
01.55 Killing in demonstrations, crowd control, attacks on buildings, bombs etc.
01.56 Extrajudicial execution outside any legal proceedings including murder, shooting, assassination and death squads
01.57 Genocide
01.58 Suicide
01.59 Killing by negligence
01.60 Massacre or mass killing
01.61 Killing in a conflict between communities, ethnic groups, villages etc.
01.62 Legal execution Capital punishment
01.62 Death while in detention or police custody (Use code 01.53 if torture was the main cause of death)
01.631 Death in extermination, concentration or labor camps
01.64 Death in transport e.g., deportations, forced marches
01.97 Death due to unknown causes
02 Attempted killing, physical assault or wounding (use headings under 05 if the assaults occur while in detention)
02.1 Shooting (use 12.92 for indiscriminate shooting into a crowd)
02.2 Beating
02.5 Sexual molestation and rape
02.7 Bombing
03 Death threats (use 05.73 if these threats occur while in detention)
04 Arrest, detention and incarceration
04.02 Held in labor, concentration or extermination camps
04.06 Held in a government or military facility without any legal authorization, no charge, no trial
04.98 Held for unknown reasons
05 Torture (The following codes refer to occurrences while in detention)
05.2 Physical assault
05.21 Beating
05.25 Sexual molestation or rape while in detention
05.7 Psychological torture and ill-treatment
05.73 Death threat
06 Domestic violence involving a spouse
07 Violence involving children or dependents
07.2 Physical assault
07.21 Beating
07.25 Sexual molestation, incest and rape
07.4 Deprivation
07.41 Deprived of food
07.42 Deprived of clean water supply
07.7 Psychological abuse
08 Domestic hardship
08.1 Separation of spouses
08.2 Separation of parents and children
08.3 Homelessness
08.4 Reproductive control
08.5 Denial of food and food aid
09 Disappearances and kidnapping
09.1 Possible disappearance
09.2 Attempted kidnapping
10 Control of movement of individuals
10.1 Curfew
10.2 House arrest
10.3 Travel restrictions within the country
10.4 Internal exile. Exit permit not granted
10.5 Deportations outside the country
10.6 Right of return denied
10.7 Individuals denied asylum
10.8 Displacement of persons within the country
10.9 Surveillance
11 Control of movement of groups
11.1 Curfew of villages, camps, town, communities
11.3 Group displacements and involuntary resettlement in villages, camps etc. within the country
11.4 Group displacements without resettlement
11.5 Displacements of groups out of the country
11.6 Refugees denied asylum
11.7 Round ups of groups of people
12 Restrictions on personal expression and assembly
12.2 Censorship
12.28 Related to religion
12.4 Totally banning certain groups or membership of them
12.48 Religious group
12.6 Banning of particular meeting(s), disallowing freedom of assembly
12.68 Religious group
12.8 Banning of specific languages
12.9 Indiscriminate attacks on assemblies of crowds
12.92 Indiscriminate shooting
13 Destruction, impairment, closure and/or confiscation of personal property or institutions
13.3 Raided or searched illegally
14 Labor-related event
14.1 Involuntary labor
14.4 Gender discrimination and harassment
14.5 Non-payment of wages
14.6 Discrimination in the workplace (other than gender)
14.61 Due to race, ethnic background or nationality
14.62 Due to social or economic class
14.63 Due to religion
14.9 Improper working conditions
15 Failure to enforce, prosecute and punish violators
16 Electoral fraud and intimidation
17 Actions involving land and environment
17.2 Intentional pollution
17.3 Intentional flooding or rendering it untillable
18 Denial of education or admission to a particular school
19 Collective punishments
20 Discrimination other than types listed above

Short List of Index Terms
Abuse of the elderly
Arbitrary arrest and detention
Child labor
Civil and political rights
Crimes against humanity
Death penalty
Detained persons
Disappeared persons
Displaced persons
Economic deprivation
Economic, social and cultural rights
Educational discrimination
Ethnic discrimination
Extrajudicial executions
Forced conscription
Forced labor
Forced relocation
Freedom of movement
Freedom of religion
Freedom of speech
Gender discrimination
Human rights violations
Illegal detention
Indigenous groups
Inhuman treatment
Internal displacement
Internally displaced persons
Legal proceedings
Living conditions
Mental health
Military government
Minority groups
Missing persons
National liberation movements
People's rights
Political activities
Political detainees
Political participation
Political parties
Political violence
Prison conditions
Refoulement (forced repatriation)
Religious discrimination
Right to food
Right to justice
Right to property
Right to return
Sexual abuse
Social group discrimination
Standard of living
Torture victims
Violence against women
War crimes
Working conditions
Wounds and injuries

List of Occupations
.0 Armed Forces
.01 Army
.04 Reserve forces
.05 Guerrilla
.1 Legislators, Senior Officials and Managers
.2 Professionals and Academics (holding a university degree)
.23 Teaching professionals
.231 College, university and higher education teaching professionals
.232 Secondary education professionals
.233 Primary and pre-primary education teaching professionals
.24 Other professionals
.242 Legal professionals
.2451 Authors, journalists, poets, editors, & other writers
.246 Religion professionals (e.g., monks)
.3 Technicians and Associate Professionals (generally have post-high school training)
.33 Teaching associate professionals (e.g. teachers without a university degree)
.34 Other associate professionals
.341 Government workers
.4 Clerks
.41 Office clerks and secretaries
.411 Government clerks
.5 Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales Workers
.6 Skilled Agricultural and Fishery Workers
.61 Market-oriented skilled agricultural and fishery producers
.62 Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers
.7 Craft and Related Workers
.8 Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers
.8322 Car, taxi and light van drivers
.9 Elementary Occupations
.92 Agricultural, fishery and related laborers
.93 Laborers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport
1.1 Unemployed
1.2 Student
1.21 University; post-secondary
1.3 Beggar; street dweller
1.4 Volunteer workers in special interest organizations

For additional information on the coding of the CGDB Biographic Data Base, please consult:
HURIDOCS Standard Formats: Supporting Documents. -- 1993.
Mini-micro CDS/ISIS reference manual (Version 2.3). -- March 1989
BISA CDS/ISIS training manuals
UNIMARC Manual : Bibliographic Format. -- 2nd ed., 1994.

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