Yale University

 

Calendar

A-Z Index

The Khmer Rouge National Army: Order of Battle, January 1976

This set of tables from the archives of the Santebal, the Khmer Rouge national-level security forces, reveals the order of battle of the national Khmer Rouge army, the Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea.  The first table reveals that the total number of Khmer Rouge regular forces was 72,248 troops, in nine divisions [kong pul] and four regiments [kong voreachsena thom].  The commanders of each division and regiment are named along with commanders of other units.  (For a summary of the Democratic Kampuchea military chain of command, see Ben Kiernan, Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia, p. 15, Table 2.)  The second table shows the amount of rice estimated to be harvested in 1976 by the soldiers of each of a number of the army's divisions.  Note that the "Chinese comrades" are estimated to harvest 5000 thang of rice, approximately 125 tons. 

It is important to remember that these forces are only the regular troops [thoap sruoch] under the direct command of the Khmer Rouge national general staff.  Each of the seven Zones of Democratic Kampuchea also had its own general staff.  The Zone military commands, their thirty or more component Regions, and over one hundred districts, commanded additional, regional forces [thoap damban].  There were also militia units [chhlop] in each of the country's sub-districts and also in each village.

The final tables describe the January 1976 order of battle and internal structure of the 170th Division, which was to be decimated by Santebal purges in the months that followed.  The 170th was the former 1st Eastern Zone Division, commanded by Chan Chakrey (alias Mean) until 1975.  It came under direct Center control in July of that year.  On 9 October 1975, Pol Pot had remarked to a secret meeting of the Standing committee of the ruling Communist Party of Kampuchea that Chakrey's 170th Division was "the strongest of all" but that Chakrey owed his rank to Vietnam:  "We must pay attention to what he says, to see [whether] he is a traitor who will deprive himself of any future." With Chakrey's deputy, Phan, too, "we must be totally silent. . . . We must watch their activities."  Pol Pot removed Chakrey from his division command and brought him under close Center supervision as deputy chief of the general staff.  (For sources on the purge of Chakrey, see Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime, pp. 101, 321-5.)  The January 1976 report to the Santebal on the Division's order of battle was part of its process of planning a purge.  Chakrey was demoted in April and arrested on May 19th, 1976, his wife on September 19th.  By November, 241 serving and former members of the 170th had been sent to Tuol Sleng prison.

The author of these documents, Ke San alias Sok, who replaced Chakrey as the 170th Division's political comissar, was himself arrested by the Santebal on March 4th 1978.

- BK

N0001069

(02 bbk)

 

TRANSLATION     Rice Consumption Plan, 1976 ------

Number Unit Nº Chief of the Unit Exact numbers Reserves Total 15 thang per person 1976 needs, in thang
1 164th Comrade Mut 6,026 500 9,526 (sic) [6,526] x 15 142,890
2 170th --"-- Mean 6,613 200 6,813 x 15 102,195
3 290th --"-- Tat 5,298 500 5,598 x 15 86,970
4 310th --"-- Oeun 6,869 200 7,069 x 15 106,035
5 450th --"-- Suong 6,100 200 6,300 x 15 94,500
6 502nd --"-- Met 5,887 500 6,387 x 15 95,805
7 703rd --"-- Pin 6,168 200 6,368 x 15 95,520
8 801st --"-- Roeun 5,423 500 5,923 x 15 88,845
9 920th --"-- Chhin 4,169 1,500 5,669 x 15 85,035
10 75th --"-- Vin 1,123 500 1,623 x 15 24,345
11 m. 21 --"-- Sem 2,048 1,000 3,048 x 15 45,720
12 152nd --"-- Sim 2,194 500 2,694 x 15 40,410
13   Military logistics 1,296 500 1,796 x 15 26,940
14   Tank unit(s) 588 500 188 x 15 16,320
15   Artillery unit(s) 448 500 948 x 15 14,220
16   Staff Office 57 200 257 x 15 3,854
17 920th People from Comrade Chhins [unit] 941   941 x 15 14,115
 

64,248 + 8,000 = 72,248 x 15 = 1,083,720 thangs.


Clarifications:

1. 10 to 15 thang of each 100 thang of rice just harvested will be lost if we keep it for a long time. So out of 1,083,720 thang of rice [we] will lose: (1083,720 x 15)/100 = 162,588 thang

2. Rice consumption (needs) in 1976:  1,083,720 + 162,550 = 1,246,278 thang.

3. Measurement in tons:  1,246,278/40 = 31,157 tons

Date: 4-1-76

Teanh

   

N0001070

(02 bbk)

Amount of rice harvest, 1976 ------ 

Number Unit number Estimate of rice harvest Other
1 170 10,000 thang  
2 310 18,040 --  
3 450 9,000 --  
4 502 12,000 --  
5 703 24,000 --  
6 152 3,200 --  
7 Chinese comrades 5,000 --  
    81,240 thang  
 
1. Measurement in tons: 81,240/40 = 2,31 tons

2. Consumption : 6.60% 3. This is just an estimate because [we] havent finished harvesting.

Date: 4-1-76Teanh  

 


 N0001075

 

(02 bbk)

 


 170th Division
 

 

To the staff committee with respect,  
[Id] like to report the weapons and forces and bases, as noted in the table below:

1. Table of weapons trequired [for combat readiness], from sections up to divisions. 2. Weapons that [we] have for combat readiness, shortages, and spares. 3. Table of plans to establish bases and to work.
  - Total: 6,627 people. - Able to work: 5,556 people. - Cannot work: 1,071 people.
- Do easy work: study, cham ba lo (dredge ponds), absent, in training = 379 people. - Cannot work: sick, injured, in hospital = 732 people.

Best wishes for successWritten on 6-1-76(Signature)Comrade Sok 

 

Table of weapons [we] have that were distributed as arms

 
 
 

Type of weapon Weapons we have       Weapons required [for combat  readiness] Weapons [we] lack Spare weapons Other
1 AK 2,202 2,135   67  
2 CKC 312        
3 RPD 67        
4 B-40 or 41 95 189 94    
5 M-30 81 81      
6 M-79 141 93   48  
7 M-16 1,609 1,090   519  
8 Rifle (carbine) 729        
9 12.7 li 11 36 25    
10 60 mm. Mortar 37 27   10  
11 81 mm. Mortar 14 30   16  
22 20 mm. Mortar 2 2      
13 DK-75 6 9 3    
14 DK-82 4 9 5    
15 105 mm. Cannon 2 3 1    
16 107mm. Cannon 1 1      
17 120 mm. Cannon 1 5 5    
18 K-54 158        
19 P.A. 244        
20 sang to 1        
21 Mitraillette 3        
22 FMBa 1        
23 K-53 1        
 
 


Table of establishing the bases of Division 170 and the work.
 
 

Regiment 71 Regiment 72 Regiment 73 Battalion 174 Battalion 175 Battalion 176 Battalion 177 Office 170
1,656 people in total.  
-Established the base from Wat Kdei Takoy to Wat Nirot Raingsei  

-Split away one Battalion, # 712 which has 401 members, to harvest rice in Preah Sdech District.   The rest stay and work at Beng Snao and Beng Prolit.  

*Able to work: 1368 people.  

*Cannot work: 288 people.

1,702 members.  

-Established the base from Prek Eng to Kdei Takoy Temple.   -Split one Battalion, # 723 which has 420 members, to harvest rice in Preach Sdech District, Region 24. The rest stay and work in the rice fields in Beng Snao and Beng Prolit.  

*Able to work: 1471 people.  

*Cannot work: 131 people.

1740 members.  

-Established bases in 2 places. 1: in the City, 550 members. 2: established [the base] from Prek Bra to Prek Ta Peou. Grows rice at Beng Snao and Beng Prolit Farm.  

*Able to work: 1338 people.  

*Cannot work: 402 people.

162 members.  

-Establish bases from Nirot Raingsei Temple to the north at Mekong River. Works at Beng Snao and Beng Prolit.  

*Able to work: 146 people.  

*Cannot work: 16 people. 

417 members.  

-Established the base From Prek Ta Peou to Munivong Bridge.   Works at Beng Snao and Beng Prolit Farm.  

*Able to work: 392 people.  

*Cannot work: 25 people.

341 members.  

Established the base at Nirot Raingsei Temple. Grows rice at Beng Snao and Beng Prolit.  

Able to work: 289 people.  

Cannot work: 52 people.

490 members.  

Established the base in Chbar Ampeou.   - 42 repairmen.   -295 people transport things. The rest guard the warehouses work at the rice mill hall. The rest grow rice.  

*Able to work: 445 people.  

*Cannot work: 45 people.

119 [members].  

-Established the base in Chbar Ampeou. Telephones telegrams, repair radios, messengers. 15 people work and stay at the base. The rest grow rice.  

*Able to work: 107 people.  

*Cannot work: 12 people.

 

Total members: 6,627 people Able to work: 5,556 people Cannot work: 1,071 people:

-Do easy work, study, chambalo(dredge ponds), absent, in training: 329 people.

Cannot work, sick, injured, in hospital: 742 people.
 
 
 


Table of weapons required for combat readiness, from section to Division level.  
 
 

Type of weapon 1 Platoon 3 Platoons 3  Companies Battalion Couriers Battalion Support Cadre Company Battalion [Total]
AK 5 x3 x3 +3 +3 +6         = 57
R-15 3 x3 x3   +2              = 29
B-40, 41                        = 6
M-79                        = 3
60 mm cannon                        = 1
12.7 li              
81 mm cannon              
M-30                        = 3
DK-75              
DK-82              
120 mm cannon              
105 mm cannnon              
20 li              
107 mm cannon              
 
Type of weapon 3 Battalions Regiment Support Regiment Intelligence Regiment Couriers Regiment [Total]
AK x3 +10 +5 +3    = 189
R-15 x3 +5 +3         = 95
B-40, 41 x3             = 18
M-79 x3             = 9
60 mm cannon x3             = 3
12.7 li   2           = 2
81 mm cannon   1           = 1
M-30 x3             = 9
DK-75          
DK-82          
120 mm cannon          
105 mm cannnon          
20 li          
107 mm cannon          
 
Type of weapon 3 Regiments Brigade Support Brigade Intelligence Brigade Couriers Brigade [Total]
AK x3 +20 +20 +3    = 610
R-15 x3 +10 +10         = 305
B-40, 41 x3             = 54
M-79 x3             = 27
60 mm cannon x3           = 9
12.7 li x3 +3           = 9
81 mm cannon x3 +3           = 6
M-30 x3             = 27
DK-75   2           = 2
DK-82   2           = 2
120 mm cannon   1           = 1
105 mm cannnon          
20 li          
107 mm cannon          
 
 
Type of weapon 3 Brigades Special Forces Regiment (174th Regiment) Support Regiment (175th Regiment) 176th Regiment (Medical) 177th Regiment (Logistics) 170th [Division] Office Division [Total] Other
AK x3 +250 +30 +5 +10 +10  = 2,135
R-15 x3 +16 +30 +5 +10 +10  = 1,090
B-40, 41 x3 +27               = 189
M-79 x3 +12               = 93
60 mm cannon x3                 = 27
12.7 li x3   +9             = 36
81 mm cannon x3   +12             = 30
M-30 x3                 = 81
DK-75 x3   +3             = 9
DK-82 x3   3             = 9
120 mm cannon x3   +2             = 5
105 mm cannnon     3             = 3
20 li     2             = 2
107 mm cannon     1             = 1
 


 
[Translator's note:  The above tables were in the original one large spread across two pages.  We have reformatted them here to make them easier to view.  They are of considerable interest in that they reveal the structure of a particular Division, the 170th.  We've expanded abbreviations from the Khmer original as follows:]

 
Top of page.