Jeffrey B. Brenzel
Dean of Undergraduate Admissions; Lecturer, Philosophy Department
After serving for eight years as executive director of the Association of Yale Alumni, I was named Dean of Undergraduate Admissions in 2005. Wearing another hat, I am also a philosopher, and received my BA at Yale in 1975 and my doctorate at the University of Notre Dame in 2001. Philosophically speaking, I have been interested in how the neo-Darwinian consensus in evolutionary biology and psychology reacts on contemporary metaphysics and moral philosophy. My dissertation focused on the difficulties created for three major ethical theories by an evolutionary perspective on morality. In my spare time, I worry about such things as artificial intelligence, the nature of consciousness, what is happening to the idea of human nature, and how these issues interact with a variety of ethical and religious concerns. I also teach philosophy in the Directed Studies Program in Yale College.
Assistant Professor of African American Studies and Sociology
My research interests are the sociology of health, illness, and the body; social movements, especially African American health activism; the sociology of science, technology, and knowledge (in particular, the social, cultural, and bioethical implications of genetic science); and racialization in biomedicine and technoculture. I am currently completing Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Politics of Health and Race (University of California Press, forthcoming), a book about African American health advocacy around issues of genetic disease, medicalized models of social unrest, and reproductive rights, as well as a related project on the transformations of individual and group identity among blacks in the US and Britain attendant to the introduction of commercial genetic technologies for use in tracing human genealogies. This second project is supported in part by a grant from the Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics at Yale; this research has also been supported by the Andrew S. Mellon Foundation, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation, and the Ford Foundation.
Roland C. Clement
I worked in business for over a decade and then studied wildlife management at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Degrees from Brown University and Cornell University came after serving three years in the US Air Corps Weather Service during World War II. After a long career in wildlife conservation with the Audubon Society of Rhode Island and the National Audubon Society (New York City), I joined Yale’s Agrarian Studies Program as a Visiting Fellow. I am now a member of Yale’s “Perspectives on Aging” study group, helping define what it means to be a “nonagenarian.” I participate in a Rachel Carson Centennial at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, Mass., with E. O. Wilson, distinguished Harvard biologist, and Linda Lear, biographer of Rachel Carson, in discussing Carson’s legacy.
James C. Scott
Sterling Professor of Political Science and Anthropology; Director of the Program in Agrarian Studies
There are a good many scholars whose writings opened up new perspectives for me or provided outstanding analyses of issues. I want to acknowledge the heavy intellectual debts to them and to the many scholars who have been involved in the Program in Agrarian Studies at Yale, which, for the past ten years, has been for me the site of a broad, interdisciplinary education in rural life and a major source of intellectual companionship. The Program has given me more than I can imagine ever giving back. By inviting public intellectuals and scholars from the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences who study rural life past and present, West and non-West, the Program in Agrarian Studies has two particular advantages over schools of agriculture and contemporary bioethicists. The first advantage lies in the capacity to take a deep historical view of how agriculture has transformed our environment and our own condition. The second is the ability to connect agriculture to larger ethical issues of food habits, identity, health, religion, and the concepts of social justice and community embodied in agrarian social movements. My speciﬁc teaching and research interests include political economy, anarchism, ideology, peasant politics, revolution, and class relations.
Research Affiliate, Anthropology; Professor Emerita of Sociology & Communication, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
My research interests are in linguistic, visual, cultural, and social aspects of new media. Together with Susan C. Herring, I have recently edited The Multilingual Internet: Language, Culture, and Communication Online (Oxford, University Press; May 2007). Languages discussed include: Spanish, Catalan, Chinese, Japanese, Thai, Arabic, and Portuguese. My previous book, Cyberpl@y: Communicating Online, appeared in 2001. I was a member of the Association of Internet Researchers’ work group on ethics, 2000-2002 (see http://www.aoir.org/reports/ethics.pdf, http://pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il/~msdanet/papers/ethics2.pdf). Home pages: http://pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il/~msdanet/. Companion website to Cyberpl@y: http://pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il/~msdanet/cyberpl@y.
Michael R. Dove
See Forestry & Environmental Studies
Assistant Professor of Anthropology and East Asian Studies
My main focus is disabilities and other minority movements in contemporary Japan. My book entitled Deaf in Japan: Signing and the Politics of Identity is due to come out this summer. Lately, I have been looking at the issue of people with severe physical or psychiatric disabilities.
James C. Scott
See Agrarian Studies
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Oswald J. Schmitz
See Forestry and Environmental Studies
Molecular, Cellular, & Developmental Biology
Administrative Director, Yale Partnership in the Biological and Chemical Sciences (YPBCS) and Yale Center for Genomics and Proteomics (CGP); Assistant Director in the Office of the Provost; and Associate Research Scientist, Molecular, Cellular, & Developmental Biology
I became interested in the field of bioethics, specifically issues related to genetically modified crops, largely through my background as a plant developmental and molecular biologist. After getting my PhD and postdoctoral experience in the academic milieu, I took a research position at Monsanto, in Mystic, Connecticut. This brought a whole new perspective to me on the role of a major global corporation in the development, marketing, and distribution of genetically modified crops. Needless to say, Monsanto has been at the center of much praise and controversy surrounding this topic, and working in that setting as a research scientist, I saw firsthand the stark differences between corporate and academic approaches for some of the issues involving genetically modified (GM) plants. Some of these included the free and open exchange, sharing, and publication of results and resources that are the cornerstone of academic work as opposed to patents, confidentiality agreements, restriction on publication, profit motive, etc., in the corporate world. Both models work well to serve the goals of each concern, and the science was sound and strong in each setting, but I felt caught between the two worlds. After four years, I left Monsanto to take a position at Yale as administrative director of our corporate partners program in the biological and chemical sciences and also of the Yale Center for Genomics and Proteomics. While back at Yale, I have taught a College Seminar entitled “GM Crops and Feeding the World in the 21st Century.” This allowed me to use my research experience from both academic and corporate environments to examine issues of the role of science and GM crops in the global food system. I have also continued to pursue my own research and have had two grants funded on harvesting nucleic acids and proteins from very small numbers of cells in plant tissue (laser capture microdissection). I have participated in the Bioethics Center “Genetically Modified Plants” working research group since its inception, and now serve as its Co-chair. These group meetings culminated in various symposia including the following: The Future of Rice Biotechnology: Scientific Advances and Policy Issues; Genetically Modified Plants for Producing Pharmaceutical Products: Scientific Advances and Policy Issues; and Gene Confinement for Genetically Modified Grasses: Gene Flow and Grasses.
Senior Research Scientist, Molecular, Cellular, & Developmental Biology; Lecturer in Molecular, Cellular, & Developmental Biology
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are human inventions previously unknown to the biological world. Dramatic advances in molecular biology have perfected technologies that allow us to transfer genes between unrelated organisms and have them both expressed and inherited. As a developmental biologist working at Yale, Berkeley, and now Yale again, I pursue research that uses molecular methods to analyze growth of plants, and I have become convinced of the safety and utility of this approach. But, I am interested also in other peoples’ perceptions of GMOs and how they arrived at them. Are these genetic interventions ethically acceptable to the public at large, to the “Greens,” and to starving populations? Each year we are examining various aspects and perspectives of these questions in the Bioethics Center’s “Genetically Modified Plants” working research group, of which I am Co-chair.
Willard L. Miranker
Adjunct Professor, Computer Science
The accelerating advance of technology promises great changes for all of us. The possibilities are extreme in their implications, both favorable and threatening. Growing awareness of these possibilities has seeded my interest in bioethics. I study cognitive computing and consciousness here in the AI group of the Yale Computer Science Department. I am convinced that machines will one day become sentient. They are already well on their way to becoming cognitive. Sublime benefits may result from this, but along with them, grave ethical challenges are likely to arise. The dangers lie not so much in the possibility that sentient machines will one day supercede us, but rather more immediately in the way we as people will exploit one another by employing such devices. My current work deals with modeling neural nets in the cortex. I study how these model networks learn, adapt, and solve problems, indeed, how they might become sentient. I am a member of the “Technology and Ethics” study group.
Associate Professor, Computer Science
I received my PhD in Computer Science at MIT in 2001 and joined the Yale faculty in the same year. I build human-like robots to investigate models of human development. Many scientists have used computer simulations to model complex interactions of neural function, sensory processing, and motor control. I believe that robotics offers a new kind of tool in investigating human behavior. By building robotic systems based on models of human intelligence, the full complexity of real world environments can be used in evaluating these models. Our research integrates work from artificial intelligence, machine vision, classical robotics, psychology, cognitive science, and human-machine interfaces. One of the major focuses of my work has been on how children develop social skills and an understanding of other people. Children gradually acquire many skills that allow them to learn from their interactions with adults, such as responding to pointing gestures, recognizing what someone else is looking at, and recognizing that other people have beliefs, goals, and desires that differ from those of the child. These abilities have often been called a “theory of mind” and are believed to be critical for language acquisition, for self-recognition, and in the development of imaginative play. Computational models of these skills are being developed, implemented, and tested on robotic platforms currently under construction. Our robots have performed tasks such as imitating human arm gestures, distinguishing animate from inanimate stimuli based on self-propelled motion criteria, and learning to reach for visual targets. By building machines with social skills, we can not only begin to model human development but also construct machines with more natural interfaces. Machines that can engage in the same social dynamics that people use with each other will be easier to use, will be usable in a wider range of situations, and will not require the user to learn arbitrary commands. One of my most current projects is to develop robotic systems that aid in the diagnosis of autism by autonomously classifying social interactions. I am currently building a new robotic system that will help teach social skills to autistic children. Additional projects focus on how children build a representation of objects as entities that exist through space and time, how animate stimuli are distinguished from inanimate objects, how sensation and motor control coordination are achieved in simple arm movements, and how children and animals distinguish themselves from others. I am a member of the “Technology and Ethics” study group.
Harold W. Attridge
Dean, Divinity School, and Lillian Claus Professor of New Testament
As Dean of Yale Divinity School, I am especially concerned with the Church’s response to the most challenging ethical questions of our time. One of the ways that I can help to ensure an adequate response from the Church in the future will be to shape the Divinity School’s curriculum so that it offers our students ample preparation to engage in dialogues regarding ethics. The issues surrounding bioethics are already being taken with the utmost seriousness by many of our faculty and students, and, therefore, it is imperative that we at the Divinity School use our resources and research to support the Center for Bioethics. I arrived at Yale in 1997 from the University of Notre Dame, where I was Professor of New Testament and, from 1991–1996, Dean of the College of Arts and Letters. I received my AB from Boston College in 1967, a BA and MA from Cambridge, studying as a Marshall Scholar, and a PhD from Harvard University in 1975. I was a Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows at Harvard between 1974 and 1977. Before going to Notre Dame, I taught at the Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist University. As a biblical scholar, I have focused my research on the Hellenistic period and the history and literature of early Christianity. I have served as president of the Society of Biblical Literature and am a member of the Catholic Biblical Association and the Society for New Testament Studies.
James Clement van Pelt
Program Coordinator, Initiative in Religion, Science & Technology, Divinity School
Approaching bioethics from the perspective of its relation to religious and spiritual experience, our initiative concerns the trend toward the devaluation of experience in general, in contrast to looking at persons in terms of behavior and information processing. This concern underlies numerous issues in bioethics, such as invasive research on humans and other animals, neuroethics, and beginning and end of life issues. A related concern of mine is the telos of technology, i.e. the point of culmination toward which technology is barreling, which manifests in bioethical inquiry into the nature of personhood and the obligations we incur by using technology to overcome our every limitation – perhaps to “be as gods,” perhaps to replicate the Tower of Babel. I appreciate the broad interdisciplinary character of the Bioethics Center, which encompasses all of these interests and so many more in a uniquely inviting forum that can be deeply touching to the heart while expanding one’s conceptual horizons. My specializations are spiritual anthropology, theology of technology, and consciousness studies (including first-person methodologies), and I present regularly on all three at academic conferences. I have a Master of Arts in Religion from the Yale Divinity School (2003) and since graduation, I have been affiliated with the Divinity School in various capacities, coordinating the school’s Initiative in Religion, Science and Technology, and representing the technologist perspective as one of the three instructors for the school’s “Religion, Science and Technology” course. My technologist positions have included Regional Technology Advisor for Connecticut’s public school districts; Director of Advanced Solutions for Dun & Bradstreet; and technology consultant in marketing and implementation for American Express, as well as other corporations and nonprofits. I have also served as the module leader for “Culture and Belief” for the Stimson Seminar at the Yale Center for International and Area Studies, and was a co-founder of the Center for Participant Education at Florida State University.
Margaret D. Lewis
Christiana Z. Peppard
PhD Student, Department of Religious Studies
Realities that may become rather determinative of our lives can at first seem ancillary or accidental – and so it was for me, when a persistent interest in death, dying, and end-of-life care propelled an undergraduate Human Biology major into work in the field of Bioethics (notably at Yale’s Center for Bioethics!) and ultimately into doctoral work in Religious Ethics at Yale. The permanence of philosophical questions about the good life, the valence and value of human action, the pursuit of justice, and the like continue to inspire me as they surge through contemporary bioethical dilemmas such as the ethics of stem cell use and end-of-life care. In my time at Yale I have also been fortunate to work and study with remarkable leaders, scholars, and peers whose commitments to these issues refresh and inspire my own. In 2007-2008, I will be a third-year doctoral student, and so will begin to focus my energies toward a dissertation topic. My primary interests include water and ethics; the ethics of stem cell research; Catholic moral theology; ritual; and anthropology more generally, especially theories of embodiment, to which end I continue to be involved in the “Disability and Bioethics” working research group. I am co-editor (with Arthur Galston) of Expanding Horizons in Bioethics (Springer, 2005).
Brian C. Sorrells
My first exposure to bioethics came in Margaret Farley’s course on medical ethics while I was working on my master’s degree in ethics at Yale Divinity School. After completing my MAR in 2000, I entered Yale Graduate School’s PhD program in Religious Ethics (Department of Religious Studies) with interests in the human genome project, genetic medicine, and international human rights. I am now finally finishing the PhD program, and my early interests in human rights and bioethics are coming to initial fruition. I am completing my dissertation entitled Toward a Unified Theory of Human Rights as well as co-editing (with Susan Owen and Rita Strobel) the Bioethics Center book project provisionally entitled The Research Cloning Debate: Hope and Hype. With support from a Donaghue Initiative research grant, I am writing an article entitled “A Comparative Ethical Assessment of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.” I will also co-author an academic paper with Alison Norris in connection with her Donaghue Initiative research project, “How Did the Study Affect Us?” We will identify the ethical implications of how an observational study (in this case an ethnographic and epidemiological study of sexual beliefs, behavior, and STD risk on a sugar plantation in Tanzania) may constitute a de facto intervention that could itself lead to benefits and/or harms for the study participants. I am also a member of the Bioethics Center’s “Neuroethics” working group, with interests in the ethical implications of how manipulations of brain function influence personal identity and relationships as well as moral capabilities and responsibilities.
Robert E. Evenson
Professor of Economics and School of Forestry and Environmental Studies (ret.)
My interest in bioethics is derived from the conflicts between the “low-cost food” nature of genetically altered plants and animals and other characteristics of these plants and animals. My research is in two fields. The first is agricultural development processes, problems, and policies. This work has two lines of emphasis: one on the agricultural household, the second on the development and adoption of improved technology. The technology studies have, until recently, focused on public sector research institutions. My second field is the economics of technology, where I investigate research, development, and invention in both public and private enterprises. The focus is international and includes intellectual property rights in developing countries. My recent work is on the economic value of biodiversity. I am a member of the “Genetically Modified Plants” study group.
Clinical Professor of Epidemiology &Public Health, Clinical Professor of Medicine, and Faculty Member, Yale Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, School of Medicine
My involvement with the Center for Bioethics stems from a growing interest in, and concern about, the interface of science and science policy and, more specifically, the use of risk assessment as the basis for scientific and public policy decisions. Risk assessment has become critical to legislative and regulatory review, litigation, and public health, and environmental standards determination. The attractions and advantages of risk assessment are the analytical tools and decisional paradigms that provide its highly objective and rigorous structure. Despite that structure, risk assessment can be used to promote subjective valuations and arbitrary conclusions. The core of this seeming paradox is risk assessment’s reliance on “defaults” and “bright lines,” the arbitrary decisional guidelines used in the absence of “sufficient” scientific information. The setting of such defaults is a subject of on-going dispute, generally debated in complex scientific jargon in spite of the lack of scientific knowledge sufficient to make decisions. The establishment and perpetuation of specific defaults, which may have far-reaching social consequences, is ultimately more an issue of ethics than science. In order to better understand these complex aspects of risk assessment, I chair a Center for Bioethics study research group devoted to considering ethical issues in risk assessment and risk management. The goal of the series is to identify and bring together faculty and students from around the Yale campus who share an interest in risk assessment, to explore the subjective nature of risk assessment from a variety of perspectives and disciplines, and to begin to characterize the socially critical subjective issues that are often found to underlie the apparently objective scientific and mathematical formulations of risk assessment.
Associate Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health
My research examines end-of-life care and the use of hospice. Much of my work pertains to clinical decision-making and clinician-patient-family communication about alternative treatment options at the end-of-life. Recently, I have been investigating the impact of delayed hospice enrollment on caregiver well-being. Ethical implications of prognosis discussions, participative decision-making, and patient autonomy are integrated into my work. discussions, participative decision-making, and patient autonomy are integrated into my work.
Student, Yale School of Epidemiology & Public Health
Intrigued by the intersection of pragmatism and principles, I first explored my interest in bioethics as an intern at the President’s Council on Bioethics and then as an intern for the Human Protections Administrator at the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. After continuing my study of ethics and philosophy at George Washington University, and then at the beautiful St. Catherine’s College, Oxford University, I returned to DC to work in health policy and staff a legislative mandated health care working group. I am currently in the first year of my master’s studies in the department of Health Policy and Administration in the School of Epidemiology and Public Health. I also serve on the Human Investigations Committee (II) and work with the submissions committee of the Yale Journal of Health, Law, Policy and Ethics. My interests in the field of bioethics are policy focused, including human subjects protections, gene patents, assisted reproductive technologies, end of life issues, and domestic issues in health care cost, quality and access. My interests outside of the field of bioethics include anything involving politics and self-deprecating humor – preferably together.
Shelley D. Geballe
Lecturer in Public Health, Yale School of Epidemiology & Public Health; Visiting Clinical Lecturer, Yale Law School
I am President of CT Voices for Children (www.ctkidslink.org), a statewide non-profit public education and advocacy organization, which seeks to ensure that public policy and budget choices advance the well-being of Connecticut’s children, youth, and their families and communities. I’m also a lecturer in Epidemiology & Public Health, where I teach a course on health disparities, and a visiting clinical lecturer at Yale Law School, where I co-teach the Legislative Advocacy Clinic. A graduate of Yale’s Law School (1976), I spent the decade of my career as a civil rights lawyer acting as lead counsel in various class action cases that challenged the failure of state and local government to protect the rights of disenfranchised people. Among the persons I represented were the state’s abused and neglected children, children with HIV who were being excluded from the New Haven public schools, and inmates with HIV in Connecticut’s prisons and jails. I also had the opportunity to teach various courses in civil rights law, constitutional law, disability rights law, and AIDS law at Connecticut’s three law schools, and to assist Professor Art Galston in the initial offering of his wonderful bioethics course. After my time litigating, I returned to Yale to get a degree in public health, and while there, co-edited Forgotten Children of the AIDS Epidemic and co-produced “Mommy, Who’ll Take Care of Me?”—a nationally broadcast documentary on children whose parents have HIV. For two years, I co-taught a course on AIDS and the Law with former EPH Dean Michael Merson and worked with Dean Merson to establish the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS at Yale. For a number of years, I contributed to the work of CIRA as well. In 1995, I co-founded CT Voices for Children. Of late, much of my research and writing has been on the issues of child poverty; income inequality; foster and other at-risk youth; and finally, state tax and budget policy and its impact on Connecticut families. My international work has included consultation to the Union School of Public Health in Beijing, China, on public health law, and to the University of Pretoria Law School in South Africa on human rights law and HIV/AIDS.
Professor, Epidemiology and Public Health; Director, Interdisciplinary Research Methods Core, Yale Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS; Member, Substance Use Working Group, HIV Prevention Trials Network; NIAID Director, Yale Emerging Infections Program
My major research efforts include scientific investigation of the mortality and morbidity associated with injection drug use. Areas of investigation include syringe exchange programs, HIV and hepatitis transmission risks, hepatitis B vaccination, overdose prevention and resuscitation, and pharmacological treatment of opiate addiction. My research combines laboratory, operational, behavioral, and structural analyses to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in preventing the negative medical consequences of injection drug use. I am Director of the Interdisciplinary Research Methods Core at Yale’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA). In the practical arena, I attempt to provide health and prevention practitioners with information needed to assist their educational and advocacy efforts. Inasmuch as my current work focuses on the contexts and consequences of drug abuse and these research areas are rife with ethical issues, I have been involved with work that covers perceptions of the freedom of addicted people to give informed consent to participating in research, competing harms of addiction and preventable medical sequelae of addiction, and the demonization of drug use and drug users.
Associate Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health
My research is in the area of understanding racial/ethnic disparities in health, and cancer in particular. To date, the thrust of my research has been to try to understand the greater morbidity and mortality burden of breast cancer in African American women relative to white women. Gaining insight into this public health problem and other health disparities requires a multidisciplinary approach. Using standard epidemiologic methods, as well as molecular epidemiology, my ongoing projects evaluate the independent roles and interactions of a broad range of factors: genetic (somatic) mutations, polymorphisms, tumor characteristics, reproductive variables, social class, access to health care, obesity and other co-morbidity, racism, and most recently, the impact of neighborhood on health outcomes. As often happens in studies that address such complex problems, we usually are left with more explaining to do. Even when the enormous disparities in socioeconomic status between racial/ethnic groups are accounted for, we are often left with some unexplained effect of race/ethnicity. Alternatively, when we successfully explain away a race/ethnicity effect by accounting for differences in socio-economic status, we are often stumped in our attempts to understand the specific mechanisms by which socio-economic status can explain observed differences in health outcomes. This has generated an interest in the role of perceived discrimination, racism, neighborhood, and the specifics of the interaction between the health care system and individuals who do not identify with the majority population. The challenge is in measuring this dynamic. The larger challenge will come in identifying specific and realistic interventions.
Assistant Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health
I am an infectious disease epidemiologist and my primary research interests are the epidemiology, prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis among drug users, prisoners and other at-risk populations in the United States and in resource poor countries. My other interests are the examination of the links between health and human rights and the ethical dilemmas in research involving vulnerable populations, particularly persons with substance abuse problems. I conduct research and mentor researchers from China, Russia, South Africa and Iran on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis-related research. I chair the “Addiction, Mental Health, and HIV/AIDS” study group and am a member of the “Research Ethics” working group of the Yale Interdisciplinary Bioethics Center. I am the guest editor for a special issue of the International Journal of Drug Policy on “Ethics and Values in Harm Reduction.”
Associate Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health; Associate Professor, Psychology
A job after college on a geriatric unit of a psychiatric hospital sparked my interest in bioethics. I often listened to the staff discuss the patients. In the debates that frequently broke out about whether a pharmacological or psychosocial intervention would best reduce the patient’s suffering, I noticed that patients’ ages were mentioned repeatedly. It made me realize that the health of older individuals is surrounded by a web of ethical issues, such as whether certain types of treatments should be rationed by age. My current research focuses on the impact of age stereotypes on older individuals’ health and functioning. In a study designed to examine whether societal age stereotypes influence how older adults fill out living wills, we found that when we exposed older individuals to negative stereotypes they tended to reject the life-prolonging interventions presented in a set of scenarios, whereas when we exposed their same-aged peers to positive stereotypes of aging they tended to accept the same hypothetical interventions. I participate in the study group “Perspectives on Aging” within the Center for Bioethics. I enjoy working with this group to integrate multiple perspectives in understanding some of the ethical issues related to aging, including the place of elderly individuals in culture and medicine. This group has helped make explicit some of the topics I have considered implicitly in my research.
Peter H. Van Ness
Associate Research Scientist, Geriatrics and Associate Director of the Biostatistics Core of the Yale Program on Aging, Lecturer in Epidemiology at the Yale School of Public Health
As a philosopher of religion at Union Theological Seminary for many years, I addressed bioethical issues in my survey courses. While teaching a course on religion and ethics at Columbia University I became more acutely interested in spirituality and health as potentially complementary dimensions of human well-being. Pursuit of this topic led me to come to Yale in 1998 for an additional graduate degree and a postdoctoral fellowship in epidemiology. Currently, I am senior biostatistician and Associate Director of the Yale Program on Aging Biostatistics Core and a lecturer in Epidemiology in the School of Public Health. I investigate ethical issues related to the conception and practice of epidemiology and biostatistics, especially in the context of clinical studies of older populations. Ideas about risk, specifically the interrelationships between religion, risk, and health, are the focus of my interest.
Jennifer Prah Ruger
Associate Professor, Division of Health Policy and Administration, Epidemiology and Public Health
I am an associate professor at Yale University at the School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Adjunct faculty at the Law School. I am also Co-Director of the Yale-WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion, Policy, and Research and faculty associate of Yale’s Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics, MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, and the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. I received master’s degrees from Oxford University and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and a doctoral degree from Harvard University. Following a post-doctoral fellowship (Bell Fellowship) at Harvard’s Center for Population and Development Studies, I served on the health and development satellite secretariat of WHO Director-General Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland’s Transition Team. I then worked as a health economist at the World Bank and later served as Speechwriter to President James D. Wolfensohn. Previously I worked as one of two non-partisan Health Policy Analysts for Massachusetts Governor William Weld’s Task Force on the Health Care Industry and Governor’s Council on Economic Growth and Technology. I co-authored the Task Force Report with policy recommendations for health financing and insurance reform in Massachusetts. I have advised national and state governments on health finance and insurance reform. My research interests focus in health ethics and economics and include health and social justice; global health justice; global health governance; health financing and insurance; health, health systems, and economic development; and the economic evaluation of addiction programs and emergency and humanitarian services. These contributions are unified by an overarching interest in equity and disparities in health and health care, focusing on vulnerable and impoverished populations at the national and global level. I have published both theoretical and empirical work on equity and efficiency of health system access, financing, resource allocation, policy reform, and the social determinants of health.
Mark J. Schlesinger
Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health
My connections to bioethics are largely through the guilt of association. No matter how inappropriate my training (economics at Wisconsin) or how distanced the topics I have studied, my research seems inevitably to uncover previously obscured connections to the role of values in health care and health policy. The pattern first appeared in my earliest research, involving the influence of non-profit ownership on the delivery of health and social services. My research suggested that the non-profit form in itself embodies certain key values in American medicine, emphasizing the primacy of non-monetary motives and an avenue for the expression of communitarian values. But there were also important synergies between non-profit ownership and the promotion of professional autonomy. The connections between institutional arrangements and professional values in health care reappeared in the second focus of my research, which examined the emergence of new organizational arrangements associated with managed care. This work led to some ongoing research collaborations with colleagues at the AMA’s Institute on Ethics. Our studies identified new challenges to professional ethics and emerging threats to professional discretion. I thought I left ethical issues behind when I shifted into the field of political psychology, to examine the attitudes of policy makers and the general public toward selected health and social policies. But I was soon to discover that these attitudes were themselves powerfully shaped by a set of values deeply embedded in the act of making sense of complex social problems. Values of social justice were a key part of how people interpreted public policies too complicated to understand in more detailed terms. These repeated and varied exposures have convinced me of the challenges involved in thinking systematically about the ethical underpinnings of health and social policy. I hope to learn enough from our collective endeavors in the bioethics field to make some sensible contributions to these efforts.
Professor and Past Associate Dean, Epidemiology & Public Health
I have a PhD in economics from Stanford University and was a recipient of an NIMH postdoctoral fellowship in the economics department of the University of Chicago. My primary research is on the economics of substance abuse, focusing on the impact of substance abuse on productivity, education, and the well-being of families more generally. My current research includes conducting cost-effectiveness and cost-beneﬁt analyses of substance abuse treatments, including a focus on such issues as how to handle multivariate outcomes, the divergence between private and public goals, and heterogeneity in outcomes. I have worked with psychiatrists and psychologists in assessing the cost-effectiveness of substance abuse treatments. I teach a course on the economics of health that addresses many pressing social issues such as equity and efficiency in the provision and funding of medical care. Presently, I am also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economics Research. I have been a commissioner of hospital rate setting for New York State, have served on several governor-appointed councils for Connecticut (including the Connecticut Alcohol and Drug Abuse Council), and have received a Research Scientist Development Award from NIAAA. My work has been published in medical care and economics journals
Assistant Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health
My interest in bioethics stems from my interest in the interaction between the environment and public health. One primary challenge in the field of bioethics is that of environmental justice. Environmental justice is the determination where, how, and why one particular racial, socio-economic, or ethnic population may be particularly vulnerable to harmful environmental exposures. The ultimate goal of environmental justice is to minimize the harmful effects of pollution to these vulnerable groups. Environmental professionals and public health professionals have typically worked in parallel, but often fail to interact. In my opinion, reducing the chasm between these disciplines is paramount for the survival and effectiveness of each discipline. It is also through this interaction that we can make the most progress in achieving environmental justice. I teach the Environmental Health Seminar in Epidemiology & Public Health at the Yale School of Medicine. It is in this seminar that the students and I have the opportunity to interact with those individuals on the “front lines” dealing with issues of environmental justice: industry professionals, academicians, scientists, public health officials, politicians, and activists. Our seminar includes global, federal, state, and local issues. My training is in physiology, and my primary research examines environmental influences on body water and blood pressure regulation, specifically in the area of estrogen and progesterone effects. I am a member of the Center for Bioethics’ working research group entitled “Risk Assessment Forum.”
J. Alan Brewster
Deputy Dean and Research Scientist, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
My initial focus on ethics grew out of my role as the director of a major social experiment involving 2,500 families in Seattle, Washington, in the early 1970s. The experimental treatment involved providing randomly assigned combinations of income support and training to low and moderate income families for periods of three to five years. The project was designed to measure the effects of various welfare program alternatives on family income, work incentives, and family stability. Critical ethical issues faced by the project included informed consent, voluntary participation, hold-harmless protections, and confidentiality. This work led me to become involved in the growing focus of the US government on protection of human subjects. With degrees in mathematics, economics, and public policy, I have devoted my career to research and outreach directed at improving public policy in such areas as human welfare, health care, employment and training, environmental protection, and sustainable development. I have directed numerous policy research projects and helped develop and manage two premier policy research organizations—one devoted to domestic human resources issues (Mathematical Policy Research, Inc.) and one focused on the global issues of environment and sustainable development (World Resources Institute). I came to the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies to help the dean and faculty pursue their strategic mission “to provide the new leaderships and new knowledge needed to restore and sustain both the health of the biosphere and the well-being of its people.”
William R. Burch, Jr.
Hixon Professor of Natural Resource Management, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
I am a native of Oregon and have BS and MS degrees from the University of Oregon, a PhD (1964) from the University of Minnesota, and an MA (hon) from Yale University (1976). I have taught at the University of Minnesota, University of Missouri, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, Syracuse University, Yale University, Kesetsaart University of Bangkok, Thailand, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal, School of Economics and Management, Beijing Forestry University. Social science research or management appointments I have held include the US Forest Service, US National Park Service, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and USAID. I was the first Director of the Yale Tropical Resources Institute and the first Director of the Yale Urban Resources Initiative and continue in that position. I was a member of the Board of Directors, Paul Smiths College of the Adirondacks, New York (2000-2003). I have also worked on institution development and natural resource social science projects in a variety of countries: PR China, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Costa Rica, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, and Peru. I was Director of the Institute of Forestry Project, USAID\Nepal, an 8 million dollar, long term project (1989–1997). I was consultant or grantee for a number of USAID, Ford Foundation, MacArthur, FAO, Tinker, WWF projects in Asia and Latin America. I was awarded the John Eadie Fellowship by the Scottish Forestry Trust to advise British Forestry on Community Based Forestry research and training needs (2000-2002). I have been a lecturer for and advisor to the Sino Forestry–Leadership for Sustainable Development Program in China (1999-Present). I have an appointment as Adjunct Professor in the School of Economics and Management of Beijing Forestry University (from 17 October 2001 to present).
Marian R. Chertow
Associate Professor and Director of the Industrial Environmental Management Program; Director of the Program on Solid Waste Policy, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
I received my BA from Barnard College and my MPPM and PhD from Yale University. My research and teaching are concerned with corporate environmental management and policy. Primary research interests include the study of industrial symbiosis: geographically based exchanges of wastes, materials, energy, and water within networks of businesses and the adaptation of environmental practices in developing countries. I serve on the founding faculty of the Masters of Science in Environmental Management Program at the National University of Singapore and as a Visiting Professor at Nankai University’s National Center for Innovation Research on Circular Economy in China. Before coming to Yale, I spent ten years in environmental business and state and local government.
Michael R. Dove
Margaret K. Musser Professor of Social Ecology, Professor of Anthropology, Curator of Anthropology in the Peabody Museum, and Coordinator of the Forestry & Environmental Studies and Anthropology joint doctoral degree program
Professor Dove's research focuses on the environmental relations of local communities in less-developed countries, especially in South and Southeast Asia. His most recent books are Conserving Nature in Culture: Case Studies from Southeast Asia (Yale Southeast Asia Program 2005, coedited with P. Sajise and A. Doolittle), Environmental Anthropology: A Historical Reader (Blackwell 2007, coedited with C. Carpenter), and Southeast Asian Grasslands: Understanding a Folk Landscape (editor, New York Botanical Gardens Press 2008). He is currently completing books on the folk dimensions of conservation in Southeast Asia (coedited with P.E. Sajise and A. Doolittle, Duke University Press) and on the historic participation of Bornean tribal societies in global commodity production (Yale University Press). Current research includes a collaborative project on the cultural and political aspects of natural hazards and disasters in Central Java; and planning is underway on the role played by forest communities in climate change-related policy interventions. Another ongoing research activity, collaboratively conducted with members of his doctoral lab, drawn from four Yale departments, consists of a critique of key academic and policy concepts in contemporary conservation and development. Other research and teaching interests include the global circulation of environmental concepts; political dimensions of resource degradation; indigenous environmental knowledge; contemporary and historical environmental relations in South and Southeast Asia; the study of developmental and environmental institutions, discourses, and movements; and the sociology of resource-related sciences.
Daniel C. Esty
Hillhouse Professor of Environmental Law and Policy, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Law School and School of Forestry and Environmental
Studies; Director, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy; Director, Center for Business and the Environment at Yale My research interests concentrate on the benefits of data-driven environmental decision-making, environmental governance, corporate environmental strategy, and environmental attitudes and behavior. In 2002, I received the American Bar Association Award for Distinguished Achievement in Environmental Law and Policy for ’pioneering a data-driven approach to environmental decision-making’ and developing the Environmental Sustainability Index. I have authored or edited of a number of books, including: Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage; The Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index; Global Environmental Governance: Options and Opportunities, and Greening the Americas: NAFTA’s Lessons for Hemispheric Trade. Prior to taking my current position at Yale, I was a Senior Fellow at the Institute for International Economics, a Washington DC think-tank. From ‘89-‘93, I served in a variety of positions in the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Special Assistant to EPA Administrator William Reilly, Deputy Chief of Staff of the Agency, and Deputy Assistant Administrator for Policy. I coordinated the EPA’s regulatory program, negotiated a number of international agreements (including key aspects of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit), and launched several competitiveness and environment projects. My degrees include a BA from Harvard University, an MA from the University of Oxford, and a JD from Yale University.
Robert E. Evenson
Lloyd C. Irland
Lecturer and Senior Scientist, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
Years ago, while working in the Maine Department of Conservation, I encountered an issue with an ethical dimension. It seemed to me that our staff needed training on a few fine points of professional ethics. I found nothing readily available to help them. Years later, I prepared a readings volume on the subject, entitled Ethics in Forestry. Along the way I authored a half dozen or so articles on professional ethics in forestry. When I had the chance to teach at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, I found that there was considerable interest in the subject.
Gordon T. Geballe
Associate Dean and Lecturer, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
I received my BA in economics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1969 and my PhD in biology from Yale University in 1981. Since 1981, I have been at the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies as a researcher, lecturer, and administrator. My interests are in the area of sustainability and what people can do not only to ensure the survival of our species but also to ensure the survival of other species and ecosystems. I have done project work in rural and urban China, and on the interaction of dense human populations with natural resources in cities. The more than one billion citizens of China are aware that they need to pay attention to air pollution, soil fertility, and sanitary problems. My interest in this area first developed when I co-taught a seminar with a doctoral student in public health; we looked for issues that would interest both environmentalists and public health practitioners. I became aware of ecologists’ avoidance of humans, and decided to make our species my focus. I have taught a course with Professor Thomas Graedel called Designing an Ecocity, in which we try to specify the principles upon which cities in the next fifty years should be designed, as the human population grows from six to ten or so billion people, so that they will be environmentally sound and less of a burden on the natural resources they utilize. As an outgrowth of these interests, Professors Herbert Bormann, Diana Balmori, and I taught a course on the American lawn that became a book: Redesigning the American Lawn: A Search for Environmental Harmony. I am now interested in the large environmental conferences that occur regularly around the world. A group of students and I studied and attended the World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa, in Fall 2003. Another group studies the IUCN and attended its World Conservation Congress in Bangkok, Thailand in November 2004. I am planning a course on indigenous people who manage forests and we will be attending the IUCN world congress in Barcelona, Spain in October 2008.
Stephen R. Kellert
Tweedy Ordway Professor of Social Ecology, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
My interest in bioethics particularly emerged from a concern for the morality of environmental degradation and destruction, especially the extinction of nonhuman life. The “death of birth,” as species extinction can be regarded, seemed among the most vicious and unethical acts I could conceive. Its relative acceptance constituted for me both a dilemma of ethical understanding and a practical challenge. My work on the concept of biophilia—the notion that humans possess an innate inclination to attach value and meaning to nature, particularly other life—has also spurred interests in universal versus cultural expressions of ethics toward nature. Finally, recent work on the role of reason and faith in our relations to nature resulted in a major conference in May 2000 entitled “The Good of Nature and Humanity: Connecting Science, Religion, and Environment.” This conference was a collaborative effort of the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, the Yale Divinity School, the Wilderness Society, the National Religious Partnership for the Environment, and our Center for Bioethics. I have received the National Conservation Achievement Award (1997, NWF), Distinguished Individual Achievement Award (Society Conservation Biology, 1990), Best Publication of Year Award (International Foundation for Environmental Conservation, 1985), Special Achievement Award (NWF, 1983), and a Fulbright Research Fellowship (Japan, 1985-86). Committees I have served on include those of Agriculture and Wildlife of the National Academy of Science. I am a member of the IUCN Species Survival Commission Specialist Groups, and a board of director of many organizations.
Associate Research Scholar and Associate Director, Industrial Environmental Management Program, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
My interests in bioethics revolve around the use of agricultural resources and wastes for the production of non-food products, bio-materials, and bio-fuel. As the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Industrial Ecology, a peer-reviewed bimonthly owned by Yale, published by Wiley-Blackwell and headquartered at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, I organized a special issue on the industrial ecology of bio-based products. My work in this arena includes environmental assessments of non-wood-based paper. I am especially interested in the questions of when bio-based materials are in fact environmentally superior to their petrochemical analogs and how to assess whether a transition to a “bio-economy” will lead to radical environmental improvements.
Oswald J. Schmitz
Professor and Associate Dean of School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
My professional training and research interests are in the area of food web ecology with specific interests in how natural human-induced disturbances alter the species diversity and function of terrestrial food webs. My personal goal is to build a level of scientific understanding about species diversity and food web dynamics that will enable me to contribute to policy decisions related to environmental management and restoration. My interest in conservation ethics emerges as a result of marrying my professional interest in applied science with interests in informing policy decisions. ns.
James C. Scott
See Agrarian Studies
James Gustave Speth
Dean and Sara Shallenberger Brown Professor in the Practice of Environmental Policy, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
My degrees include a BA from Yale University, a Masters in Literature from Oxford University, and a JD from Yale University. From 1993 to 1999, I served as administrator of the United Nations Development Program and chair of the UN Development Group. Prior to my service at the UN, I was the founder and president of the World Resources Institute; professor of law at Georgetown University; chairman of the US Council on Environmental Quality; and senior attorney and cofounder, Natural Resources Defense Council. Throughout my career, I have provided leadership and entrepreneurial initiatives to many task forces and committees whose roles have been to combat environmental degradation, including the President’s Task Force on Global Resources and Environment, the Western Hemisphere Dialogue on Environment and Development, and the National Commission on the Environment. Among my awards are the National Wildlife Federation’s Resources Defense Award, the Natural Resources Council of America’s Barbara Swain Award of Honor, a 1997 Special Recognition Award from the Society for International Development, the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Environmental Law Institute, the Blue Planet Prize, and the 2005 Connecticut Book Award for my nonfiction work Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment. Publications include Global Environmental Governanc; Apart: Globalization and the Environment and articles in Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs, Environmental Science and Technology, the Columbia Journal World of Business, and other journals and books.
PhD Candidate, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
My earliest research on environmental ethics, conducted as a senior honors thesis at Hobart College, concerned the Antarctic Treaty and the explicit espousal of nature’s intrinsic value within an international agreement. While I continue to have a deep interest in the ways that the idea of intrinsic value informs environmental policy, my time as an urban planner in New York City set me on a new path. Through my planning work, I protected and restored urban wetlands for storm water management. I also came to realize that economic rationales increasingly serve as the normative foundations for protecting wetlands and watershed lands. As a doctoral student at Yale’s School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, I am now studying water resource economics. I am particularly interested in the conflict between environmental ethics and environmental economics and the challenges of making the dialogue between ethics and economics more useful to planners and policy makers.
John P. Wargo
Professor of Environmental Risk Analysis and Policy, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, and Political Science
My current research explores spatial, temporal, and demographic distribution of environmental health risks, providing a basis for evaluating past environmental and natural resource management policies and for suggesting legal reform. I have conducted extensive research on childhood exposure to complex mixtures of toxic substances, especially pesticides. My book, Our Children’s Toxic Legacy: How Science and Law Fail to Protect Us from Pesticides, presents a history of law governing pesticides and a history of scientific evidence of pesticide risks during the second half of the twentieth century. The work suggests fundamental reforms of science and law necessary to identify and contain health risks. Past work includes extensive research on the ecological basis of park and protected area management, concentrating on the Adirondack Park in New York, barrier islands within the US National Seashore, and UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. My intent is to make students aware of key scientific, ethical, and political dimensions of major environmental debates of the twentieth century, and to develop their analytical skills so they may better judge the quality of claims that the environment, or our own health, is in danger.
Suzanne K. Polmar
Director, Grant & Contract Administrator
I received my PhD and MBA from Case Western Reserve University. My interest in the ﬁeld of bioethics developed there in the late 1970s as a member of the Dean’s staff, where I set up and chaired the ﬁrst Biosafety Committee at the School of Medicine. I quickly discovered that ensuring ethical practice in this new area of research required much more than simply publishing rules and establishing a committee. Our most important role was in communicating to investigators the relationship between being in compliance with the regulation and public trust in science. This theme, complying with publicly deﬁned ethical standards of research as necessary for the public trust in the results of research, seems to recur in more and more areas today, whether it is in clinical trials or agrobiology. One of the main tasks of the Director of Grant & Contract Administration is ensuring that the University leadership is aware of, and that the University’s researchers are in compliance with, a wide variety of rules and regulations, which are imposed because we accept federal funding. Many of these regulations touch on the ethical conduct of research. Current activities include serving on the Faculty of Arts & Sciences Human Subjects Committee, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Compliance Task Force, and the Corporate Interactions Working Group. I also serve on the Health and Human Services’ Office of Research Integrity Panel to Review Training Guidelines on the Responsible Conduct of Research.
Stanley Woodward Professor of History, Chair of History of Science and Medicine Program, and Professor Adjunct, Yale Law School
My interest in bioethics began in the 1970s, with the onslaught of the issues raised by recombinant DNA and genetic engineering. I approached these issues in the way I best knew how—by writing a book, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity, which was published in 1985 (and is now available from Harvard University Press in paperback). It’s a work of history, not of bioethics as such, which is fitting since I’m not a bioethicist. However, I’ve gone on to teach and write in areas related to bioethics, exploring in historical perspective subjects such as scientific fraud and misconduct, the Human Genome Project, human cloning, the new reproductive technologies, and bioterrorism. Among my current projects is a book on the history of intellectual property in living organisms.
Benedict F. Kiernan
See International & Area Studies
Benedict F. Kiernan
A. Whitney Griswold Professor of History; Director of the Genocide Studies Program, MacMillan Center for International & Area Studies at Yale
What first brought home to me the concept of genocide was talking with my maternal grandfather, Abraham Gershon Silk. I remember one conversation in 1969, the year before he died. I was sixteen. His parents, Moses Zeidan and Frances Shudmak, married in 1873 in Krakow (then in Austria-Hungary, now Poland). They set off by land and sea for London, and eventually sailed for Australia, where they arrived in 1885. They soon anglicized their names. Abe Silk was born in Melbourne in 1893. At the age of seventy-six, he told me of relatives in Krakow he had never met. They had written to him in the 1930s. But once war broke out, he did not hear from them again. “They are probably all dead,” he said, with regret at not having done anything for them from Australia. Across the table, my grandmother, Grace O’Sullivan, listened. Her family had left County Kerry after the 1840s famine in Ireland. Grace had married Abe in 1924 in a Melbourne hotel. It was a neutral venue: each family objected to the other’s sanctuaries, perhaps national as well as religious. Grace’s mother, Kate Kiniry, who had been the first pupil to attend Mrs. Howard’s Catholic Ladies College in West Melbourne, had founded the Victorian branch of the republican Young Ireland Society, which in 1917 had given her an American clock “as a token of esteem.” Two years later, Grace’s father James appeared on the steps of Melbourne’s St. Patrick’s Cathedral, in the front row in a photo of a gathering for Irish independence. At the other end of the row is my paternal grandfather, Esmond Kiernan, who was born on the Victorian gold fields. His father, John Joseph, had also left Ireland during the Famine. He had gone first to the United States, and then, on disembarking in Melbourne in 1854, gave his nationality as “American,” rather than “British subject.” During the 1930s, as Hitler’s shadow loomed over Europe, James O’Sullivan taught my mother, Joan Silk, and her brother, Kevin, to say their prayers in Irish. Kevin also picked up a smattering of Yiddish jokes from his other grandfather, Morris Silk. Sixty years later, my father, Peter Kiernan, would help organize Melbourne’s sesquicentennial memorial to the victims of the Irish Famine. But in 1969, I had little knowledge of any of these issues. The headlines were dominated by the Vietnam War, about to engulf neighboring Cambodia. I had no idea that within a few years, I would begin a quarter century of work documenting the Cambodian genocide that was to follow that war. Nor that I would end up in Connecticut, where Gilbert Brothers of Winsted had set that American clock ticking. But I need not have been surprised in 1998 to find myself at a conference on Ethnopolitical Warfare in Derry, Northern Ireland, with my parents and two children, Mia-lia and Derry. At seventy-three, on her first visit to Ireland, my mother sat down in a Sligo pub and suddenly began to pray aloud in Irish. I’m not sure what Abe Silk would have made of it, but it all seemed to make sense to me.
Sterling Professor of Political Science, Henry R. Luce Director of the MacMillan Center for International & Area Studies
I received my PhD from Yale University in 1983 and JD from Yale Law School in 1987. My research interests include the methodologies of the social sciences, theories of justice and democracy, and the emergence and evolution of democracy in the post-communist world and sub-Saharan Africa. For some years, I chaired Yale’s Committee on Cooperative Research which, inter alia, deals with policy issues relating to the invention, development, and licensing of pharmaceutical drugs at the University.
Robert A. Burt
Alexander M. Bickel Professor of Law, Law School
If I could have tolerated either the sight of blood or the organic chemistry course in college, I’d most likely have become a physician; as it is, I became a lawyer who found my way into medical matters. The first way station came while I was a student at Yale Law School in the early 1960s; I encountered and was transfixed by Jay Katz and Joe Goldstein as co-teachers in psychiatry and law. My fascination continued as law clerk for Judge David Bazelon on the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and in 1970, when I joined the law faculty at the University of Michigan, I ventured into the psychiatry department to teach about family law and learn about clinical family practice. This affiliation soon grew into a half-time appointment in the School of Medicine at a time, serendipitously for me, when courts suddenly began to take jurisdiction over medically related issues, such as discontinuance of life-prolonging treatment, medical experimentation, and institutionalization of mentally ill and retarded people. As a law professor on a medical school faculty, I was expected to have views on these various matters, and I obligingly developed them. In the early 1970s, I was court-appointed counsel for the potential experimental subject in the Michigan psychosurgery trial, and I subsequently served on a National Academy of Sciences Committee on Genetic Screening. I moved to Yale Law School in 1976, became a fellow at the Hastings Center, published Taking Care of Strangers: The Rule of Law in Doctor-Patient Relations (1979), and was elected to the Institute of Medicine. During the next two decades I continued to write and teach about issues at the intersection of law and medicine and served on various study commissions addressing such questions as the use of electroconvulsive therapy, newborn screening for sickle cell disease, and xenograft transplantation; I also served on the boards of the Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law and the Benhaven School for Autistic Individuals in New Haven. In 1993, I became a member of the board of the Project on Death in America, a new grant-making initiative of George Soros’s Open Society Institute. The mission of this enterprise, to transform the experience and culture of dying in America, has come to occupy a considerable portion of my time. I submitted an amicus brief on behalf of the Project in the Supreme Court’s 1997 assisted suicide cases and served on an Institute of Medicine Committee on Care at the End-of-Life. My latest book is entitled Death Is That Man Taking Names: Intersections of American Medicine, Law and Culture. I also serve on the Advisory Board of the Greenwall Foundation Bioethics Faculty Scholars Program, and I am a member of the “Research Ethics” study group.
Steven B. Duke
Professor, Law School; Law Science and Technology
My bioethical interests include: scientific and expert testimony in judicial proceedings; psychology of confessions; belief perseverance as it relates to decision making in legal contexts; memory and its manipulation by therapists, police, and others; hypnosis; scientific determination of the causes of death; suicide prediction and prevention; assisted suicide; euthanasia; termination of life supports; allocation of scarce medical treatments and organ replacements; ethical issues in reproduction; and drug abuse prevention and treatment. I teach the following courses and seminars in which the above issues arise: Evidence; Convicting the Innocent; Criminal Procedure; and Drug Policy.
Daniel C. Esty
See Forestry & Environmental Studies
Barry R. Schaller
Clinical Faculty, Law School
My long-standing interest in bioethics developed from my writing and teaching in the fields of humanities, ethics, and law. In my career as a trial and appellate judge (following Yale College, Yale Law School, and several years of law practice), I have had opportunities to deal with a wide range of vital issues that people present to courts. My first book, A Vision of American Law, addressed a variety of social and cultural problems through the disciplines of law and literature. My publications in periodicals and journals have dealt with a wide range of social and legal problems, including violence, equality, and privacy. After publishing A Vision of American Law, I set out to write about the relationship of law, public policy, and ethics. After publishing in 2002 a comprehensive article in the Quinnipiac Law Review, covering issues ranging from constitutional protection for religion and speech to Megan’s Laws, health care, and genetics, I found myself fully immersed in the study of bioethical issues of health and the life sciences. My principal contribution to the field of bioethics may be found in helping to develop ethical, legal and political analysis and policy. Given the revolutionary developments in medicine, science, and biotechnology, decision-makers, both individual and professional, need methods that enable them to grasp the essentials as they proceed to evaluate and make decisions concerning bioethical issues and problems. Bioethical decisions are made by virtually everyone in the course of life. Individuals must find ways to avoid being overwhelmed by the vast amount of information available and by the rapidity of change. My new book, Understanding Bioethics and the Law: The Promises and Perils of the Brave New World of Biotechnology, which will be published in the fall of 2007, addresses some of these goals. In addition, I am engaged in teaching bioethics and law and public health policy, ethics, and law to college students, law students, judges, and health care professionals. As a visiting lecturer, I teach bioethics, public health policy, pandemics and bioterrorism, and law courses at Trinity College and Wesleyan University. I am involved in bioethical decision-making as a member of Middlesex Hospital Bioethics Committee and the Institutional Review Board at St. Francis Hospital and Health Center. Yale’s Center for Bioethics is a superb way to bring together well-informed people from many disciplines to share their knowledge — and their questions — about this exciting field. I am a member of the Donaghue Initiative Advisory Committee, the “Neuroethics” and “Research Ethics” study groups, and the “Public Health Preparedness” study group, sponsored by the Yale Center for Public Health Preparedness.
Access to Knowledge Program Director, Information Society Project at Yale Law School
The Information Society Project (ISP) at Yale Law School engages bioethics topics in many ways, including a particular interest in genetics and its legal regulation. I direct the Access to Knowledge research program, which addresses bioethics themes such as access to medicines, access to publicly funded research, compulsory licensing, genetic patents, traditional knowledge, and biodiversity in agriculture. The ISP seeks to develop interdisciplinary scholarship, in connection with like-minded advocates in civil society and government, to promote legal reforms that advance Access to Knowledge globally and locally. My particular research focuses on developing a conceptual framework for Access to Knowledge, rooted in the human development and human rights paradigms.
Senior Research Scholar, Law School; Adjunct Professor, Quinnipiac University School of Law and New York Law School
I am an artist who is a Senior Research Scholar affiliated with Yale Law School. I teach visual persuasion as an adjunct professor at Quinnipiac University School of Law and at New York Law School. Due to a longstanding interest in computer technology, I have been drawn to ISPS for its speaker series on technology and bioethics but have not directly worked in bioethics myself. This experience has provided background for several hypotheticals used to train third year law students and has informed my thinking on a book I am co-authoring with Neal Feigenson on the effects of digital visual technologies on legal meaning making. I am very grateful to have a place at such a warm table.
Howard V. Zonana
Sandra L. Alfano
Chair, Human Investigation Committee-I, School of Medicine; Co-Chair, Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee, Yale University
I am a pharmacist with a BS in Pharmacy and a PharmD in Clinical Pharmacy. My practice has been in hospital settings for the most part, evolving from a clinical position with a focus in cardiology, to administrative practice as Assistant and then Associate Director of the Department of Pharmacy at Yale-New Haven Hospital. In this management position, I was responsible for oversight of our Investigational Drug Service, and grew to be interested in the field of bioethics. In 1998, I decided to move away from administration, and assumed responsibility for directing the Investigational Drug Service, the research pharmacy at Yale-New Haven Hospital. In this role, I was more directly involved in the day-to-day conduct of research here at the Medical Center, and became more involved in issues of responsible conduct of research involving human subjects. In June 2005, I moved to the University, and assumed the full-time responsibilities of Chair of the Human Investigation Committee, one of Yale’s Institutional Review Boards. With my pharmacy background, I have always been interested in new technical developments that will lead to exciting new therapies. Thus, I have worked with both the Stem Cell Interest Group at Yale, and the Human Gene Transfer Subcommittee of the Institutional Biosafety Committee. I believe that as products evolve that may allow us to dramatically influence the course of diseases, professionals will be faced with the need to appreciate both technical and social/ethical aspects of application to patient care. My interest in bioethics primarily focuses on designing human subject protection plans especially in randomized clinical trials with investigational drugs. I have been a member of the Yale School of Medicine Human Investigation Committee for over 10 years, and have served as vice-chair from February 2000 to June 2005, when I became Chair. In this capacity, I have worked with clinical investigators as an advisor regarding the Federal regulations and their application to research involving humans, and have served as the designee of the Committee charged with reviewing adverse event reports. I have been especially interested in research involving vulnerable populations, such as the decisionally impaired and pediatric subjects. I have been involved with the Pediatric Protocol Review Committee, and the Bioethics Reading Groups offered by Celia Fisher, and Karen Lebacqz, Bioethicists-in-Residence. Through these groups, I have learned to listen for, and seek out, alternative views regarding solutions to various ethical dilemmas that arise in clinical trials. I have actively been involved in education, through years of course coordination and lecturing at Yale School of Nursing, and with the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy. For 5 years, I offered a rotation in investigational drugs and research ethics for UCONN PharmD students. I have recently contributed an essay to the Yale Press publication, The Yale Guide to Careers in Medicine and Health Professions. In June of 2006, I became a founding co-chair of the Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight (ESCRO) Committee at Yale University. The ESCRO Committee is responsible for ensuring that Yale human embryonic stem cell research is conducted only after full consideration is given to all relevant scientific, medical, regulatory, and ethical issues. As this exciting field unfolds, I look forward to exploring the important ethical issues that arise.
Assistant Director of Integrative Medicine, Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, Yale School of Medicine
As a clinician scientist trained in complementary medicine practice and research, I am often struck by the ethical issues arising from research in and the practice of non-mainstream medicine. From the necessity of informed consent for ’unproven’ therapies, issues regarding financial costs to patients, the role of industry in education, as well as the need to recruit subjects to research that, ideally, has 50% chance of futility, my daily activities often produce a number of ethical issues that I end up discussing with peers and students. I received a BS in psychobiology from UCLA, Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (ND) from Bastyr University, and MPH from the Yale School of Public Health. I also completed a NIH fellowship in complementary and alternative medicine research.
Frederick L. Altice
Director of Clinical and Community Research and Associate Professor of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program
Frederick L. Altice, M.D. is a Professor of Medicine and Director of Clinical and Community Research at the Yale University AIDS Program. Dr. Altice has devoted his research to clinical epidemiology and health intervention research for chemically dependent drug users with or at risk for infectious diseases such as HIV, HCV and tuberculosis. He conducted some of the first HIV serosurveillance research among prisoners and more recently is developing and adapting interventions for released prisoners. His bioethics interests lie in the development and implementation of evidence-based interventions for socially and medically marginalized vulnerable populations, specifically prisoners, injection drug users, people living with HIV/AIDS and the mentally ill. Dr. Altice is the senior author on the legal and ethical issues related to conducting HIV research with prisoners. He has also served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health in rewriting the code of ethics for the conduct of research with prisoners. More recently, his work has expanded into the international arena involving the same populations in Iran, Malaysia, Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere.
Nancy R. Angoff
Associate Dean for Student Affairs and Associate Professor, Internal Medicine/AIDS, School of Medicine
My interest in bioethics began when I was a student in Epidemiology & Public Health. I became a student representative to the Human Investigation Committee (HIC) and enjoyed the debates that relied on an understanding of ethical principals. After graduation, I became the Associate Chair of the HIC and remained in that position for five years until starting medical school at Yale. My thesis in medical school was written on “Do Physicians Have an Ethical Obligation to Care for Patients with AIDS?” This was at a time when some physicians were refusing to do just that. Currently, I am an Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and my clinical practice is devoted to patients with HIV/AIDS. I am also Associate Dean for Student Affairs at the medical school, teach in the Professional Responsibility Course, and sit on the hospital bioethics committee. My continuing interests in ethics include issues around care at the end-of-life, and the professional/emotional development of students and how to empower them to trust their own moral codes even in the setting of power disparities.
Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, School of Medicine
My interest in bioethics is fairly general and related to issues of social justice. I am a historian of medicine and the librarian in charge of the Historical Library of the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale. In this capacity, I have the pleasure of adding to our collection of primary and secondary resources on the history of medical ethics. I am also the selector for books and other resources in medical humanities for the Medical Library. My own current research is on medical institutions in nineteenth-century Connecticut, and part of that research deals with controversies surrounding “codes of ethics” promulgated by societies for their members. My most recent publication, which is only tangentially about bioethics, is Shaping Biology: The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945–1975 (Johns Hopkins University Press 2000).
Professor of Medicine and Public Health, Director of the Office of International Health, School of Medicine
I am not a formal ethicist, but I have realized as a physician, educator, clinician in international health, and as a parent, that I make daily moral decisions, which mandate examination and discussion. In my academic career, I have tried to create dialogue concerning the health needs of vulnerable populations both in the US and overseas. My interests include ethical questions regarding multinationals in developing countries, western research conducted overseas, and ethical aspects of economic embargoes of medicine and food. When not worrying about overseas issues, I direct a mobile homeless health van in inner city New Haven and teach in my role as Generalist Firm Chief of Yale-New Haven Hospital.
Sandra J. Bishop-Josef
Assistant Director, The Edward Zigler Center in Child Development & Social Policy
Co-director, Child Welfare Division, The Edward Zigler Center in Child Development & Social Policy; Associate Research Scientist, Child Study Center, School of Medicine My primary interest is in applying empirical research on child development to the formulation of social policy. I conduct research in the area of child abuse and neglect, tracking cases of child maltreatment adjudicated in the Boston Juvenile Court over twenty years (with colleagues at Massachusetts General Hospital). Information gained from this research has been used to develop state legislation and court policy. I am also engaged in policy analyses in the area of child maltreatment, focusing on recent federal legislation. My other interests include early childhood intervention programs and other services children receive. For example, I have studied mental health services and the use of play-based curricula in the context of the Head Start program. Finally, I am interested in children’s rights and the usefulness of a rights-based framework for improving child and family policies, and, ultimately, child outcomes. I serve, with Sally Cohen, as Co-chair of the study group on Children’s Rights.
Professor Emeritus of Neurology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine; Formerly National Director of Neurology, Department of Veteran Affairs
My first strong memory of a clinical ethics question relates to a patient I provided care for during my first year of residency. It was the late 1960s, and I was at the NYU-Bellevue Medical Center in New York City. Bellevue was a heroic place in those days, as I imagine it must still be today. The emergency room was a place of desperate straits, with gunshots wounds, overdoses, knifings — you name it. Though desperate, it was also exciting, and we were oriented toward preserving and saving lives. One day I was assigned the care of a man who had suffered a stroke in a crucial area of his brain. I struggled to maintain his vital functions and succeeded. On presenting his case to a senior physician, he did not focus on the means of further sustaining life. Instead, he questioned whether sustaining life was good for the patient or the patient’s family. My first involvement with the Bioethics Center was with the working research group on stem cells, reflecting my concerns as the VA’s National Director for Neurology, and the burden of neurodegenerative disease. I subsequently worked with the “Justice and the Allocation of Health Care” study group as the presence of forty four million Americans without health care coverage was seemingly incomprehensible.
See Epidemiology & Public Health
R. Douglas Bruce
Yale AIDS Program, Nathan Smith Clinic, Community Health Care Van Project, School of Medicine
While a house officer in internal medicine at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas, I was exposed to the limitless need of the urban poor. For example, patients unable to afford all of their medications were “educated” in purchasing their medications, so that, when the money was gone, they would have the “most important” medicines. In treating the patient who was dependent upon public resources, I had to fight for the patient to obtain the proper therapy, and I had to fight with the patient to then follow that proper therapy. These battles led me to ask: what are our ethical obligations to the urban poor as individuals and as a society? How much can and will society give for the benefit of the poor and disenfranchised? Should wealthier societies, like the United States, help pay for the health care of poorer nations ravaged by HIV/AIDS? With these questions and many others in mind, I came to Yale to do graduate work to reflect upon and study the philosophical and theological foundation of ethics in order to bring greater clarity to my own position on these and other ethical issues. These reflections have strengthened my interest in urban health care renewal, especially the impact of substance abuse and HIV/HCV upon urban centers, and international relief for the poor ravaged by HIV/AIDS. Clinically, I am involved in the addiction treatment community as I am now the medical director of South Central Rehabilitation Clinic, which provides for the pharmacotherapy of addiction within the Hill Health Center. In addition, I am actively involved in the clinical care of HIV/HCV infected patients as I provide HIV specialty care at the Yale HIV clinic (Nathan Smith Clinic), within the Connecticut Department of Corrections and at Yale-New Haven Hospital. My research is also at the intersection of substance abuse and infectious diseases (especially HIV/HCV) as I seek to blend two disparate fields. I am working to demonstrate that those most severely affected by HIV/HCV and substance abuse can benefit from life saving therapies they have previously been denied. In addition, since graduate school, I continue to be interested in bioethical concerns including the protection of human subjects, especially prisoners and substance users, and I am active on the Yale Human Investigation Committee (HIC).
Thomas O. Carpenter
Professor of Pediatrics, Endocrine Section, School of Medicine
I am Professor of Pediatrics in the endocrine section and am actively involved in patient care as well as laboratory and clinical research. I am fascinated by biomedical ethics as it has become the forum for interdisciplinary thought in medical institutions. Almost nowhere else in this environment is the exchange of ideas open to the nonmedical science at such a relevant level. The questions raised in the field are at the very basis of the activities here, particularly with respect to human interactions. I have participated in the Georgetown Intensive Week of Bioethics, and in the advanced biomedical ethics course taught at the Divinity School under Drs. Farley and Levine. I also organize a three-times-a-year seminar in ethics for pediatric residents and fellows. I have particular interests in the patient-family-physician relationship and in the field of clinical research in children.
Lawrence S. Cohen
Ebenezer K. Hunt Professor of Internal Medicine (Cardiology) and Special Adviser to the Dean, Office of Academic Development and Scientific Affairs, School of Medicine
Yale School of Medicine has more than 1,100 full-time faculty, and most of them are involved in some aspect of research. It is not surprising, therefore, that issues involving the responsible conduct of research arise. For the past eleven years my office has been the one to which the dean would refer a variety of issues involving investigators, postdoctoral fellows, or, on occasion, students. In order to be proactive, I have developed a series of seminars over the past six years dealing with common issues arising out of scientific collaboration.
Associate Clinical Edith B. Jackson Professor, Child Study Center, Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine
My major academic interest has been the understanding of cognitive and emotional development in young children. In particular, I am interested not only in normal development but what happens in the clinical setting when development does not proceed normally, as in children with early onset disorders, e.g., autism, PDD, Tourette Syndrome, and OCD. Many of these children and their families face lifelong challenges. In addition to my research, clinical interests, and teaching in these areas, I have a practice in child and adult psychoanalysis at the Yale Child Study Center, where I have been on the faculty since 1972. I am delighted to participate in activities at the Bioethics Center.
Associate Professor of Surgery and Director of Liver Transplantation, School of Medicine
The practice of solid organ transplant requires interaction with many of the fundamental ethical issues in the field of biomedical ethics. Issues relating to end-of-life, treatment of the dead, allocation of scarce resources, justice, beneficence, and autonomy are encountered on a daily basis. I have been involved in the practice of solid organ transplant for over a decade. During that time, I have become acutely aware of the responsibility and privilege that transplant surgeons have in the delivery of such life-saving therapies as liver transplantation. My research interest in biomedical ethics was stimulated by the apparent lack of patient safeguards associated with innovative surgical procedures in the expanding field of liver transplantation. Extension of the practice of living donor liver transplant from pediatric to adult recipients is an area that I have developed particular interest. Other areas of research interest include: organ preservation, immunology, and treatment of rejection. I have performed transplants in both adult and pediatrics patients including: kidney, liver, pancreas, and intestine. Additionally, I have participated in many multi-organ transplants including: heart-kidney, heart-liver, kidney-pancreas, and heart-liver-kidney.
Managing Editor, Yale Medicine Publications, School of Medicine
As a medical writer, I have to keep up with the issues facing physicians and scientists today. Many of these issues are also of general interest. The front pages have, in recent years, carried stories of clinical trials gone awry, the debates over cloning and stem cells, the controversy over genetically modified foods, and, of course, abortion. Biomedical research and the ethical concerns surrounding it are increasingly entering the public consciousness. Areas of interest to me include AIDS research and interventions, genomics, stem cell research, institutional review boards, human cloning, and nanotechnology.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Program for Recovery and Community Health, School of Medicine and Institution for Social & Policy Studies; Senior Clinical Officer and Mental Health Policy Director, Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services
I first thought of becoming a clinical psychologist when I stumbled across Freud in my father’s bookcase at the age of fifteen or so. The idea of delving into the psyche to understand motivations for human behavior of which people were not even aware (i.e., were not “conscious”) fascinated and intrigued me, gratifying simultaneously my interests in science and human nature. When I reached college, however, I was extremely disappointed to find that my psychology classes had more to do with rats and pigeons than with people. As a result, I took courses in philosophy and religion, supplementing psychology with insights from the world’s religious traditions and intellectual giants. I found Continental philosophy (e.g., phenomenology, existentialism, post-structuralism) and Eastern religions (e.g., Taoism and Buddhism) more consistent with my emerging view of people as both shaping and being shaped by their social, cultural, and political environments through their actions and relationships with others. Graduate training in phenomenological approaches to clinical research and practice enabled me to bring together these disparate intellectual and spiritual roots into a coherent, if challenging, perspective on the various roles of the person, social and political institutions, and the broader community in struggles with, and recovery from, psychiatric and substance use disorders. Since arriving at Yale, these interests have coalesced in a program of research and training dubbed the Program for Recovery and Community Health. In this Program, my colleagues and I work alongside people affected by urban poverty, homelessness, and psychiatric and substance use disorders. Together we work toward their recovery and enhance their access to meaningful roles within the community. Through the development of partnerships with local, state, and federal governmental agencies, we aim to foster the political and social inclusion of people who historically have lived on the margins of society. Our current activities include: intervention and service system development and evaluation; public policy development and analysis; and education, training, and research addressing the interface of behavioral health and membership in society. Examples of our work include: the development and evaluation of mutual support and social engagement approaches to the community integration of people with disabilities; establishing mental health action plans for public housing authorities; enhancing access to culturally responsive care for underserved urban communities of color; and peer outreach programs as an alternative to outpatient mental health commitment or incarceration for people with mental illness who are considered to pose risks to themselves or the community. Through these efforts, we attempt to identify and redress social, political, and economic disparities in relation to disability status, health care, and opportunities for recovery and active citizenship. We do so in partnership with the people most affected by these conditions. I view the Center for Bioethics as an opportunity to broaden my interests in, and exposure to, these issues, drawing on the wealth of intellectual, spiritual, and artistic resources of the broader University and New Haven communities.
Margaret A. Drickamer
Associate Professor of Internal Medicine (Geriatrics), School of Medicine
My interest in bioethics led me to choose geriatrics as my area of specialty in internal medicine. As a geriatrician, I work with patients who are facing a variety of challenges including chronic disease, disability, and end-of-life. Through this day-to-day exposure to, and participation in, the interplay among ethics, medicine, and each individual patient, I am able to gain new perspectives on these issues. Feeling a need for a broader context to my own thinking and scholarship, I have become an active participant in the activities at the Center for Bioethics. Co-chairing the study group “Perspectives on Aging,” I have come in contact with many wonderful people who bring their own personal and academic perspective on the process of aging. From Shakespeare to politics, biology to legal rights, this group has stimulated ideas and broadened points of view. It brings new meaning to my day-to-day work and scholarly endeavors. I am an Associate Professor of Medicine and deputy section chief for education for the Section of Geriatric Medicine at Yale. I also actively practice geriatrics, presently focusing on the frail elderly. I have written on patient competency, dementia, physician-assisted suicide, and the ethics of truth-telling in Alzheimer’s disease.
Robert B. Duckrow
Associate Professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery, School of Medicine
As you learn to care for patients you spend much of your time just looking and trying to see what is happening in front of you. Recently, I have seen the tension that develops between the patient who suffers from an intractable disease and desperately seeks relief, the clinician who is driven to cure but suffers the frustration of failure, and the academic researcher who is pulled by the desire to cure and the desire to advance medical knowledge, when these forces are often in opposite directions. I note the expectations that drive the process and how they lead to decisions, both good and bad, that eventually define the success or failure of our efforts. With the support of the Donaghue Initiative in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Ethics and the direction of Chalmers Clark, a former Visiting Scholar, I have been learning new ways to think about the dynamics of informed consent, research subject protection, the status of medical research in our society, and the role of trust in medicine. The title of my Donaghue supported project is “An Ethical Analysis of Role Priorities and Role Conflicts in New Research Designed to Treat Intractable Epilepsy.”
Associate Research Scientist, Child Study Center, School of Medicine
I am the Director of Program Evaluation at the Yale School Development Program (SDP) at the Yale Child Study Center. I received my B.A. from the University of West Indies, a Masters in Library Science from the University of Western Ontario, and PhD in Educational Psychology from University of Connecticut. I also did a post-doctoral fellowship at the Yale University Child Study Center. Before joining SDP, I was an elementary school teacher, and later the Librarian of the Education Resource Centers in my native Grenada. As Director of Program Evaluation, I am responsible for the design and management of the SDP’s research program, particularly in the districts involved in systemic reform. My duties include the development and review of instruments to measure the SDP implementation and outcomes. My research interests include the measurement of psychosocial environments, and the relationships among the psychosocial environment of schools, students’ sense of self and student behavior. I have co-authored chapters in Rallying the Whole Village, Child by Child and Comprehensive School Reform, as well as journal articles on SDP implementation and outcomes.
David S. Fischer
Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine (Oncology), School of Medicine
My interest in medical oncology inevitably led me to grapple with the issues of end-of-life care (do not resuscitate orders, living wills, withholding and withdrawing life support, the persistent vegetative state, medical inadvisability and futility, and physician-assisted suicide) and the ethical problems of beneficence, autonomy, nonmaleficence, and justice. In 1980, I wrote a chapter entitled “Ethical and Social Dilemmas in Cancer Care” for Cancer Therapy. This was subsequently cited by Weiss and Vanderpool in “Ethics in Oncology Textbooks” in the Journal of Clinical Oncology in 1985 as the only one of the sixteen textbooks of oncology that they reviewed that had a chapter that included “ethics” in its title. Today, most of them do. In 1991, I organized and co-chaired with Thomas Duffy, a symposium at Yale School of Medicine entitled “Ethical Issues in Hematology-Oncology.” We collected the proceedings of that meeting, added some additional material, and co-edited it for the March/April 1992 issue of the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. More recently, I have discussed aspects of medical ethics in a variety of forums. Last year I presented a paper at the Center for Bioethics study group “End-of-Life Issues,” of which I am also a member. This paper will be incorporated into a publication inspired by this group. I was a member of the Human Investigation Committee (IRB) for five years. I am also a regular participant in and on the Advisory Board of The Program for Humanities in Medicine. As vice-chair of the Yale-New Haven Hospital – Yale Cancer Center Cancer Committee, I have been involved in setting up programs for patient autonomy and empowerment, patient care evaluation, and ethical distribution of scarce resources. I co-chaired the committee that set up the criteria for distribution of IVIG and albumin when it was in short supply, and we had to establish ethical guidelines for deciding which patients in the hospital and the community served by Yale would receive the material available to Yale and which patients would not — despite the fact that their physician had written orders to dispense it. As chairman of the Transfusion Committee, I am in the midst of developing a process with colleagues at the YNHH to distribute blood and blood products when there may be insufficient resources available. These decisions will translate the theoretical issues into the daily practice of the world we live in. It is a heavy responsibility to do it ethically, and an important learning process for all of us. We need to learn now, because I fear that we will soon be asked by society not only to decide how to distribute scarce resources, but how and to whom we should distribute expensive resources that are not scarce, but only expensive. In England, the National Health Service does not pay for hemodialysis for patients over a certain age. In the US, we frequently put octogenarians on dialysis, paid for by Medicare or Medicaid, often at a cost of hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. As we develop anticancer drugs (or drugs for other maladies) that cost $5,000 a dose and have to be given repeatedly for weeks or months to prolong a patient’s life for a few months, will society allow us to continue to do it?
Professor, Diagnostic Radiology and Public Health; Professor and Director, Yale MBA for Executives: Leadership in Healthcare; Director, MD/MBA Program at Yale
I am a health services researcher focusing on diagnostic radiology, health policy, and healthcare leadership. My most recent publications address Teleradiology, international outsourcing, the incentives that medical students respond to in choosing a specialty, and ensuring quality in imaging services. I teach healthcare policy in the Yale School of Public Health and Healthcare Economics in the Yale College Economics Department. I am the faculty founder and director of the MD/MBA program between Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Management as well as the co-director of the School of Management’s MBA for Executives Program. As a practicing cross-sectional and emergency/trauma radiologist, I am actively involved in patient care and issues related to financial administration, healthcare compliance, and contracting. I have worked in the US Senate, as a legislative fellow, working on Medicare legislation. My most recent consulting engagements have involved Medicare finance and reimbursement, Teleradiology, as well as Radiology Benefit Management. I am a member of the Medical Policy and Technology Advisory Committee for the WellPoint Corporation and the Treasurer of the American Roentgen Ray Society.
Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics, School of Medicine
My interest in bioethics evolved primarily out of engagement in the development of public policy related to medicine and health care and to some extent through service on the School of Medicine’s Human Investigation Committee. This was further stimulated during a sabbatical year as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow with the Institute of Medicine (1982–83) when I was heavily involved in organ transplantation issues, in particular efforts to rationalize the country’s organ procurement and distribution system, and in the Baby Doe controversy regarding provision/withholding of therapy in disabled infants. I participated in task forces on organ transplantation convened by the Surgeon General, The Hastings Center, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. In recent years, I have been particularly involved in health policy related to clinical research as chairman of the AMA’s Council on Scientific Affairs and as a founding member of the Institute of Medicine’s Clinical Research Roundtable. In these roles, I and others have defined the structural impediments that delay incorporation of new knowledge into everyday clinical practice. I serve on the Federal Advisory Committee for the National Children’s Study, an ambitious 21-year longitudinal follow-up of 100,000 children, which is enrolling its first subjects in 2007, and since 2006 have served as a member of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections (SACHRP). In Connecticut I have been a member of Connecticut’s Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee since its inception in 2005 and am president-elect of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering. I have lectured on policy development related to organ transplantation, health care access for children, ethics of clinical research and human investigation, gender identity, and participation in international athletic competition.
MD/PhD Program, School of Medicine; Neuroscience and Philosophy
A commitment to living the examined life is to blame for my myriad interests, including my interest in bioethics. Fairly early on, I recognized that there was a dimension to my experiences that involved questions about ideas and beliefs, and rights and obligations. Having recognized this, I could hardly fail to attend to that dimension, and so I found myself immersed in discussions about ethics. I attended MIT, where I majored in brain and cognitive sciences, biology, and philosophy. Following graduation, I entered the MD/PhD Program at the Yale School of Medicine. In line with my interests in college, I am a recent recipient of a joint PhD in neuroscience and philosophy.
Judith Bograd Gordon
Lecturer in Psychiatry, School of Medicine
The opportunity to become involved in multidisciplinary projects that matter is what continues to draw me to the Center for Bioethics. As my publications, current research, and activities as a NGO representative at the UN reflect, while at the Center for Bioethics I have benefited from being involved in interdisciplinary projects that help me link sociological theory, methods, and practice to the delivery and evaluation of mental health services. As history would have it, the end of my postdoctoral training in mental health program evaluation research, a program housed at ISPS, coincided with the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Given my interests in geriatric psychiatry and the sociology of aging, I became engaged in AIDS education, research, and service projects that were created to deal with questions that impacted people of all ages infected and affected by this pandemic. As current co-convener of the working group on Racism, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance of the NGO Committee on Mental Health at the UN, I have been able to contribute to the development of programs and projects that turn attention to the life stories and professional practices of men and women of all ages who address mental health issues, research, and services in this “Here and Now” both locally and globally. I am currently a member at large of the NGO Committee on Mental Health. I maintain my research interest in the social distribution of knowledge in order to increase understanding about the ways in which the knowledge of researchers and scholars become socially organized and linked to the lives and ethical choices of persons, groups, communities, nations, and international bodies acting in the ever changing social context of the 21st century. My participation in the “History of Medicine and Science” workshops at Yale also demonstrates my commitment to understanding bioethical concerns over time. In brief, the ongoing activities of the Yale Center for Bioethics have presented me with the opportunity to collaborate with others concerned with the complex bioethical, scientific, and social policy issues of our time, locally, nationally, and transnationally. I welcome the opportunity to continue such interactions in the coming academic year. I am a member of the “Research Ethics” study group.
Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, School of Medicine
Medical research provides the opportunity to potentially improve the quality of life for thousands of beneficiaries who often remain unknown to the researcher whose world is mostly defined and confined to a laboratory or a classroom. As the research projects, subjects and their ailments become more compartmentalized and theoretical, a researcher can become infatuated with a narrow area of study, forgetting the greater good that initially motivated the research. It began to happen to me after authoring and coordinating Phase I, II, and III clinical trials both during my fellowship, (Yale School of Medicine) and as a research scientist with the pharmaceutical industry, (Pfizer Global Research and Development) over a five year period. And as it did, I began to chafe at the bit, wanting to engage with those lives I was assisting, albeit at a great distance. Thankfully, my return to academia has been welcomed by an appointment to the Yale Center for Bioethics where clinicians and scientists can exchange thoughts on ethical issues as related to current medical research. My education consists of a doctorate in pharmacy with an additional four years of postdoctoral education and research. With the exception of a clinical residency immediately following graduation, my other postdoctoral studies have focused on basic science and clinical research in the area of vascular medicine and metabolic disease. Most of my research has been in the form of unpublished clinical trials for the pharmaceutical industry and government regulators, and has included investigational drug trials in the areas of atherogenisis, cholesterol, inflammation, obesity, and related metabolic diseases or conditions.
Attilio V. Granata
Associate Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine
I became deeply interested in clinical ethics while running the section of Medical Ambulatory Care at Bridgeport Hospital in the mid-1980s. In that capacity, I was the attending of record (supervising 35–40 residents) for all uninsured patients seen in our outpatient clinic, as well as those admitted to the inpatient medical service and critical care units. What struck me was the contrast between working at the major referral hospital in Fairfield County (whose residents had the highest per capita income in the nation) with the people and issues we were seeing from the inner city of Bridgeport. I soon joined several hospital staff members — nurses, physicians, clergy, and other professionals — to form the Bridgeport Hospital Ethics Committee, during which, with the assistance of community leaders and ethics faculty from surrounding universities, I spent two years learning about basic and clinical ethics. We then began performing ethics consultations, less to give “the answer” to difficult clinical questions than to bring the right people together to make sure they all agreed on the right questions and issues. My interests in the ethics of individual patient issues then grew to more societal issues, such as resource allocation, access to care, and health policy. I completed an MBA at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1994 and joined Oxford Health Plans, a regional managed care company, from 1995 to 2000. I did this to learn more about the inner workings of managed care, as well as clinical coverage policy development and implementation, quality assurance, and utilization management. One of my roles there was to serve as compliance officer for the entire Medical Affairs Department. Since 1980, I have taught on the Yale clinical faculty, leading students in physical diagnosis groups and helping to teach basic science courses in biostatistics, as well as in epidemiology and health policy. I have written on cost effectiveness, clinical guidelines, and the notion of value in health care, and am strongly committed to the achievement of universal access to comprehensive care for all citizens in this last major industrialized nation, which still lacks this critical ingredient. With regard to this issue, I am especially interested in the ethical dilemmas which arise from the view of the individual versus that of the collective whole, and how to remove as well as address trade-offs.
Associate Professor of Internal General Medicine, School of Medicine
I am an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of General Internal Medicine and Director of the Office for Eliminating Cancer Disparities of the Yale Cancer Center. My interest in bioethics focuses primarily on issues affecting research integrity and access to research studies. In addition to synthesizing the evidence regarding the scope and impact of financial conflicts on the research enterprise, we recently completed a survey of cancer trial participants to understand their views and concerns about financial conflicts. Our studies have also demonstrated that socioeconomic status and access to care are major contributors to documented racial disparities in cancer trial enrollment. Working with colleagues at the NCI and the CDC, we have recently explored whether willingness to participate plays a major role in these racial disparities; among patients who are offered the opportunity to participate in research, we found no relation between race and willingness to participate.
Professor of Pediatrics and Director of Perinatal Medicine, School of Medicine
I have spent most of my professional career in the Newborn Special Care Unit at Yale. Over the years, we have significantly enhanced both the survival and the long-term outcome of babies born after 28 weeks of gestation. This accomplishment is tempered by the fact that now half of the babies born between 24–25 weeks of gestation survive but experience a significant rate of handicap. Trying to determine a reasonable approach to the management of these infants, in consultation with the parents, is difficult, complex, and fraught with ambiguity. Discussions with ethicists do not produce easy answers, or lighten the burden, but they do provide a framework for rational thinking and decision-making. It is also useful to learn from colleagues who deal with issues such as surrogate decision-making and futility at other stages of life.
See Epidemiology and Public Health
Lecturer and Associate Director, Gynecologic Teaching Associate Program, School of Medicine
Perhaps my interest in bioethics has been just beneath the surface. Once I officially retired from a job that required being away from New Haven, I couldd finally examine the bioethical issues that had always been a concern. Several areas of the Center for Bioethics are of interest to me, especially those dealing with aging, end-of-life, resource allocation and policy. I trained as a nurse well before formal bioethics committees came of age. Before high-tech medicine, some issues of life and death were resolved quietly and simply. Research often took place out of sight of ethical considerations. My work as a nurse caring for cancer patients, as a nursing supervisor, and later as a hospital administrator exposed me to a vast array of bioethical issues and increased my awareness of how much bioethics permeates our lives. Class discussions while pursuing my MPH at Yale helped to emphasize the challenges presented by bioethical issues. The significant changes, especially in law and medicine, that are occurring in our society necessitate a more open and thorough discussion of bioethics. I find it exciting to participate in interdisciplinary discussions on a range of topics, realizing that by bringing together participants from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, a more balanced discussion ensues. In addition, coming from and marrying into families with many ministers, I realize that a deeply ingrained religious upbringing at times can cloud one’s thinking but can also be a great source of strength when discussing difficult issues.
John A. Kirchner
Professor Emeritus of Surgery (Otolaryngology), School of Medicine
By the time I was old enough for kindergarten my parents had introduced me to the principles of ethics, based almost entirely on a variation of the Golden Rule: “Stop that, John! How would you like someone to do that to you?” In parochial school our third grade nun had us recite the Ten Commandments so often that we could probably have repeated them in our sleep. Two years later, we memorized the corporal and spiritual works of mercy (comfort the afflicted; feed the hungry; visit the sick, etc. . .). Since Saint Joseph’s provided no grades beyond the eighth, I attended public high school. Even there, our curriculum included a daily exposure to the rich heritage of Judeo-Christian principles. Before the first class each morning, the teacher selected a student to read a passage from the Old or New Testament — the sacred scriptures not being confined to one or the other. When I entered the University of Virginia, I encountered its Honor System, firmly grounded on integrity and responsibility. Each written test ended with a signed statement that “On my honor I have neither given nor received help with this test.” And even if I just saw another student cheating, I was honor-bound to report it — or I was equally guilty. “My brother’s keeper” worked both ways! Medical education at UVA included principles of ethical behavior in our relations with nurses, orderlies, and particularly with individual patients who would be assigned to each one of us during his or her hospital stay. “Treat every patient as you would want to be treated” was the guiding precept. (Much later, the same rule applied equally to enemy wounded during the Battle of Normandy and all through World War II.) Internship brought ethical questions to a more complex level. Should this teacher’s throat cancer be removed surgically if it meant total loss of his voice? “Don’t make the treatment worse than the disease” may be easier said than done. Radical surgery in malignant disease may risk a degree of mutilation but may also provide the only possibility of cure. “. . . diseases desperate grown by desperate appliance are reliev’d, Or not at all.” (Hamlet, IV, iii) With my exposure to religion and to some of the great works of literature, I rarely faced an ethical problem I couldn’t deal with one way or another. But my experience was limited to problems concerning one patient at a time. In December 1999, I discovered that moral issues involving the larger population were being discussed in seminars organized by Yale’s Center for Bioethics, which included the following: fetal tissue or stem cell research; human cloning; manipulation of human genes; pollution of the atmosphere and water supplies by industry; tobacco advertising; and, in clinical practice, the perennial dilemma of physician-assisted suicide in an aged patient with uncontrollable pain and a hopeless prognosis. Regarding the latter question, the nineteenth-century poet, A.H. Clough, offered advice that is still useful: “Thou shall not kill; but needst not strive Officiously to keep alive.” (The Latest Decalogue, A.H. Clough) Because some issues are not so much problems as dilemmas, with equally unsatisfactory alternatives, traditional moral precepts don’t always supply clear direction. There remain plenty of challenges in bioethics.
Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, School of Medicine
I developed my interest in geriatrics during my psychiatry residency training. After completion of this program, I pursued sub-specialty training in geriatric psychiatry and now run the Geriatric Psychiatry Fellowship Program for the Yale University School of Medicine. The ethical issues raised during the process of aging into late life are numerous, complex, and ever fascinating. Elders, and the families of aging parents, often face ethical dilemmas unique to late life. Physicians, patients, and families may face the quagmire of pursuing medical-legal intervention when a person with declining cognitive function is no longer capable of making sound decisions on regarding her/his health care and finances. They may also face wrenching decisions around the appropriate level of care in the last stages of life. I spend much of my time taking care of elderly patients while teaching residents, fellows, and medical students about the intricacies of assessing and treating neuropsychiatric illness in late life. In this light, I am also interested in the role of literature in the education of medical students, residents, and fellows. Reading imaginative literature about medicine has the power to elucidate the emotional essence of an interaction between physician and patient. It unmasks the professional veneer in a clinical interaction, giving students and physicians-in-training a vehicle to talk about feelings, which may seem inappropriate or embarrassing to discuss in the rush of daily medical practice. It also allows students the chance to reflect on difficult clinical and ethical situations and enhance their critical thinking. In the context of aging, reading imaginative literature gives the student a unique window into the life story of an older person seen through the eyes of a son or daughter, spouse, or friend. Stories and poems about the elderly enable the young to feel the touch or hear the voice of an elder in a life stage not yet lived. They create empathy for the suffering in late life and deepen a sense of awe for a wondrous life lived. They can dispel naïve assumptions about age and ameliorate pessimistic views about the elderly. These interests are manifest in my work within the Department of Psychiatry and at the School of Medicine.
Adjunct Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health, School of Medicine; Professor Emeritus, Public Health and Management, University of Pennsylvania
A Professor Emeritus of Public Health and Management at the University of Pennsylvania, I was appointed Adjunct Professor of Health Policy and Management in the Department of Epidemiology & Public Health at Yale in 2001. A native of Detroit, Michigan, I graduated from Yale in 1953 and also obtained doctorates in medicine and public health there. From 1987 to 1993, I served as a Fellow of the Yale Corporation, the University’s sixteen-member board of trustees. I served, from 1962 to 1969, in the US Public Health Service and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, where I was one of the physicians in the Office of the Secretary who helped draft Medicare. I directed strategic planning for the Surgeon General from 1965 to 1968 when President Johnson appointed him to the White House as Executive Director of a Presidential Commission. I served as an adviser, consultant, or trustee of many health care institutions, national and international organizations, state and local governments, and Fortune 500 corporations. Yale University Press published my book, Medicine’s Dilemmas: Infinite Needs Versus Finite Resources, in 1994. My wife, Priscilla Dillingham Kissick, a Yale nurse, was executive director of a community-based home care hospice program, a component of Penn’s Health System for two decades. Our three sons and daughter have challenged us for 348 parent-progeny years. During a four-decade career, I have learned almost everything that won’t work but little that will. Health care transcends biomedical/medical knowledge; it is a cultural affair. All societies confront Kissick’s second law: “No society in the world has sufficient resources to provide all of the health services its population could utilize.” If you want a single payer system, think rationing, “the R-word”. During the last five years at Penn, I taught in their Center for Bioethics, and I learned much but did not solve Medicine’s Dilemmas: Infinite Needs Versus Finite Resources. I am looking for ideas for its revision.
Gary S. Kopf
Professor of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine Chief, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Yale-New Haven Hospital
I am a cardiac surgeon, professor of surgery, and have been chief of pediatric cardiac surgery at Yale-New Haven hospital for the last 26 years. I have served on the YNHH HIC committee. As such, I have been dealing in a first hand and practical way with significant bioethical issues on a daily basis. I have a background in physics and mathematics and have always been interested in the philosophy of science. Currently, I am interested in a number of different areas such as cognitive neuroscience, neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and philosophy, in getting to the basis of bioethical beliefs and practices, with the understanding that it will take a consilience of knowledge from all these and other areas to really get at this problem. I also have extensive experience in international programs for enhancing surgical practice, and have taught in Russia, Egypt, and South America. I have participated in several study groups at the Bioethics Center this year, and am an active member of the Information Society Project at the Law School with interest in the ethical implications of advances in biotechnology.
Robert G. LaCamera
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine
I retired in 1996 after forty years as a New Haven area primary care doctor that included a sub-specialty in children with special health care needs. As a member of the national Committee on Children with Disabilities of the American Academy of Pediatrics and various local, state, and regional committees concerned with both the pediatric and adult disability communities, I was always involved in bioethical issues. I have completed my role as Clinical Consultant to the Yale Center for Children with Special Health Care Needs and as Medical Director of the Spina Bifida Clinic at Yale-New Haven Hospital and am continuing to serve as one of the two physicians on the CT State Birth-to-Three Interagency Co-ordinating Council. I am a founding Board Member of Environment and Human Health, Inc., a Connecticut research and educational organization concerned with issues at the intersection of the environment and human health. I am also a member of the “Disability and Bioethics” study group.
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; Acting Director for Trauma Studies, Center for International & Area Studies
When I was a little boy in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, I already was learning how valuable knowing and facing the truth, no matter how grim, is in enhancing one’s chances of survival. It was my mother’s uncompromising refusal to believe the deceitful promises of the executioners and her courage to make split-second decisions to flee or hide that saved our lives time and again. In my thirty years of work as a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst of trauma victims (Holocaust survivors, second generation, Bosnian refugees, survivors of child abuse, and the homeless), I learned that massive psychic trauma—Holocaust trauma and genocide trauma for that matter—refuses knowledge because at its very core lies the complete failing of the empathic human dyad; the executioner and the perpetrator do not heed the victim’s plea for life and relentlessly proceed with the execution or the abuse. In death camps and in “war zones,” whether in the community or in the family, human responsiveness comes to be non-existent. A responsive “Thou” to one’s basic needs no longer exists. Faith in the possibility of communication dies, and intrapsychically there is no longer a matrix of two people, the self and the resonating other. Victims feel, frequently for the rest of their lives, that there is “no longer anyone on whom to count.” The natural outcome is a lonesomeness in one’s internal world representation. This despair to communicate with others diminishes the victims’ ability to be in contact and in tune with themselves or to be able to register and reflect to themselves about their own experience. I graduated from the Hadassah School of Medicine in Jerusalem, Israel, a master’s program in clinical psychology at the Bar-Ilan University, a residency program in psychiatry in the United States, and psychoanalytic training at the Western New England Institute for Psychoanalysis, but it was my clinical work with psychiatric casualties during the 1973 Yom Kippur war in Israel—my treatment of children of Holocaust Survivors for whom the war trauma reenacted the brutalization their parents had undergone during World War II—that alerted me to the fact that knowing and facing truth was not only life saving, but also potentially healing. I therefore embarked, together with late television producer Laurel Vlock, on the video testimony project for Holocaust survivors, which was to become the Fortunoff Video Archive at Yale University. Coming to know one’s traumatic experience, to partially integrate it, or at least accept it as a past memory one has to live with, allows for life to resume. The survivor can begin to emerge from the frozen psychological state of traumatic re-experiencing, from a life limited by clinical symptoms and traumatic re-enactments. The testimonial process with the listener is therefore essential in re-establishing the internal dialogue with oneself, which was destroyed when the victim discovered there was no longer a “Thou,” a you, either outside or inside himself. The video testimony functions as a dialogue, not only with the listener, but also with oneself and beyond that, with one’s family, and with imagined audiences in the world at large and in one’s future. It’s a step in the restoration of one’s own humanity and the humanity of the world one lives in. It is a step in the rebuilding of mutuality and of trust. My experience with the homeless taught me how devastating the impact of societal violence can be on those who can least protect themselves from it, and may even get caught up in its vicious cycle. Working in the Genocide Studies Program allowed me to apply the knowledge I have gained from working with Holocaust survivors to the understanding of other genocidal events that involved other people and occurred in other places and at other times—Bosnia, Rwanda, East Timor, the Armenians, Native Americans, and so on. These events continue to exert their impact for decades, even centuries. I strongly believe that the interdisciplinary approach to the field of massive trauma and genocide is the only one that allows for an evolving comprehension of these fateful phenomena that characterize the twentieth century and begin to define the twenty-first. It is perhaps the only way scholars and clinicians can fulfill their social responsibility: in jointly forging an effective, even healing response that addresses the destructive processes which affect present-day society. I have elaborated my views on testimony, truth, and healing in a book coauthored with Professor Shoshana Felman entitled Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History (Routledge, 1992) and in many other publications in the psychoanalytic literature. At present, I continue my work on massive psychic and communal trauma in a video-testimony study of chronically hospitalized Holocaust survivors in Israeli psychiatric institutions: a study carried out within the framework of The MacMillian Center Genocide Study Program, Department of Psychiatry, and The Yale Center for International and Area Studies (YCIAS).
Susan E. Lederer
Associate Professor, Section of History of Medicine, School of Medicine; Associate Professor, Department of History and African American Studies
As a historian of American medicine, I have a particular interest in the history of research ethics and the dynamics of moral change. My first book focused on the ways in which American attitudes about using human subjects changed over the course of the last century. In the early twentieth century, for example, physicians defended the use of orphans in research as a means for these children to “repay” society. In the 1970s, children were defined as “vulnerable” subjects who needed protection from research. How such profound changes occur is one of my ongoing research questions. In 1994–95 I served on President Clinton’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. This Committee, chaired by Johns Hopkins professor Ruth Faden, produced a lengthy report about the 4,000 radiation experiments sponsored by the federal government during the Cold War. I served as a guest curator for the National Library of Medicine’s exhibit “Frankenstein: Penetrating the Secrets of Nature.” This exhibit became the basis for a traveling exhibit to 80 libraries across the country. The exhibit explores Mary Shelley’s creation and the limits of scientific inquiry. My most recent work is a book (forthcoming from Oxford University Press) entitled Flesh and Blood: A Cultural History of Transplantation and Transfusion. Among other things, Flesh and Blood considers the buying and selling of blood and body parts, as well as the issues of race and religion. In Yale College, I offer courses on the ways that assumptions about race shape the experience of illness and health care, and on the history of the American body (both the way it has changed over time and the search for ways to control body size, weight, and conformation through surgery, drugs, and genes). I currently serve on the Bioethics Center’s Executive Committee and the Advisory Committee of the Donaghue Initiative in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Ethics. I am also a member of the “Research Ethics” study group.
Dorothy Otnow Lewis
Clinical Professor in the Child Study Center and Psychiatry, School of Medicine
I attribute my interest in violence to my upbringing in New York City during World War II, when my mother was active in raising funds to help Jewish children escape the terrors of Hitler’s Germany. I attribute my interest in issues of justice and responsibility to the Ethical Culture Schools, where I was educated from pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade. It was in 1971 and directly after I had completed psychiatric training and went into private practice that I began to work with violent people. A proposal to establish a Juvenile Court Clinic in New Haven, Connecticut was funded, and I became its co-founder and clinical director. It was my observations of delinquents and their parents that led me to studies of the neuropsychiatric and family vulnerabilities of young offenders. An invitation by a public defender in Florida to evaluate several of his clients led to my studies of the biopsychosocial characteristics of death row inmates. The findings of my clinical team regarding the neuropsychiatric impairment and abusive experiences of juveniles on death row were cited by the US Supreme Court when it overturned the death sentence of a condemned fifteen-year-old in the case Thompson v. Oklahoma. I am currently working on a second follow-up of our 1978/1979 delinquents, as well as their children. I am also studying biopsychosocial characteristics of Texas’s juveniles on death row. I have served on twelve journal editorial boards and numerous committees. I have authored books, book chapters, book reviews, and journal articles; my most recent book is titled Guilty by Reason of Insanity: A Psychiatrist Explores the Minds of Killers (1998). My paper on 18 condemned juveniles in Texas was published in the December 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. This summer I will be presenting on ethical implications of what we know about violence.
Margaret D. Lewis
Director, Department of Religious Ministries; Co-Chair of the Ethics Committee at
Yale-New Haven Hospital Chaplains in acute care hospital settings often find ourselves alongside patients, family members, and staff as they struggle with difficult choices among the opportunities and limitations of health care. Being present to those dilemmas and appreciating the assistance of ethical principles and processes, I joined Yale-New Haven Hospital’s ethics committee in 1996. My experience on that committee has taught me much about the inevitability of uncertainty, the importance of interdisciplinary inquiry, and the value of communal decision-making. I now serve as co-chair of the committee, which provides case consultation, policy development, and education relative to clinical ethical concerns. I am also a teacher and a Clinical Pastoral Educator. In those roles I participate in the education of clergy and health care providers with particular emphasis on spirituality and health, palliative and end-of-life care, and clinical ethics. I find shared ethical inquiry, across multiple disciplines and faiths, to be very productive educationally.
Professor of Surgery and Section Chief of Organ Transplantation and Immunology, School of Medicine
In addition to my position at the School of Medicine, I serve as director of the Yale-New Haven Organ Transplant Center. I am also presently serving as Secretary of the United Network for Organ Sharing, the federal contract holder of the US Organ Procurement and Transplant Network. I am past President of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons and a Fellow of the American Surgical Association and the American College of Surgeons. I received my MD from the Rush Medical College. My surgery and clinical transplant training were taken at the University of Michigan, and my formal immunology training was in the laboratory of Dr. Frank W. Fitch at the University of Chicago. After an initial faculty position at the University of Texas Medical School in Houston, I joined the faculty at Yale in late 1986. I am actively engaged in the clinical practice of transplantation, as well as in research and publication. I have authored or co-authored more than 130 publications in the field and have served as co-editor of a book. I serve on the editorial boards of several scholarly journals. During recent years, I have developed an active interest in areas of health care policy and bioethics as they relate to the field of transplantation.
IRB, Yale School of Medicine; Researcher, Editor, and Teaching Fellow, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics
I formalized my long-term interest in bioethics when I earned my Master of Divinity degree from Yale with a concentration in ethics and history. I focused my work on the distinctions of pain and suffering, dying and death, the history of research involving human subjects, and on social justice and social power. In addition to my academic work, I did a clinical internship at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. This helped me to clarify in context elements of human suffering as well as society’s response to that suffering and introduced me in particular to research ethics. I am most interested in the ethics of medical research and in the ethics of treatment. I am a teaching fellow for “Leading Issues in Bioethics,” and this opened up an opportunity to teach the ethics of stem cell research to high school students. I serve on the Human Investigation Committee at the School of Medicine, where I focus on research protocols involving vulnerable populations. I am a member of the “Research Ethics” study group and I serve on the Advisory Board for the Humanities in Medicine Program. I co-wrote and edited The Yale Guide to Careers in Medicine and the Health Professions: Pathways to Medicine in the 21st Century, with Bob Donaldson and Howard Spiro, funded by the Institution for Social & Policy Studies and published in April 2003 by Yale University Press. This book, now in its third printing, is a collection of experiential narratives and commentary on career paths in the health professions and medicine.
Donald Guthrie Professor Emeritus of Surgery and Urology, School of Medicine; Director of Henry Koerner Center for Emeritus Faculty
I have been a practicing surgeon and urologist at Yale for the past forty years. In 1967, I initiated the program in renal transplantation at Yale. At that time, we were confronted with a number of ethical issues pertaining to the new therapies for patients with terminal renal failure. Which of the many eligible people should be treated by dialysis on the only two available machines, and who should receive a kidney transplant from the limited number of organs available? The definition of brain death and the timing of the withdrawal of life support systems from potential kidney donors, whose families had already given permission for removal of the kidneys, had to be determined. These problems were dealt with by the establishment of multidisciplinary committees that helped to make these difficult decisions about life and death. For the past six years, a colleague and I have led a weekly seminar for fifteen first-year medical students in a course on professional responsibility. I have found the discussions to be both stimulating and informative on a number of important issues that face doctors today. I only regret that when I was a medical student I never had the opportunity to discuss these problems with my peers and professors. I am presently a member of the “Perspectives on Aging” study group
Maurice Jeremiah Mahoney
Professor of Genetics, Obstetrics & Gynecology, and Pediatrics, School of Medicine
My initial interests in bioethics grew out of a medical training experience in which I was immersed in the problems of providing needed and high-quality care to young children who were growing up in circumstances of parental neglect or ignorance. These interests were heightened by my clinical research in fetal medicine and prenatal diagnosis and the debates surrounding embryo-fetal research. I continue to participate in pregnancy-related fetal research and to practice and teach medical genetics, including the multiple ethical issues that have come from the rapid advances in genetic science and genetic medicine. I work with the School of Medicine’s Institutional Review Board (Human Investigation Committee) and Biosafety Committee, both of which deal with ethical issues regarding human research subjects and protocols. My interests in bioethics continue to center on genetics, fetal and reproductive medicine, and legal responses and regulations in these areas. I am a member of the “Research Ethics” study group.
Jerold R. Mande
Associate Director for Public Policy at the Yale Cancer Center; Lecturer In Epidemiology & Public Health, School of Medicine
I became immediately fascinated with bioethics when I went to work for then Representative Al Gore and he told me he wanted to be known as “Mr. Bioethics.” Together we sprinted up the learning curve, and along the way banned the buying and selling of human organs, created the current national organ sharing system, created the Congressional Biomedical Ethics Board and Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee, stopped (at least for awhile) Oregon from rationing healthcare to its poor, and led hearings on a wide range of bioethics issues, including gene therapy, agricultural biotechnology, reproductive technologies, and research fraud. While in Congress, Gore was named to the Hastings Center board, the first member of Congress to serve in that role. I occasionally work on bioethics-related projects. I am still keenly interested in ethical issues arising in biomedical research, particularly cancer research, delivery of healthcare, the uninsured, and organ transplantation.
Carolyn M. Mazure
Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs, Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology, School of Medicine; Director, Women’s Health Research at Yale
My research has focused on the development of models for understanding depression and, more recently, addictive disorders. I created and direct Yale’s interdisciplinary research program on health and gender, Women’s Health Research at Yale, and have a specific interest in bioethical issues related to gender difference in research participation and outcome. I am a member of the “Research Ethics” study group.
Professor of Pediatrics and Neurology, Clinical Director Child Neurology Services, School of Medicine
My clinical and research interests have been in the neurodevelopmental disabilities, in particularly in the causes and consequences of the cerebral palsies and the muscular dystrophies, the outcome of prematurity, and the neurodevelopmental outcome of surgery for congenital heart disease. These are areas that are rife with ethical questions and dilemmas. Therefore, I have had a long standing interest in bioethics and more recently its interface with the law. I have a Masters in Bioethics and Medical Law and have both chaired and presented at meetings on “Moral Dilemmas in the Care of the Handicapped.” More recently, I presented at the Asian Bioethics conference, the World Congress on Medical Law on extreme prematurity, and at many other international and national forums. My latest book is Extreme Prematurity: Bioethics and the Law. Presently, I am editing a book on pediatric bioethics. I am a member of the Child Neurology Society Ethics Committee. I am a member of the “Disability” and “End-of-Life Issues” study group.
Professor of Dermatology, School of Medicine
For twenty years I have treated and counseled patients with ichthyosis, an incurable, hereditary dermatological condition. It has been especially enlightening to discuss social and reproductive issues with them and to learn the extent to which they view their disease as a disability. As an adviser to their laypersons’ support group, I have been involved with their efforts to lobby Congress for support of skin disease research programs. My own research interests are in the biology of normal and abnormal keratinocytes, the outermost cells in the skin. I study epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, in vitro, and in human diseases such as inherited ichthyosis. My associates and I currently are studying targeted gene replacement in skin cells and the feasibility of genetically altering the skin to remediate systemic diseases. Several colleagues and I have recently been grappling with ways of overcoming the developmental, regulatory, institutional, and financial obstacles that impede conversion of precise, molecular information about rare genetic diseases into specific treatments. We recently organized a meeting on that topic and a report will soon appear in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. For several years I taught a Yale College seminar concerning the science and ethics of genetic engineering. I learned that undergraduates, perhaps reflecting society as a whole, were equally as concerned about the impact of this new biotechnology on social and environmental ethics as they were about its impact on personal ethics. I am currently involved with a lively interdisciplinary study group grappling with issues raised by the genetic modification of plants. I am a member of the “Genetically Modified Plants” study group.
David F. Musto
Professor of Child Psychiatry and the History of Medicine; Lecturer in History and American Studies; Curator of Historic Scientific Instruments, Peabody Museum
My major focus is on the history of drugs and alcohol, chiefly in the United States, but I have also investigated the history of psychiatric ethics and ethical questions surrounding drug use. Of particular interest to me is the change in ethical standards and the evolving historical context accompanying that change. An example would be the shift from withholding from patients, on ethical grounds, diagnosis and descriptions of medication to the current policy of giving this information to patients, also on ethical grounds. I have written many publications concerning these issues.
MD Candidate, School of Medicine
I am entering my final year of medical school and am currently finishing my remaining clinical clerkships in anticipation of applying to a medical residency program. Over the course of my tenure here I have been able to develop and work toward a mission that will guide my current and future work. Simply stated, it is my aim work in the most to personally efficient manner to implement the optimal biological, psychological, and social conditions that will allow each individual to realize their full potential, prima facie. To lay the foundation for pursuing that goal, I will be completing medical school and have earned a masters degree in social psychology. In order to operationalize the theoretical understandings I had developed up to that point, I became a Zigler Center fellow and spent the spring semester of 2009 working as a science and technology policy fellow at the National Academy of Science. During the latter fellowship, I worked on the Board of Children, Youth, and Families (a joint board under the Institute of Medicine and Division of Biological and Social Sciences and Education). I was afforded the opportunity to learn how the Academies inform the relevant government agencies, professional associations, public interests groups, and the policy making process and had the opportunity to actively participate in such work. Moving forward, it is my hope to work in a capacity that will significantly contribute to the shifting of political will to support those interventions that will foster the conditions that will allow all people an opportunity to realize their full potential. That future work will be greatly informed by the policy experiences I have had thus far and the training I have completed at both the School of Medicine and Department of Psychology.
Dolores J. O’Connell
Coordinator of Pediatric, Maternal and Newborn Chaplaincy at the Children’s Hospital at Yale-New Haven Hospital
My interest in Bioethics has actually evolved out of my passion for Interfaith Chaplaincy in Pediatrics and Obstetrics. It is such a privilege to be part of children’s lives, at a time when they are highly vulnerable as patients. I can distinctly remember a short time in my childhood when I was seriously ill. I still remember the name of the physician and can recount the various procedures I underwent as a child. That was the beginning of my interest in becoming an advocate for children — to give them a “voice” and do whatever it takes to prevent a child from being treated as if the child were invisible. In my chaplaincy, I am often asked to companion a child and the child’s family as they navigate difficult decisions, and struggle to find caring solutions that promote healing. To engage in this challenge is often part of my work on the Pediatric Ethics Committee, the Pediatric Palliative Care initiative, and the Dignity Project. There are no easy answers in our multi-cultural environment. I am in awe of the courage that these children and their families possess. I am reminded of an older child who was listening as the Interdisciplinary Care team discussed the plan for that day. As we concluded, one of the team members asked if there were any further questions. “What do you want me to do?” the child asked. Clearly, he wanted to participate in his own medical decisions, giving us yet another opportunity to learn from a child.
Christopher J. Oleskey
Resident in Psychiatry, School of Medicine
My interest in bioethics began during medical school at Mount Sinai in New York. While studying towards a joint MD/MPH degree, I performed research on the initial West Nile virus outbreak. I was intrigued by the interaction of social, political, and environmental issues involved in the response to the epidemic. This research resulted in a manuscript on the challenges of emerging illness in the urban environment. I took a research leave of absence at the Center for Children’s Health and the Environment, where I wrote a guidebook on human biomonitoring, to serve as a reference for citizens interested in getting themselves tested for exposure to toxic chemicals. I also organized a conference on the ethics of testing pesticides in human volunteers, resulting in a manuscript on research ethics, which also put forth policy recommendations for EPA standard setting. I also have had a parallel interest in justice and access to health care, which began with medical sociology courses at Wesleyan University and was furthered through educational and activist work while in medical school. I organized lectures and debates on universal health care and was on the board of directors of Physicians for a National Health Program. My bioethics experience was furthered by fellowships at the ETHOX institute at Oxford University and the Hastings Center. Currently, I am spending a year as Chief Resident in the department of psychiatry based primarily at Yale Psychiatric Hospital. I am also on the ethics board of Yale-New Haven Hospital and have begun a two-year stint as a GAP Fellow (Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry), where I am on the preventive psychiatry committee. I will pursue fellowship in child and adolescent psychiatry next year. In the future I envision practicing child psychiatry and continuing to work at integrating principles of prevention into psychiatric practice.
Student, School of Medicine
I am in my third year of studies at the Yale University School of Medicine and am a 2004 graduate of the University of Notre Dame, where I currently serve as a member of the Board of Trustees. I was born and raised in Fremont, Ohio. My passion for bioethics and international immersion began in high school, when the Amigos de Las Americas program selected me to aid in Hurricane Mitch relief efforts near San Lorenzo, Honduras. I lived in a small hurricane-traumatized village for six weeks and organized several public heath initiatives to improve community sanitation and infrastructure. I spent the summer of 2002 in Kolkata, India, where I provided medical care to victims of malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, and malnutrition in Mother Teresa’s Home for the Destitute and Dying. I also created and participated in a six-week volunteer initiative near Bangkok, Thailand, where I served orphaned infants and physically disabled individuals. Expanding on my undergraduate philosophy major, I continued my interest in medical ethics through the Bioethics Center. I am a member of the study group on Research Ethics. Under Dr. Robert Levine’s mentorship, I anticipate my Yale Medical School thesis to be on informed consent in India and cultural perceptions of the principle of autonomy. I had the opportunity to present on this topic during the first National Bioethics Conference in Mumbai, India in November of 2005. In the summer of 2005, I collaborated with Indian ethicists, physicians, government officials, and social scientists to explore informed consent in non-Western settings. These interviews and sessions provided the foundation for my research and thesis work. I am a co-founder of the Pathos Project, a not-for-profit initiative that addresses the alleviation of suffering in patients in healthcare. Pathos Project seeks to promote research and further medical education in order to reform the current trend of depersonalization of the patient. Additionally, I have remained active with the University of Notre Dame’s Center for Ethics and Culture. I had the opportunity to give a main session presentation in March of 2005 at the 20th Annual Medical Ethics Conference in London, England, entitled, “The Challenge of the Suffering Patient: How Should Medicine Respond?”
Eugene Redmond, Jr.
Professor of Psychiatry and Neurosurgery; Director, Neural Transplantation and Repair Program, School of Medicine
A physician-colleague at Yale invited me to give a talk on bioethical problems in medicine a few years ago. “You have every ethical problem in your research that there is,” he added as encouragement. I felt relieved to realize that my undergraduate major in philosophy had not been wasted after all. At least I could recognize Kant and Mill when they were inevitably quoted by real bioethicists in the discussion. It was epistemology, not ethics, that led me to become a brain scientist, and I can’t imagine a more exciting time to be studying the brain than now. But it turns out that the brains to be studied, the results, and new therapeutic strategies raise bioethical issues — some very old ones and some that are entirely new for all of us. In 1985, when my research team undertook to transplant fetal dopamine cells for the first time in dopamine-deficient Parkinsonian monkeys, we were mainly interested in understanding developing brain tissue and how the brain works; but when the experiment was dramatically successful, we realized that cell replacement in the brain might save lives and relieve the suffering of patients with real illnesses. The fact that the cells must come from fetuses raised new questions about beginning of life issues, as well as more familiar problems about if, when, and how to try new treatments in human patients. With Robert Levine, I organized a symposium at Yale in 1987, attended by a diverse group of ethicists, physicians, and philosophers, to address the ethical and political issues raised by fetal neural replacements. The solutions proposed became the basis for recommendations by a Presidential Panel in 1988, which after being blocked by the first Bush administration, were enacted into federal law in 1992, describing acceptable use and funding of fetal tissue research and transplantation. Clinical studies of neural transplantation in patients at Yale (with Dennis Spencer and the Neural Transplant Program) and studies elsewhere have provided “proof of principle” for cell replacements. They have also stimulated studies with stem cells derived from earlier normal embryos or from nuclear cell transfer (cloning). New genomics data, needed to control the differentiation and tissue reconstruction by stem cells, and new reproductive and genetic technologies, such as the production of human-animal chimeras, are also raising new ethical questions about their impact on society now and the gene pool of future generations. I am a full-time researcher, with ongoing programs on fetal tissue, stem cells, gene therapy, and gene discovery. As a physician, I believe as strongly in the ethical imperative to “do good” as in the prescription to “do no harm.” As science inevitably opens new frontiers, the bioethical challenge will be to strike the best balance between them. I was a founder of the American Society for Neural Transplantation and Repair, and President from 2002–2003. As chairperson of its “Practice Committee”, I helped to develop a set of guidelines by the society for issues related to clinical research for cell and gene therapies of the brain.
Professor of Therapeutic Radiology and Pharmacology and Associate Dean for Scientific Affairs, School of Medicine
I am a basic scientist with a BS in physics and a PhD in biophysics. My research examines the environmental factors that affect the proliferation of cells in vivo and in vitro and the importance of these factors in determining the response of tumors and normal tissues to treatment with radiation and anticancer drugs. My team and I have examined a number of new approaches, agents, and regimens for improving the treatment of cancer. These studies formed the basis for several clinical trials performed at Yale and other institutions. My interest in bioethics therefore reflects the perspectives of a basic scientist performing laboratory research that may lead to clinical investigations that may ultimately impact the care of patients. I have an interest in ethical issues related to the responsible conduct of research, including questions of responsible data collection, management, and interpretation, as well as issues related to publication, including questions of authorship, conflict of interest, and responsible reporting of research results. Ethical issues related to the peer review and publication of research papers became a very significant focus when I assumed the position of Editor-in-Chief of Radiation Research and acquired responsibility for the ethical issues associated with the oversight of a major peer-reviewed scientific journal. My service as a member and chair of study sections that review research proposals submitted to the NIH, American Cancer Society, NASA, DoD and other funding agencies also increased my interest in the ethical issues related to the peer review process. I also have an interest in ethical issues related to the use of animals and human subjects in biomedical research and to the training of young researchers. I give seminars and lectures on these topics and have written editorials on these subjects. I developed a course for the NIH Office of Research Integrity entitled Ethical Issues in Peer Review: A Guide for Manuscript Reviewers; these didactic materials and case studies are available for use in ethics courses through the ORI website and my Yale website.
Stanley H. Rosenbaum
Professor of Anesthesiology, Medicine, and Surgery; Director, Section of Perioperative and Adult Anesthesia; Vice Chair for Academic Affairs, School of Medicine
For the past thirty years I have spent a large part of my practice time in intensive care units. There, ethical conflicts and ambiguities are common. In 1983, mostly because of my clinical experiences and my general interest in philosophy and social theory (I was a politically involved child of the sixties), I was invited to teach in the Society & Medicine course of the College of Physicians & Surgeons at Columbia University. I suspect that my experience, interests, and background (I am trained both in internal medicine, anesthesiology, and studied math and physics in college and graduate school) made me different enough to be interesting to the medical students. I left Columbia to come to Yale in 1987. About twenty years ago, I attended a medical conference and, by chance, walked into a session on “ethics.” I observed that the speakers and audience participants all seemed to be basing their statements on what they “believed” or “felt.” I stood up and chastised them for not following the usual scientific form of discussion, wherein opinions are based on evidence or coherent theories, or at least on standard texts and consensus documents. I pointed out that there did exist a large body of relevant writing and thought, going back at least to the ancient Greeks, which they seemed to be ignoring. I was outspoken and thus duly punished with committee assignments. Within a year I was on the Ethics Committees of the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. With these new experiences, I soon ended up on the Human Investigation Committee of the Yale School of Medicine and the Ethics Committee of Yale-New Haven Hospital. I regard myself as a clinician and not an ethicist. Every physician who holds human life in his or her hand is, in my regard, equally an ethicist. Ideally, those of us who have read and thought about this issue more intensively may be able to help our colleagues and students to analyze the problems of ethical medical practice a bit more clearly. My clinical practice still involves surgical and medical critical care as well as operating room anesthesiology. My research has always been very clinical: I have been involved in projects in surgical nutrition, cardiac ischemia, and a broad range of anesthesiology topics. Administratively, I am busy with all those committees, and serve as the director of the Section of Perioperative and Adult Anesthesia within the Department of Anesthesiology. At Yale College, I chair the Health Professions Advisory Board, which annually supervises the premedical advising and application process for more than two hundred Yale students and graduates.
Chief Executive Officer, Haskins Laboratories; Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine; Research Affiliate, Dept. of Psychology
For the past thirty years I have been engaged in activities related to fundamental research that involves the participation of human subjects. During this time I have been active in a number of different roles. I have been a research subject; a researcher in both biomedical and non-biomedical contexts; the senior institutional official responsible for all aspects of human research, including protocol design, IRB issues, safety, compliance, and adverse event reporting; a federal administrator responsible for the funding of research; and the chair of the interagency group that oversees regulatory and other matters related to federally funded research with human subjects providing advice to the Executive Office of the President. I am presently the CEO of Haskins Laboratories in New Haven, Connecticut, an independent research laboratory affiliated with Yale University that has a primary focus on speech, language and reading, and their biological basis. I am also an adjunct professor in the Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology) at the Yale University School of Medicine and a research affiliate in the Psychology Department at Yale University. From 1999 through 2003; I had the unique opportunity to serve as the Director of the Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (BCS) at the National Science Foundation (NSF), where I was responsible for a wide variety of programs including physical and cultural anthropology, archaeology, geography, environmental social and behavioral sciences, child development, psychology, linguistics, and cognitive neuroscience. At the National Science Foundation, I was also involved in matters of public policy related to the protection of participants in research. In this area I served as the NSF ex officio representative on the National Human Research Protections Committee (NHRPAC) and the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections (SACHRP), which advise the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services. Additionally, I was a member and then chair of the White House NSTC Committee on Science Human Subjects Research Subcommittee (HSRS). HSRS provides for coordination and communication among the many federal agencies that conduct or fund human subjects research. HSRS has the authority to develop recommendations for the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the President (via the Committee on Science), regarding new regulations, and the modification of existing regulations, related to human subjects protections. I have written papers and given talks on human subjects’ protection and public policy, with a particular focus on concerns related to social and behavioral research. In general, I try to promote the need for flexibility and cultural sensitivity when crafting regulations and other policy related to human subjects protection. I try to remain active in projects related to human subjects protection. Recent examples include serving on an AAUP subcommittee that developed recommendations related to IRBs, research methodology and academic freedom; being a member of the Advisory Board to the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics and taking over as Chair of the National Academies Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences (an advisory board that helps the National Research Council identify areas in which new scientific developments are creating opportunities or potential problems for public policy, including issues related to human subjects research). At Yale, I am a member of the Mind, Brain, Culture and Consciousness group; participate in the Yale Information Society Project; and am a faculty advisor to the “Science, Technology, and Utopian Visions” working group as well as the “Technology and Ethics” study group. I am pleased to be involved with the Yale Bioethics Center — a group with so many dedicated and knowledgeable individuals and that also includes two people who have been an inspiration to me: Dr. John A. Kirchner and Dr. Robert J. Levine.
Melody J. Sacatos
Compliance Manager, School of Medicine Human Investigation Committee
“Let us all remember that a slower progress in the conquest of disease would not threaten society, grievous as it is to those who deplore that particular disease . . . but that society would be threatened by the erosion of those moral values whose loss, possibly caused by too ruthless a pursuit of scientific progress, would make its most dazzling triumphs not worth having . . .” H. Jonas, “Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects,” 1970. My interest in the bioethics of research began one night when I sat in on a Human Investigation Committee meeting and realized that the confluence of science, law, and ethics made for a fascinating discussion. Four years have passed since that night and I still find the meetings of the Committee engrossing and provocative as a liaison for the Yale Center for Clinical Investigation. I graduated from the State University of New York at Albany, cum laude, and then embarked on several professional forays before finding out that the field of research ethics existed. Former forays included working with children (for example, as Director of a treatment center for disturbed adolescents on the lower East Side of New York) and serving as an active duty commissioned officer in the United States Air Force (targeting ICBMs and writing and evaluating war plans) in Missouri and California. The bioethics of research will be, I think, my finest, and probably my last, professional hurrah, learning and doing appears to take a lifetime in this one area. I am a member of Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) and Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA.) I sit on the ARENA Committee for Public Policy.
Psychiatry, Assistant Clinical Professor
I completed my Psychiatry Residency Training at Yale and continue to teach in the department of psychiatry as an Assistant Clinical Professor. Born into a family of attorneys (father, uncle, and brother), I decided to pursue the alternate path of medicine. The pull of law and ethics, however, continued to influence my professional trajectory. I am board certified in both general and forensic psychiatry and supervise fellows in the Yale Law and Psychiatry program. I was a charter member of The Stamford Hospital Ethics Committee and have been chair of the committee over the last ten years. Under my leadership, the committee has established a formal Bioethics Consultation Service and has tackled difficult policy issues such as code classification and futile care. In 2006, I was nominated by the Governor of Connecticut to serve as the psychiatrist representative on the state Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). I have lectured on topics of medical ethics and end-of-life care both within The Stamford Hospital and in the local communities.
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry; Yale Program on Recovery and Community Health, School of Medicine
My interest in bioethics is rooted in my former work as a clinician, stemming from relationships with others whom I came to know, respect, and wished to do well by. Bioethics provides a language with which to fulfill this wish, and fits naturally into research where the investigative focus is the person. Of particular interest to me is how bioethics may be brought to bear upon the problem of discrimination linked to psychiatric and substance use disorders, both outside and within the mental health professions.
Mark D. Siegel
Associate Professor, Pulmonary & Critical Care Section, Department of Internal Medicine
I am the Director of Medical Critical Care for the Department of Internal Medicine at the School of Medicine. I am co-chair of the Yale-New Haven Hospital Bioethics Committee. I teach End of Life Decision Making to Medical Students and Postgraduate Medical Trainees. My research focuses on the psychiatric impact of critical illness and end of life decision making on surrogate decision makers.
Assistant Professor of Medicine and Assistant Professor, Epidemiology & Public Health, School of Medicine
I received a BS in biology from Cornell University, my MD from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and my MPH from the Yale University School of Medicine. I did my postgraduate medical training in Internal Medicine at the Yale-New Haven Hospital and became interested in bioethics through research into the crimes committed by the physicians in Nazi Germany. In trying to understand how members of the healing profession from this technologically and scientifically advanced nation were able to use their training and skills against other human beings, I became interested in the foundations of medical ethics and situations where they are disregarded. My major clinical teaching is related to inpatient and outpatient internal medicine with the Primary Care Internal Medicine Residency Program. My other teaching and research interests are related to the epidemiology of infectious diseases, specifically emerging infectious diseases. I also teach a class related to this at the School of Medicine. Bioethics work that I have done has been in the areas of eugenics — specifically related to eugenic sterilization in Nazi Germany and the United States in the early part of this century. I have also done recent work on the euthanasia program in the Netherlands, reviewing the implications for the ongoing debate in the United States.
Howard M. Spiro
Professor Emeritus, Internal Medicine, School of Medicine
I have been a viewer of the medical scene since my graduation from Harvard Medical School in 1947. By doing clinical research, I became aware long ago of the tensions between patient and subject, between caretaker and researcher. During a sabbatical at Stanford’s Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, I realized that as a clinician, I had become more of a placebo than a technician, and so I wrote a book on the topic, republished as The Power of Hope. During my years at the Yale School of Medicine, I also spent four to five years of part-time work, with Jay Katz, Robert Burt, and the Law School’s interface between law and medicine. I would describe myself as a kitchen casuist. I have interests in the study of placebos, and patient-physician relationships in a time of technology. Along with Kathleen Lundgren and Robert Donaldson, I edited a book for the Center for Bioethics entitled The Yale Guide to Careers in Medicine and the Health Professions, in which a wide variety of trainees and professionals reflect on their present and future careers in medicine and the health sciences. It is now in its third printing. ISPS and the Bioethics Center provide a comfortable place for interdisciplinary thinking. For that reason I am Co-chair of the study group “Perspectives on Aging,” and on the advisory committee for the “End-of-Life Issues” study group.
MD/PHD student, School of Medicine
I’m delighted to return to Yale this fall following completion of my PhD Program in Health Policy at Harvard University. I strive to apply a combination of theoretical, quantitative, and qualitative methods to analysis of the ethics of clinical research involving human subjects. My ongoing and past work has examined third-party harms and consent in clinical trials, community benefits and risk-benefit tradeoffs, perceived harms and benefits of STD/HIV research in Rakai Uganda, post-trial access to care, quality of care in clinical trial, conflicts of interest in research, and comparative health systems. In addition to completing medical school, I am currently involved in the NIH-funded Experiences of Participants in Clinical Trials project, a longitudinal study of subjects in US-based clinical trials for chronic conditions. I hope to integrate clinical care, research, and teaching throughout my career.
Lawrence A. Vitulano
Clinical Psychologist and Associate Clinical Professor of Psychology, Child Study Center
I am the former chief child psychologist of the Connecticut Department of Children and Families, and I am currently president of the Connecticut Behavior Therapy Association and serve on the boards of Southwest Community Health Center in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and the Bridgeport Council of Churches. I have published in the areas of anger management in Tourette’s disorder, behavior therapy, child abuse and neglect, chronic illness, group therapy, hypnosis, juvenile delinquency, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pediatric psychology, sports psychology, trauma and violence, and trichotillomania. I am also involved in the practice of executive coaching. I am a member of the “Rights of Children” study group at the Center for Bioethics and have edited a book, Psychological Aspects of Chronic Illness in Children and Adolescents, with Dr. Melvin Lewis.
Associate Dean/Ombudsperson/Director of the Office for Women in Medicine, School of Medicine
My function at the School of Medicine is promoting the professional growth and career development of the students, trainees, and faculty. I have authored numerous papers on mentoring and role modeling, on the application of the ombudsperson concept to higher educational and medical settings, on nonlitigational problem resolution, and on gender-related issues in science and education. The Office of the Ombudsperson is available to members of the Yale Medical School community, providing a spectrum of services to faculty, students, and staff. Discussions are not limited in scope and all are held in strict confidence. I have initiated and participated in workshops on the responsible conduct of research at the School of Medicine.
Morris A. Wessel
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Through Yale’s School of Medicine (1939–1943) and my three year fellowship in the “Rooming In Project” in the pediatrics department of Yale-New Haven Hospital (1948–1951), I had two important mentors: Dr. Grover Powers, Chairman of Pediatrics; and Dr. Edith Jackson, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the “Rooming In Project.” These two professors believed that any experience affecting a child’s physical and psychological well-being is to be considered within the realm of a pediatrician’s interest and responsibility. I entered primary pediatric practice in 1951, hoping that my relationship with families would provide the opportunity to enhance the capacity of parents and children to deal with developmental challenges, illnesses, injuries, and other stresses in the lives of children. My initial contact with a family usually took place in a prenatal pediatric conference with expectant couples during the last trimester of pregnancy. Our relationships continued through infancy, toddler, school years, and into adolescence. In later years of my practice, I often served many second-generation families. I retired in 1993, having completed 42 years in primary pediatric practice in the New Haven area. In 1967, Florence Wald, who recently had retired as Dean of the Yale School of Nursing, invited me to join a group of physicians, nurses, and clergy persons in a study of the care of terminally ill patients. We observed many limitations in the care of these patients. This led the group to plan the Connecticut Hospice, designed specifically for the care of terminally ill patients and their families. It was the first structure in the United States to be constructed specifically for this purpose. I observed that although there was increasing attention being paid to terminally ill patients and family members, there was limited support for children and adolescents suffering from terminal illness or from loss of an individual they loved and who loved them. It also became apparent that adults in a family, who under usual circumstances shared many nurturing responsibilities, were often preoccupied with their own feelings of impending loss or their reaction to the death of a loved one. They were unable to help with the care of children in their usual sensitive manner. I began to define my role as a primary pediatrician in serving families at these sad moments. Parents soon realized that I considered support during these difficult moments as part of my responsibility as their pediatrician. They frequently sought an opportunity to discuss how they might be supportive to their children as they dealt with this tragic loss of a family member or close friend. My involvement in this aspect of pediatric care became increasingly satisfying as I gained experience in serving families during these stressful moments. I wondered why there were so few discussions of these difficult yet important areas in the training of medical students and house officers. My interest in how decisions were made as to what areas were to be discussed in the education and training of physicians led me to seek the opportunity to participate in the discussions at the Center for Bioethics. I am a member of the “End-of-Life Issues” study group.
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine, Dept. of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine
Lecturer in healthcare ethics and law at Keele University School of Medicine, England
Roger Worthington has been a member of the Interdisciplinary Bioethics Center at Yale for 10 years and is now an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine at YSM. He helped develop the Yale Keele Fellowship program that sends Yale medical students to the UK each year to do ethics research at Keele University School of Medicine, where Roger is the Law and Ethics lead. The exchange program, now in its third year, has resulted in several Faculty visits, with more to come. While in the UK Yale students work on their thesis and gain experience of the British NHS doing clinical placements. For the other half of the exchange up to four Keele medical students head for New Haven as interns on the Bioethics Summer School, where Roger is a guest speaker. This year at Keele he is launching a specialist Masters in Medical Science degree majoring ethics, policy and professionalism. Roger is currently working on a book with Dr Robert Rohrbaugh [YSM] on ethics and comparative health policy, which is due to be published in Spring 2010. Roger travels widely speaking at conferences and meetings and works as a public sector advisor on ethics, education and health policy.
John L. Young
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; Attending Psychiatrist, Whiting Forensic Division of Connecticut Valley Hospital
In a quiet, gradual, and subtle way, the field of bioethics drew me in through my conviction that we all ought to treat one another fairly. An undergraduate major course in philosophy fed my curiosity while I pursued a calling to priesthood and an interest in chemistry. Then, catalyzed by a stimulating exposure to biology, my studies converged in medicine and then psychiatry. Next came a fascination with forensic psychiatry as a rewarding way to help patients in great need while getting to pursue intriguing ethical issues. It was a pleasure to direct an MD thesis on informed consent practices with regard to AIDS testing. Currently, I serve on a statewide ethics committee and on four hospital-based ethics committees locally. I also treat forensic patients full-time and supervise for the forensic psychiatry fellowship program. After cutting my writing teeth by reviewing books, I’ve done articles on civil commitment, expert testimony, medication adherence, forensic psychotherapy, parricide, confidentiality, sexual misconduct in pastoral counseling, and organ transplantation. Study group involvements at the Bioethics Center include those on “Research Ethics,” “Ethics of Stem Cells,” and “End-of-Life Issues.” I also serve on the advisory committee of the Donaghue Initiative in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Ethics at Yale and on the advisory board of the Applied Ethics Program at Fairfield University.
Howard V. Zonana
Professor of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Law, Law School
My interest in ethical issues in medicine began during my first year at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore when I was involved in challenging the School of Medicine’s policy of racially segregating patients on the surgical services. During my psychiatric residency and my interest in forensic psychiatry, I became involved in discussions of the ethics of civil commitment, involuntary medications, and the ethics of psychiatric involvement in the criminal justice system. I served as a member of the “Medical Profession and the Death Penalty” study group. In 1985, I was appointed as Chair of the Yale-New Haven Hospital Bioethics Committee, and I held that post until 1999. That experience has broadened my exposure to other areas of medicine and patient rights. I currently maintain my membership on the Bioethics Committee of Yale-New Haven Hospital, and I am also a member of the Ethics Committee of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. I have more recently been involved in the APA and AMA guidelines for psychiatrists doing interrogations for the government and the military. Please visit the Yale Law School website at http://www.law.yale.edu for my research interests and biographical information.
Christine M. Ceccarelli
PhD Student, School of Nursing
I developed my interest in bioethics first through my clinical work with end-stage-renal-disease patients, and later through experiences with death in my own family. My research area, family caregiving, also often involves at-home death as the final stage in the caregiving process. Formal introduction to principles of bioethics began with attendance at the summer Intensive Bioethics Course held at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University in 2004, sponsored by a grant from my specialty nursing organization. That was truly an amazing experience and gave me the introductory knowledge needed to become a member of the Ethics Committee of the American Nephrology Nurses Association, of which I am currently chairperson. Our committee has produced a series of educational modules on advanced care planning (ACP) for our membership, and I have just completed co-authorship of the second module focusing on the ethical and legal aspects of ACP. These educational offerings are available to all chapters of our 12,000 member organization, with the goal of assisting nurses to develop beginning competency in this area. My publications also include “Advance Care Planning for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease – Why Aren’t Nurses More Involved?” published in the November/December 2008 issue of the Nephrology Nursing Journal. My community involvement in end-of-life care currently includes board membership in the CT Coalition to Improve End-of-Life Care, an interdisciplinary group whose mission is to improve the care of people who are dying and their families in the state of Connecticut through education and advocacy. I look forward to ongoing professional development in end-of-life care through my involvement with the Yale Bioethics Center.
Terri P. Clark
Lecturer, Nurse-Midwifery Specialty, School of Nursing
I am a faculty member at Yale University School of Nursing (YSN). My areas of interest and research include maternal-fetal conflict of interest, access to care, nurse-midwifery perinatal outcomes, minority health outcomes disparities, preventing mother to child transmission of HIV, and appropriate use of technology. I also work toward increasing professional nursing, midwifery, and maternal-child health care capacity in developing countries, frequently as a volunteer. I conduct YSN’s elective midwifery clinical experiences with advanced midwifery students each year at Church of Scotland Hospital, Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa as well as being a provider in the Yale School of Nursing’s Faculty Midwifery Practice at the Yale-New Haven Hospital. I have a BA in Philosophy from Yale College, and am a certified nurse-midwife with a Masters Degree in Nursing from Yale University School of Nursing. My PhD is in sociology from the University of California, San Diego. My sociological research is in the areas of social control, sociolinguistics, and ethical problems in society.
Jane K. Dixon
Professor, School of Nursing
I am a professor at Yale School of Nursing, with an interest in environmental health, including the ethics of environmental health and environmental health research. I am particularly interested in people’s knowledge of environmental health hazards, and the responses to those hazards by those who are most affected. My goal is to help bridge the gap between the world of health professionals and the world of environmental activists in ways of perceiving and responding to environmental health hazards. I am involved in environmental groups at local and state levels, including being on the Steering Committee of the New Haven Environmental Justice Network and recently on the Executive Committee of the Connecticut Sierra Club. My husband, John Dixon, is also an environmental leader in these groups, and he is my partner in the study of environmental health described here. Environmental interest began as a sort of personal and family hobby, and has now evolved into the research and academic focus of my work at Yale. Factors in the environment are major determinants of health for individuals and populations. Environmental health research must achieve an integration of understanding, reaching from physiological research on health effects of toxic agents to actions that people may take, individually and collaboratively, to reduce their risks. With John, I have created an integrative model of environmental health encompassing four broad domains and their interrelationships. The physiological domain concerns the processes by which agents in the environment affect health. The vulnerability domain concerns variation between persons in environmental health risks. The epistemological domain concerns people’s understanding of the effects of the environment on health. The health protection domain concerns engagement in environmental health, especially action that people may take to reduce their risks. For comprehensive understanding of any particular environmental health problem and what to do about it, each domain should be attended to — with particular focus on links between scientific knowledge and social processes. This model is being used to guide current work, including the study of people’s engagement in environmental health. My course (N735b) on environmental health research and community action also uses this model. I expect to teach the course again in the spring semester of 2008 and would welcome students from outside of Yale School of Nursing in the course. I am also interested in research methods and ethics. I chaired the Yale School of Nursing Human Subjects Research Review Committee for sixteen years, and I teach doctoral courses on research methods, including a strong focus on ethics. There is a need for continuing development of research methods that actualize our ethical ideals. As for my personal, family background, I come from a family which experienced the full brunt of horrors of the Holocaust — this was before my birth, but seems to become a more salient part of me as time goes on. Attempting to bridge the gap between health professionals, environmental experts, and community activists is challenging work. I would welcome opportunities to collaborate with other persons who share these interests. People who find that this description of interests resonates should feel free to contact me.
Margaret D. Lewis
Assistant Professor, School of Nursing
I am a women’s healthcare nurse practitioner and assistant professor at the Yale University School of Nursing. In my clinical work, I focus on family planning and STD/HIV prevention, and am constantly faced with ethical dilemmas and policy implications. I have been able to bring discussion of ethical questions into our clinical courses and find that the students are very focused and concerned about ethical considerations in healthcare. I hold a clinical joint appointment as the Director of Women’s Healthcare Services at Cedarcrest Hospital, which provides gynecologic care to women with serious and persistent mental illness, and I develop sexuality education and programming for men and women in two in-patient psychiatric facilities. I incorporate my background in healthcare ethics into the policy issues involved with the care and advocacy for this patient population, serving on ethics boards and IRBs, community advocacy boards, and most recently as a legislative liaison for the Connecticut Women and Disability Network. I am very interested in the ethical and policy dilemmas surrounding sexuality in hospitalized patients who are seriously and persistently mentally ill. I also serve as the Book Review editor for the international journal Nursing Ethics.
Professor, School of Nursing; Director of Yale’s Center for Excellence in Chronic Illness Care
I have over 28 years of experience in cancer control and psychosocial oncology research. I am a national and international leader in cancer nursing, education, and cancer control research. I am the first research chair of the Oncology Nursing Society, a charter member of the Oncology Nursing Society, the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care, and the American Psychosocial Oncology Society. I have served on the Board of Directors of all three organizations, and am currently the president of the latter. I have served as a member of the study sections of the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Nursing Research. I have served on the Board of the Scientific Advisors for NCI and am currently on the External Scientific Advisory Board of the Children’s Oncology Group. In the early eighties, I obtained the first nonmedical NCI Institutional Research Training Grant and opened the door for other nonmedical fields to become competitive in securing funding. I was elected to the American Academy of Nursing in 1970 and the Institute of Medicine in 1990 and recently served on the committee to review NIH centers. I am the Florence S. Wald Professor of Nursing and have twice been designated an American Cancer Society Professor (1986–1991, 1992–1996). I am Director of Yale’s Center for Excellence in Chronic Illness Care and was Chair of the School of Nursing’s doctoral program from 1998–2004. In 1988, I received the Outstanding Research Award by the Pennsylvania Nurses Association. I was recognized again in 1993 as the Nurse Scientist of the Year by the American Nurses Association and in 1994 received the Distinguished Research Award from the Oncology Nursing Society. In 2004, I was elected to the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering. Most recently, I was awarded the Distinguished Scholar in Nursing by the College of Nursing, New York University.
Nurse-midwife and PhD candidate, School of Nursing
I am a nurse-midwife and PhD candidate at the School of Nursing. My academic interests include health policy, health services delivery, and innovative, women-centered models of maternity care. My dissertation is on low income, minority women’s experience of an innovative group model of prenatal care.
Doctoral candidate, School of Nursing
I study children’s health and welfare policy as a doctoral student at the Yale School of Nursing. I am also an Assistant Child Advocate for the Connecticut Office of the Child Advocate. Combining my professional and academic interests, I have been an active member of the Yale Center for Bioethics Committee on the Rights of the Child. In 2007, I and committee co-chairs Sally Cohen and Sandra Bishop-Josef, presented An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Children’s Rights Across Four Policy Domains: How Might Reframing Be Necessary to Effect Policy Change in the U.S.? at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. My research interests focus on the experiences of children with disabilities who are institutionalized. My dissertation will analyze public policy and practice through a case study of a Connecticut child who died in such circumstances. To compliment my dissertation work, my bioethics research continues in the vein of children’s rights, including considerations on the status, social roles and social value of children with disabilities. In my free time I volunteer with my Pomeranian mix Chin Chin, as a Delta Society registered Animal Assistance Team and a Reading Education Assistance Dog (READ) team. We participate in hospice services, library events and children’s health and safety fairs. We also assist with training new teams as members of Tails of Joy, Inc., a volunteer pet therapy training and support organization.
Researcher, School of Nursing
I am a gerontologist whose research interests relate to end-of-life care. As a Research Scientist at the Yale School of Nursing, my program of research spans clinician education in palliative care, end-of-life communication, patient/caregiver/clinician experiences with hospice, quality of life among women with breast and ovarian cancer, and evaluation of palliative care and hospice services on local and national levels. Currently, I am an American Cancer Society Mentored Research Scholar. This work focuses on how patients manage transitions at the end of life given the possibilities of lack of information about non-curative treatment options and limited communication with clinicians. To address this issue, I am developing and testing educational-support materials to help women with advanced breast cancer develop the ability to ask questions about their disease, its prognosis, and care options, and to communicate with clinicians and family caregivers about their preferences. Bioethics threads prominently throughout my research in the intersection of health ethics, self-management and end-of-life care. Ethical considerations also arise in my work as a qualitative researcher, which involves interviewing seriously ill individuals about their self-management practices at the end of life (See Schulman-Green, D., McCorkle, R., Bradley, E.H. Tailoring techniques for qualitative research with seriously ill patients about the end of life: A primer. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. In press.). I frequently serve as a consultant on qualitative research with vulnerable populations, having worked with the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and Yale-New Haven Hospital, among other organizations. I further my ability to be thoughtful about bioethics through involvement in the Yale Cancer Prevention and Control Conferences, the CT Coalition to Improve End-of-Life Care, the CT Council for Hospice and Palliative Care, the Gerontological Society of America, and the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.
Helen Porter Jayne & Martha Prosser Jayne Professor, School of Nursing
Drawn by the nursing profession’s commitment to care, I entered my profession after several years on the front lines of the peace and civil rights movements of the 1960s and after a false start in the direction of becoming an academic historian. In nursing at Yale, I have been privileged to find the space to practice compassionate, competent clinical care while continuing to explore the social and ethical contexts in which we work and live. My clinical career began coincident with the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which casts a bright light on health disparities everywhere. HIV/AIDS specialists, public health workers, and biomedical professionals who wish to do their work well are forced by the very nature of this epidemic to examine and confront the social structures creating vulnerability to infection and death around the globe. Political and ethical debates abound in the HIV/AIDS arena. Like many other clinical researchers, I struggled to find a clear path through a thicket of poor choices, thus, I look to the field of bioethics for guidance. I found more questions than answers, but also a host of wonderful colleagues with whom to examine the dilemmas. At Yale School of Nursing, all students are required to take a year long course in “Nursing Research Methods.” One-third of the second semester of this course is devoted to ethical issues in clinical research. We not only examine and discuss the Belmont Report, the NIH guidelines, and the Tuskegee Study, but we also undertake contemporary research projects that challenge the ethical researcher to think carefully before he or she acts.
Jeffrey B. Brenzel
Michael Della Rocca
Professor, Department of Philosophy
As the Chair of the Philosophy Department, I have a strong interest in expanding the department’s already strong offerings in bioethics. Shelly Kagan and Michael Weber regularly teach courses in the field, and we also often bring in visitors who teach in the area as well. My own research focuses on metaphysics (both historically and in contemporary philosophy). And while the concerns of metaphysics may seem remote from bioethics, I have become more and more convinced that one’s metaphysical views on persons and on nature in general can have fundamental import for one’s ethical convictions.
Henry R. Luce Professor of Social Thought and Ethics, Professor of Philosophy, and member of the Program in Ethics, Politics, & Economics
As the very term suggests, most of the issues that arise within bioethics have an ethical component: one or another moral question gets raised, whether about the moral legitimacy of some procedure in medicine or biology, the moral obligations of various health care practitioners, or the justice of alternative health care policies. Bioethics thus makes use of (it draws upon) normative ethics — that part of moral philosophy where we attempt to articulate and to defend the basic moral principles. And normative ethics is my own area of specialization within philosophy. To be honest, I can’t be said to do much actual research in bioethics (indeed, I follow only a very small part of the bioethics literature). Nonetheless, much of my own research and teaching is directly relevant to thinking about a variety of issues that arise within bioethics. Thus, to give just a few examples from my research, I have published on such questions as the moral relevance of the distinction between killing and letting die, the nature of well-being, and the limits of our obligations to aid others. Similarly, many of the courses that I teach are potentially relevant to those with interests in bioethics. I regularly teach “Introduction to Ethics,” which provides an entry-level introduction to moral theory (through such important historical figures as Kant and Mill), and “Normative Ethics,” which provides a higher-level systematic survey of that topic (organized thematically). While I have occasionally taught courses devoted to one or more topics in bioethics (for example, a semester-long examination of the morality of abortion — a remarkably complex issue), most of my courses might be better thought of as primarily providing material relevant to thinking about issues in bioethics. For example, although my class on “Death” does end with a discussion of the rationality and morality of suicide, the bulk of the class is devoted, instead, to questions about what makes life worth living, why death is bad, and what, exactly, death consists in.
Associate Professor, Philosophy
Good health and a long life are important; however, they are not the only important things in life. Indeed, they seem to be merely means: we want to be healthy and live a long life so that we can do the things that are really important in life, like falling in love, raising a family, and engaging in artistic, intellectual, and athletic pursuits. These obvious points raise a fundamental question: how much of our limited resources should we invest in health promotion? This question can be asked at an individual level (how much of my resources should I spend on my health?), and a social level (how much should we, as a society, spend on health promotion?). There are other questions at the social level: given some level of reasonable total expenditure, how should it be distributed? Should it be directed to the least well off, the sickest, or to those better off, those perhaps more likely to be able to live a full life if resources are dedicated to their health? Should we ever spend huge sums to benefit an individual when the same resources could help many who are less ill but might live fuller lives with minimal medical treatment? Clearly we are in deep ethical water here and need to concern ourselves with fundamental questions in ethics if we are to answer these questions. We must concern ourselves with well-being: what makes for a good life? We must concern ourselves with distributive justice: on what basis, if any, should “goods” and “bads” be distributed? My interests are in exploring these basic ethical questions and applying them to questions about health care and bioethics generally. My interest in questions like these was first stimulated by a debate that has much occupied ethics for some time: is there a difference between killing and letting die? Ethicists are interested in this question for its own sake, but also because it highlights and helps us explore differences between utilitarianism (or, more broadly, consequentialism) and other leading theories in normative ethics, in particular deontology, a view often associated with Kant. I teach a number of relevant courses, including introductory courses in normative ethics that centrally address the debate between consequentialism and deontology. I also teach an advanced class in rational choice theory, which considers decision-making in general and critically examines a powerful consequentialist theory of rational choice. And finally, I teach an introductory course in political philosophy, which addresses fundamental questions of distributive justice. These classes do not explicitly consider questions of medical bioethics; however, they provide part of the essential philosophical background for anyone interested in such matters, as the brief discussion above suggests. I was a member of the original “Ethics of Stem Cells” study group.
Jacob S. Hacker
Peter Strauss Family Assistant Professor, Political Science
I am a Professor of Political Science at Yale and a Resident Fellow of the Institution for Social & Policy Studies. I am also a Fellow at the New America Foundation, a former participant in the American Political Science Association’s Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy, a member of the National Academy of Social Insurance, and a former Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows. I am a political scientist who studies US public policy in historical and cross-national perspective. I am currently heading a Social Science Research Council project on the “privatization of risk” (http://privatizationofrisk.ssrc.org). My most recent books are The Great Risk Shift: The Assault on American Jobs, Families, Health Care, and Retirement — And How We Can Fight Back (October 2006); and Off Center: The Republican Revolution and the Erosion of American Democracy (2005), written with Paul Pierson. I am also the author of two previous books: The Road to Nowhere: The Genesis of President Clinton’s Plan for Health Security (Princeton University Press, 1997), which was co-winner of the 1997 Louis Brownlow Book Award of the National Academy of Public Administration; and The Divided Welfare State: The Battle over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States (Cambridge Univeristy Press, 2002), which, as a dissertation, received prizes from the American Political Science Association, the Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management, and the National Academy of Social Insurance. I am a frequent media commentator, my articles and opinion pieces have appeared in the American Political Science Review; American Prospect, Boston Globe; British Journal of Political Science; Perspectives on Politics; Politics and Society; Studies in American Political Development; the International Journal of Social Welfare; the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law; the New Republic; the New York Times; the New York Times Magazine; the Nation; the Los Angeles Times; the Boston Globe; and the Washington Post.
James C. Scott
See Agrarian Studies
See International and Area Studies – The MacMillan Center
John P. Wargo
See Forestry & Environmental Studies
See Epidemiology & Public Health
Harold W. Attridge
Lex Hixon Professor of World Religion and Director of Graduate Studies, Religious Studies
I received my BA from Radcliffe College and my PhD from Harvard University. I joined the Yale faculty on July 1, 2004. I have previously taught at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and I have held visiting positions at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Berkeley, and Harvard. I have done research in all of the classical religions of India (Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism), and I have also published articles on Indian art and literature. My interests include contemporary Indian literature, and I have published translations of short stories from Bengali and Oriya. I currently edit the Journal of Indian Philosophy. I have recently published Images in Asian Religions: Texts and Context, edited with Koichi Shinohara and soon to appear from the University of British Columbia Press. I have also published Pilgrims, Patrons and Place, Localizing Sanctity in Asian Religions, also edited with Koichi Shinohara, printed from the same press in 2003. My current research includes work on the origins of Puranic Hinduism and the development of image worship in Indian religions and a study of a medieval Indian dramatist and poetic theorist. I am also working on Jain and Buddhist monastic rules, and systems of authority in medieval Indian law codes. I presented a paper to the “Perspectives on Aging” study group, drawing on the short stories that I have translated about the experience of aging in India. I also helped initiate and lead the symposium on Aging this spring through the gracious funding of the South Asian Studies Council at the MacMillan Center, The Council on East Asian Studies at Yale University, and the Center for Bioethics.
Senior Lecturer of Religious Studies and East Asian Languages/Literature
I am a senior lecturer of Religious Studies (Bachelor of Letters and Master of Letters, The University of Tokyo; PhD, Columbia University) and work primarily on Buddhism in East Asia. Before coming to Yale in 2004, I taught at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada. For the past several years, my work has centered around the writings of an influential commentator on monastic practices and historian, Daoxuan (596-677) and his collaborator Daoshi (d.u.). In recent articles, I have written on such diverse topics as Daoxuan’s discussions of image worship and the instructions to be given to a dying person at the moment of death. Among my current projects is the study of the cult of a protective deity associated with healing. I delivered a paper to the “Perspectives on Aging” study group that discussed contemporary versions of an ancient Japanese story about the abandonment of the elderly. I also helped to lead the symposium on Aging with Phyllis Granoff, The South Asian Studies Council, The Council on East Asian Studies, and the Center for Bioethics.
Graduate Student, Sociology
I am pursuing my PhD in Sociology at Yale. I identify myself as a Public Health Sociologist, and serve as a Research Associate at the Yale School of Public Health and the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA). My work focuses on disease prevention and health improvement primarily for drug users and sex workers in the United States, Russia, and India. This work spans both clinical and field settings: from investigating the impact of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in hospitals, to assessing provider and consumer satisfaction with office-based chemical dependency treatment, to the evaluation of syringe exchange programs; and finally to ethnographic research with injection drug users. I recently coordinated an eleven-city study of HIV Transmission in Russia through Liquid Drug Manufacture and Injection, and I am currently the Research Coordinator for a study of Structural Interventions for HIV Prevention among Sex Workers and their Clients in India. To the extent that the people that I have the privilege to work with are systematically marginalized and objects of state control, every dimension of my work is shot through with ethical questions and uncertainties. I find myself continually broadening my own field of vision in bioethics, from the technical matters of research protocols, to questions about the research enterprise itself, to positioning myself in a politic of knowledge and social justice. I find myself wanting to contribute to the field of bioethics, more specifically research ethics, but with an eye towards resisting its disciplinary inclinations and more fully realizing its potential to dislodge power structures instead of reinforcing them. The steady growth of Yale’s Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics attests to the critical importance that research institutions create this space for inquiry and debate. I now find it inseparable from my life’s work.
MD/PhD Student, Sociology
I’m a 6th year MD/PhD student and in my 3rd year at the Sociology Department. I became interested in bioethics by taking a postgraduate year to study History and Philosophy of Science, and found myself increasingly fascinated by how scientific facts are created, propagated, and used in public and political environments. Since coming to Yale, I’ve focused more on international public health, especially with regard to increasing access to medicines through more socially responsible intellectual property agreements. My research is primarily focused on public health and epidemics. My interests lie in the Middle East, particularly Lebanon, where I researched on how the Lebanese government was preparing for Avian flu, particularly with regard to the question of how resources would be distributed in an epidemic. In Lebanon, there are about 400,000 Palestinian refugees that, for various reasons, are excluded from Lebanese social services and white collar professions. In the event of an epidemic, this marginalized population is not only at grave risk themselves, but because they are treated administratively separate, bureaucratic constraints present a challenge to coordinating a response over the entire country. My dissertation research, on which I plan to start fieldwork this year, will look at how the World Health Organization makes decisions regarding epidemic emergencies.
See African American Studies
Associate Professor, Section of the History of Medicine; Associate Professor, Women’s and Gender Studies Program
My commitment to integrating progressive politics and feminism in my historical work has been sharpened lately, and my most recent work deals even more explicitly with issues of race, class, and gender in the shaping of American medicine. Maybe it’s entering my 40s, but I am seeing more clearly my fascination with critics of medical orthodoxy (and the structural and ethical issues their critiques raise) as a consistent theme in my work and teaching. My earlier work dealt with immigrants in New York City and Newark facing the 1916 polio epidemic, a disease they were blamed for originating and carrying. I am now working on a study of Sister Elizabeth Kenny, an Australian nurse who arrived in the US in 1940 with a new theory and practice of polio care, which she proudly claimed opposed standard medicine’s approach to the disease and its patients. My other project is a study of radical health movements in the 1960s, focusing on the Student Health Organization (SHO), a now forgotten group of activist medical and other health science students who sought to transform American medical education, the health care system, and the doctor-patient relationship.
Jean Thomson Black
Senior Editor for Science and Medicine, Yale University Press
As Senior Acquisitions Editor for Science and Medicine at Yale University Press, I manage trade, scholarly, professional, reference, and course books in the life, physical, environmental, and cognitive sciences, as well as consumer health, history of science and medicine, the medical humanities, and bioethics. Many of the titles the Press has published have won prizes from the American Association of Publishers Professional and Scholarly Publishing Division, the American Medical Writers’ Association, the American Meteorological Society, and other organizations. Yale University Press has had a long tradition of publishing books in bioethics and related disciplines. Classic works such as William Osler’s 1913 Silliman Lectures Evolution of Modern Medicine and Paul Ramsey’s 1970 Beecher Lectures The Patient as Person have graced the list. In recent years, the program has expanded to encompass health policy and law; medical ethics; humanistic medicine; environmental history, politics, and philosophy; agrarian studies; history of science and medicine; and authoritative health books for the consumer. The Press has collaborated with The Center for Bioethics in reissuing Paul Ramsey’s The Patient as Person, with a foreword by Margaret Farley and essays by Albert Jonsen and William May (May 2002) and The Yale Guide to Careers in Medicine and the Health Professions, edited by Robert Donaldson, Kathleen Lundgren, and Howard Spiro (published spring 2003). In 2004–2005, the Press initiated a new imprint for its growing list of consumer health books: Yale University Press Health & Wellness. The Press’s Web site, www.yalebooks.com, provides a comprehensive list of new and current titles.
Lecturer, Epidemiology & Public Health; Assistant Clinical Professor, Yale School of Nursing, and former State of Connecticut Commissioner of Health
It somehow seems that I have always had an interest in social justice and equity, which are two issues (sometimes hot ones) in the Pandora’s box of bioethics. Perhaps the fact that I am a direct descendent of Benjamin Silliman has something to do with this. Or maybe it came from reading all those Berton Roueche articles in The New Yorker. In any case, it was this interest that led me to prepare for a career in public health. I was told (and believed) that practicing in that multi-disciplined population-based field would give me plenty of opportunities to advocate, and even actively work to enhance the frame of social justice and equity around various public health problems and dilemmas. Not only was I right, but, after a twenty-five-year career, it has become amazingly clear to me that the battle is an unending one, that the skirmishes are incredibly intricate, and that even small inroads should be celebrated. While I have courtesy teaching appointments at the Yale School of Public Health, the Yale School of Nursing, and the UConn MPH Program, I consider myself a practitioner, and therefore a community member of the Bioethics Center. My public health career has all been in the governmental sector, beginning in the New Haven Health Department as Health Educator and ending as the State Commissioner of Health under Governor Lowell Weicker. In between, I had the great privilege and challenge of building a district public health department in the Naugatuck Valley as the first non-MD local health director in the State, serving as head of the State Health Planning and Development Agency during the days of the HSA’s, the SHPDA’s, and all the other planning acronyms in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and then returning to the local scene as Director of the Quinnipiack Valley Health District in 1985. In 1984, I served at the national level as President of the American Public Health Association, focusing during my tenure on tobacco and the data deterioration that was occurring under President Ronald Reagan. I was also a member of the PEW Environmental Health Commission (1999–2000). Currently, I am a founding board member of Environment and Human Health, Inc., and Chair the Advisory Committee of the UConn Public Health Program. Some publications over the years might be connected to bioethical issues, particularly “Some Ironies at the Interface of Medicine and Public Health,” Yale Medicine, 1993 and “Data Deterioration and Public Health Policy,” Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1983. I am on the advisory committee for the Donaghue Initiative in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Ethics and the “Public Health Ethics” study group.
Nancy O. Alderman
President, Environmental and Human Health, Inc.
I graduated in the Yale College class of 1994 and the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies in 1997. From 1981 to 1991, I worked to stop pollution from the Upjohn Plant in North Haven, Connecticut, which was exposing thousands of residents, including school children, to the toxic emissions emanating from that plant. In doing so, I conceived and worked on a shareholders resolution that asked the Upjohn Company to divulge what chemicals they were putting into North Haven’s air and water and to mitigate these emissions. During the past twenty years, I’ve held various positions, including: board member of the Connecticut (and National) Trust for Historic Preservation; Governor Weicker’s Committee on Greenways for the State of Connecticut; founded and directed a nonprofit organization entitled “Protect,” which was committed to protecting Hamden and North Haven from air pollution and traffic congestion; board member and past president of the Connecticut Fund for the Environment; member of the State of Connecticut Pollution Prevention Task Force; conceived of, and worked with, the Connecticut fund for the Environment on a “citizen’s right to know” pesticide bill presented in the Connecticut State Legislature; board member of the Environmental Defense Fund; founded the non-profit organization Environment and Human Health, Inc., dedicated to protecting human health from environmental harms through research, education, and sound public policy; co-authored “Pesticide Practices in Connecticut Public Schools;” and served on the Department of Environmental Protection’s task force to draft legislation that would require parents and teachers to be notified before schools could spray pesticides on their property. I have also founded and worked to preserve the Farmington Canal Heritage Trail which runs through the Yale campus.
Stephanie J. Bird
Assistant Professor of Theological Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH
I have always been interested both in science and, thanks to my mother, in all the questions that inevitably lead to ethics: What’s the right thing to do? Who should decide? At UCLA I majored in both zoology and philosophy, and ultimately focused on neuroscience, and on ethics and metaphysics. Though at the time some people thought it a weird combination, it was just right for me and I found the two majors were an intriguing complement to each other. Thanks to the intentional and unintentional guidance of some of my professors, I pursued graduate school in neurophysiology here at Yale and continued in lab research for several years investigating the mechanisms of action of various psychoactive substances. Over time, I became more interested in understanding how the bits of science fit together and joined the Neurosciences Research Program, a “think tank” at MIT. My focus evolved into an effort to understand how neuroscience research findings fit into the larger context of society as a whole, and I landed in the Science, Technology, and Society Program at MIT. Later I became the Special Assistant to the Provost at MIT. I have worked on various topics in research ethics, professional ethics and bioethics, developing materials and implementing programs and courses in the responsible conduct of research. In addition to research ethics, my work focuses on what has become “neuroethics”, the field at the intersection of ethics and neuroscience that consists of both the ethics of neuroscience (practice and application), and the neuroscience of ethics. In particular, I have written and organized conferences and symposia on such topics as the ethical implications of predictive testing for mental conditions, and the implications of neuroscience for legal and ethical notions of individual responsibility. I am the Co-Editor-in-Chief of the international journal Science and Engineering Ethics, now in its fourteenth year of publication. For the last few years, I have been involved with the Yale Bioethics Center both through the Neuroethics Study Group and the summer bioethics internship program, and recently have participated in various projects including one examining posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Chair, Connecticut State Independent Living Council
I received a Masters in Counseling from Fairfield University and a PhD in Rehabilitation Research from the University of Connecticut. After completing my degree, I worked for a time as the Coordinator of the Disability Resource Office at the University of Connecticut. In a flight from academia, I embarked on a career in rehabilitation psychology. Naively, I chose to enter into the workings of a mature more fully encompassing bureaucracy, serving as a Counseling Psychologist with the Veterans Administration. My final engagement with the world of public service bureaucracies was as Chief of Rehabilitation Services, CT Division of Vocational Rehabilitation. Since retirement, I have served on a number of State boards and councils. Currently, I serve as Chair of the Connecticut State Independent Living Council. Chastened by my professional experiences I now look to creating system change from outside traditional institutions. My identity is alas, ambiguous. When pressed I characterize myself as a citizen advocate. Pressed further, I will espouse a commitment to influencing the creation of systems, which are compatible with the disability rights movement and supportive of the philosophy of Independent Living. Thanks to Professor Nora Groce, I was introduced to the mission of the Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics. Being a person with a disability, I can’t help but to observe that people with disabilities are frequently embroiled in the ethical dilemmas of the moment. It seems to me that folks with disabilities often serve as a bellwether for the emergence of critical moral discourse. Those of us with disabilities grapple daily with problems of personal autonomy vs. personal safety, end-of-life issues, the implications of quality of life judgments and of genetic manipulation, and many other pressing ethical issues. Standing on the margins of society, people with disabilities, by virtue of their intense involvement with institutions, serve to heighten cultural awareness regarding ethical issues. It strikes me that involvement in the study of the ethical implications of these issues is a most worthy endeavor. How we as a society deal with our most vulnerable members will affect the quality of all our lives. My admittedly peripheral involvement with the Bioethics Center has been great fun. I view it as a privilege to be associated with the Yale Bioethics Center and look forward to continued participation. I am a member of the “Disability and Bioethics” study group.
Professor Emeritus, Yale Divinity School
When the number of older patients was dramatically increasing at Yale-New Haven Hospital, I became more interested in developing a ministry particularly designed to meet their needs. At the same time, I developed a course at Yale Divinity School on Ministering to the Elderly while continuing my interest and course offerings in death, dying, and bereavement. Both fields are involved with complex ethical issues. Now that I am retired, my interests in the field continue as I serve on the boards of the South Central Connecticut Agency on Aging and the Interfaith Cooperative Ministries of Greater New Haven; co-chair the Public Engagement and Education Task Force of the Connecticut Coalition to Improve End of Life Care; and am a volunteer with Interfaith Care Givers of Greater New Haven. Currently, I am working with friends and colleagues in the field of aging to implement a pilot project, Aging At Home, to test the feasibility of developing voluntary communal support and a network of cost-effective social and health services for seniors living in defined localities. The goal is to receive assistance while remaining independent at home, rather than moving to a facility for assisted living. Retirement is busy and I will appreciate joining with others invested in bioethics and aging.
JD, MedEthics Consulting/Education
Almost 20 years ago I was privileged to see how the practice of medicine, in the right hands, profoundly affects the lives of patients, their families, and their friends. Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment for cancer afflicting my dad taught our family, experientially about medical ethics (although we didn’t know it at the time), good end-of-life care (. . . open communication, setting goals of care, appropriate pain relief & medical interventions . . . and hospice). Five years later I was asked to join a local hospital bioethics advisory committee. That led to a multidisciplinary bioethics program at the College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University and Montefiore Medical Center, being part of the original AMA cohort trained as a trainer in EPEC (Education for Physicians in End-of-Life Care), and the opportunity to teach in several EPEC programs around the country. My teaching experience includes Bioethics at NY Medical College; Bioethics & Health Law at the UConn Schools of Medicine & Dentistry; various public health courses at SCSU including Health Law, Death, Dying & Bereavement, and Health in Society; Law & Ethics in Health Care for the University of New England/Israel College in Israel; and courses in Health Care Ethics, Global Health Care Policy, and Bioethics at Fairfield University. Pediatric palliative and end-of-life care affects an almost invisible population. This has taken on a new significance for me stemming from my involvement in pediatric palliative and end-of-life presentations with New England Pediatric conferences focused on these issues in 2004 and 2007 and in other forums. These children deserve to be seen, heard, and respected. I am currently in the process of forming a Connecticut Coalition focused on pediatric palliative and end-of-life care. End-of-life care need not be morbid. Good end-of-life care provides the opportunity for us all to write the final chapter in our lives so that we have the opportunity to die in a manner consistent with our values, belief systems, and the way that we live.
Director, Department of Services for Persons with Disabilities, New Haven, CT
I am currently serving as the Director of the Department of Services for Persons with Disabilities for the City of New Haven. My responsibilities include providing resources and referrals to services for persons with disabilities, initiating public policy changes to improve the lives of the 26% of New Haven’s population that has disabilities, and monitoring the city’s compliance with various disability related laws. I also conduct a variety of training sessions on disability issues and discrimination for city employees, private employers and community groups. In addition to serving the disability community in New Haven, I have been a leading advocate in Connecticut for people with disabilities. I currently serve as the chair of the Connecticut Bar Association’s Human Rights and Responsibilities Section, as a member of the State Independent Living Council, and on the board of the Connecticut Women Education & Legal Fund. I am a former co-chair of the Connecticut Office of Victim Services Advisory Council, a past president of the Americans with Disabilities Act Coalition of Connecticut and one of the founders of the Connecticut Women and Disability Network, a network of disabled and non-disabled women dedicated to recognizing the unique issues facing women with disabilities.
Attorney; Executive Director & Chief Advocate, Center for Disability Rights; Adjunct Lecturer, Public Policy; Stand-Up Comedian
As a person with a life-long experience with disability, I have a very personal and deep development in ethical issues arising from care giving, treatment, and end-of-life-situations. As an advocate I challenge systems including laws, procedures, and policy that prevent people with disabilities from participating in the life of their community. As an educator and a comedian, I try to raise awareness and change attitudes that are deeply rooted in a cultural experience that devalues the lives and contributions of individuals with disabilities.
Administrator, The John D. Thompson Institute/The Connecticut Hospice; Director of Continuing Education at the Connecticut Hospice
I have had a long history with bioethical issues, beginning 25 years ago when I was a student at the Yale School of Public Health. My mentor, John D. Thompson, was a member of the CT Hospice Board of Directors and an educator at the Yale School of Public Health. Mr. Thompson believed strongly in end-of-life care and advocated as such. As the Administrator of the John D. Thompson Institute/The Connecticut Hospice, I have dealt with ethical issues over the years concerning patients and families. I am also the Director of Continuing Medical Education at the CT Hospice and present many educational activities dealing with end-of-life issues. I am a member of the advisory committee for the “End-of-Life Issues” study group.
Settlement House Understanding
For the past seven years I have been involved in public health, education and community development, building on a long term interest the settlement house tradition. My current program is to capture and share the work of four outstanding Yale leaders of the past: Arnold Gesell (Child development), Clifford Beers (Community mental health), Gifford Pinchot (Conservation ethics), and Anson Phelps Stokes (Lowell House, Yale in China). Their work was innovative and deserves to be more broadly understood and appreciated. My objective is to bring intentional organization of their writings, work and accomplishments in archives with commentary to be made available for the rising generations of Yale and New Haven leaders.
Lauris C. Kaldjian
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
I am Director of the Program in Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities, and Associate Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine. My research interests and published work are in the areas of clinical ethics, ethics education, clinical decision-making, physician-patient communication, and the role of philosophical and religious beliefs in professional judgment and patient preferences. My current projects focus on surrogate decision making for patients with dementia towards the end of life, the relationship between patients’ goals of care and their end-of-life treatment preferences, physician disclosure of medical errors, ethics and professionalism education during clinical training, and the integration of personal beliefs and professional ethics in clinical practice. From 2002–06 my research was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as a Generalist Physician Faculty Scholar. I practice general internal medicine at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and in the College of Medicine, I direct the Healthcare Ethics, Law, and Policy course for second-year medical students, and the Clinical Research Ethics course for clinical research fellows. I received my MD from the University of Michigan, a PhD in ethics from Yale University, and I received my residency and fellowship training at Yale in internal medicine and infectious diseases.
Kathleen M. Kenney
Retired Mathematics Teacher
It is a privilege to hear scholars discuss topics such as genocide, land ethics, and end-of-life issues after which an always stimulating question-and-answer period takes place. I am particularly interested when consideration is given to what society owes the individual and where to assign responsibility in solving relevant problems. Coming to Bioethics Center events continues to be one of my favorite activities during retirement! I am a member of the “End-of-Life Issues” and “Technology and Ethics” study groups and the David Koepsell reading group.
ThM Student, Research Assistant, ISPS; Duke Divinity School
I became interested in Bioethics while an Emory University undergraduate, perhaps because Emory’s fraternity row sits directly in view of the Center for Disease Control’s research labs. Participating in two semester long seminars sponsored by Emory’s program in Science and Society on “Science and Religion” and “Race and the History of Medicine” furthered this interest. Seeking to bridge the ethical and practical, I was a political science and theology major. While earning my MDiv at Yale Divinity School, I was exposed to clinical ethics while doing a basic unit of Clinical Pastoral Education at Yale New Haven Hospital, where I worked as a chaplain on the oncology and Children’s Clinical Research units. During the school year, I took classes on theological ethics from Gene Outka, Margaret Farley, and Tom Ogletree. After graduating from the Divinity School, I completed a Clinical Pastoral Education Residency at Yale-New Haven. I worked on the Medical Intensive Care and Medical Step-Down units, and participated in interdisciplinary rounds and ethics consults. Working on the MICU gave me an interest in end-of-life care. After finishing my CPE Residency, I was a summer intern at the Bioethics Center. This fall, I will begin a ThM in Bioethics at Duke University as Westbrook Fellow in Duke’s Divinity Program in Theology and Medicine. I am a member of the End-of-Life Issues Working Group and its advisory committee.
Stephen H. Kovel
Owner of Hull's Art Supply & Framing Store at 1144 Chapel St., New Haven
My undergraduate education was in electrical engineering, but I also received a BA degree (for "broader" education) along with a BSEE from University of Pennsylvania in 1963. I was a member of the Charter Class at the School of Management here at Yale and received the original MPPM Degree (Master's in Public and Private Management) in 1978. The degree was subsequently converted to an MBA. I participate in Bioethics Center sponsored events and am a member of the "Technology and Ethics" working group.
Patricia Bull Smith Langdon
Resident of New Haven, CT
I am particularly interested in exploring various perceptions and realities of the aging process. I have always enjoyed the company of older people and have been fortunate enough to know many who have continued to grow as they continued to age. One is my mentor in Vermont, now in her 100s, who was a vital and contributing member of her community for most of those years. She taught generations of children in the local school, saving the local opera house for posterity, discussing Kant with visitors, directing plays well into her 90s, and always making me laugh with delight during our visits. To me, aging is like cooking: we have to eat and we have to age, so we may as well do it as beautifully as we can. I enjoy the interactions and the different points of view presented in the study group “Perspectives on Aging,” and feel fortunate to be a small part of the overall Bioethics Center at Yale. My interest in ethical issues and behavior was fostered at Yale while serving on Battell Chapel’s Church Council under the Reverend Bill Coffin in the 1970s, and through my work as Research Administrator in a department at the Yale School of Medicine. I am a member of the “Perspectives on Aging” study group.
Evie M. Lindemann
Professor of Art Therapy at Albertus Magnus College, formerly Project Director/Research Associate for Type 1 Diabetes Studies, School of Nursing
My earliest adult interest in the human condition was sparked by living for two years in Israel, Afghanistan, and India after I graduated from college. I developed a sensitivity to the cross-cultural lenses through which we view well-being, sense of self, and spirituality. Later, in my clinical practice, which included patients across the life span, I became fascinated by the relationship between a patient’s life story and how that story affected health, illness, and resilience. I also returned frequently to India, where I was strongly influenced by the teachings of Meher Baba, who advocated selfless service and the elimination of the false ego as the most effective ways to reach others and facilitate healing. As a relatively recent émigré from California, where my roots go back six generations, I have developed a great respect for how powerful the change process is, whether in health care or intimate relationships. I joined the “End-of-Life Issues” study group, and there I found a group of committed, sensitive, and highly competent professionals, all of whom want to deepen their understanding of patient needs at the most critical moments. After 9/11, a day which changed all of our lives, I was involved in work with survivors in New York work settings, attempting to help people find both internal and external resources for dealing with traumatic change, and for making recommendations in business settings for humanizing the workplace to include these new realities. I also continued to work with children and families with diabetes at the Yale School of Nursing, where I directed research projects for Dean Margaret Grey, and taught coping skills to families with diabetes. After coming to Yale, I returned to school to get a Masters in Art Therapy. This additional education has contributed to the development of new research protocols at YSN for families weathering chronic illness in their children’s lives.
Two years ago I became a full time faculy member in the Graduate Program of Art Therapy at Albertus Magnus College, the only program of its kind in Connecticut. I teach courses on professional ethics, family art therapy, and death and dying, and train graduate interns to work with complex PTSD in combat veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Currently, I participate in the Center for Bioethics “End-of-Life Issues” study group, and in the group “Perspectives on Aging”. I am also pleased to have been a contributor to Yale Guide to Medicine and the Health Professions, published in April 2003, which is now in its third printing.
Member of Yale Class ’45W and 1951 graduate of Harvard Law School
In 2000, on the occasion of my 55th reunion, I created the Jerome Medalie ’45W Endowment. This gift encourages faculty and students to explore practical solutions to major contemporary problems “through the use of political and economic means, while considering the ethical consequences of proposed solutions and of a failure to solve the problem(s) considered.” As illustrations, the following questions have been posed: “Can we devise means to assure ourselves that technological innovation will provide a positive, beneficial change for society? Should and can we impose codes of ethics on technological innovation, development or application? How can we best protect ourselves against the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons? What are the moral and practical implications of such matters as physician-assisted suicide, cloning, poverty in a “wealthy” society, the degradation of the environment?” The mission statement concludes with the conviction that, “Our objective must be to work toward the formulation of widely-accepted ethical values, which are firmly anchored in a commitment toward our survival as a species and which are within our capacity to achieve.” I am currently exploring means, including legislation, to enable the legal effectuation of “advance directives,” documents written by persons who may later be subject to an increasingly prevalent senile dementia. I have endowed the “End-of-Life Issues” study group.
Reader in New Media & Bioethics, at University of Paisley, Scotland and a Fellow of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, USA
My research is informed by an interest in applied philosophy, technology, and culture and I write broadly about emerging technological cultures, particularly the development of human enhancement technologies. This includes the implications of pervasive wireless connectivity and the convergence of technological systems and the modification of biological matter through nanotechnology and gene transfer. Many of these studies are increasingly transdisciplinary and being characterised as NBIC (nano-bio-info-cognitive) inquiries. My work draws from literature in a range of areas, including law, philosophy, art, cultural studies, sociology and a range of sciences. Within my files, I try to keep abreast of around 200 academic journals. To some extent, I have endeavoured to publish in each of these areas, though I do not consider myself a specialist in all of them. Nevertheless, I have given lectures for lawyers, scientists, artists, sociologists, and philosophers, among others. I have published over 70 academic articles in refereed journals, books, e-zines, and national media press on the subjects of cyberculture, medicine, technology, and the Olympics. Recent publications include the Journal of Medical Ethics, CTHEORY, Culture Machine and Research in Philosophy, Technology. I have also written for leading newspapers, including The Observer, Le Monde, the Times Higher Education Supplement. I am frequently invited to speak about the implications of new technologies for humanity (the individual) and society (the collective). I am a member of various academic associations and working groups, including the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Yale University Bioethics study group, the Society of Applied Philosophy, the British Society for Ethical Theory, the International Association of Bioethics, Media, Communications and Cultural Studies Association and, the Society for Social Studies of Science.
Lisa H. Newton
Director, Program in Applied Ethics, Fairfield University; Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine
I arrived at Fairfield University as a legal philosopher in 1969 (two years after getting my PhD from Columbia University and one year after getting fired from Hofstra for peace marching). A few years later, I found myself doing bioethics (in response to Roe v. Wade and the Matter of Quinlan) and joined on at Yale in Howard Spiro’s monthly “Law, Medicine, and Ethics” gatherings and seminars with Angela Holder, Bob Levine, and Margaret Farley. I became an associate at Yale’s School of Medicine. That was a very long time ago (The Hastings Center was a few rooms over a dentist’s office in Hastings-on-Hudson). I taught bioethics as a college seminar at Yale twice, and sometimes I taught medical ethics in the School of Medicine as a guest or when Margaret Farley was on sabbatical. I was also a co-teacher with Bob Levine. By this time, I was directing my own Program in Applied Ethics at Fairfield University and had put together a course entitled “Ethics of Health Care,” which I presently teach in a five-day intensive format (3 credits — open to students from anywhere; come join us). We also teach a seminar in bioethics, including medical ethics, research ethics, and justice issues. Courses include consideration of human subjects research, global health care issues, and the ethical dimensions of health care policy. When a grant possibility came along, I applied for and got some money to set up a Program in Environmental Studies, with a strong minor and lots of internships. I’d thought to hand it off to the Biology Department, but as it turns out, it’s still mine. Unifying my interests in ethics of health care, environmental ethics, and business ethics are the ethical dilemmas of the new biotechnology industry. Examples of my work in this area include: Ethics in America, Study Guide and Source Reader, Watersheds: Ten Cases in Environmental Ethics, Development and the Moral Life, and Wake Up Calls: Classic Cases in Business Ethics. I have also written numerous articles/chapters on biotechnology, environmental policy, and health care.
I am an undergraduate interested in programming, anime, UNIX, and open-source culture. My current projects include a Web-2.0 replacement, a cyberpunk novella, and a new programming language. I am also a part of the “Technology and Ethics” working group.
Historian, Yale University
I am a historian, and I have worked since 1990 on the modern comprehensive edition of Benjamin Franklin’s writings and correspondence. As a student of Franklin, whose interests in finding practical applications based on scientific discoveries led to advances in medicine and improvements in the quality of life for the generations to come, I believe in the power of science to enhance life. I am equally concerned with the ethical questions posed by the rise of new technologies and advances in scientific understanding. I am a member of the “Technology and Ethics” study group.
Ani B. Satz
Associate Professor, Emory University School of Law and Rollins School of Public Health
My teaching and research interests are in health, disability, tort, and animal law as well as law and philosophy. My scholarship focuses on government obligations to vulnerable populations. Recent articles address uninsured and underinsured patients (access to health care), the disabled, and nonhuman domestic animals. Before coming to Emory, I clerked for the Honorable Jane R. Roth of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit and lectured at Yale University in the Philosophy Department and the Ethics, Politics & Economics Program as well as Monash University Medical School in Melbourne, Australia. Selected publications include: The Limits of Health Care Reform (forthcoming 59 ALA. L. REV. 2008), Solving the Health Care Crisis: The Paradoxical Case for Universal Access to High Technology, 8 YALE J. HEALTH POL’Y, L. & ETHICS (forthcoming winter 2008); A Jurisprudence of Dysfunction: On the Role of “Normal Species Functioning” in Disability Analysis, 6 YALE J. HEALTH POL’Y, L. & ETHICS 221 (2006); Would Rosa Parks Wear Fur? Toward a Nondiscrimination Approach to Animal Welfare, 1 J. ANIMAL L. & ETHICS 101 (2006); The Case Against Assisted Suicide Reexamined, 100 MICH. L. REV. 1380 (2002) (reviewing KATHLEEN FOLEY & HERBERT HENDIN EDS., THE CASE AGAINST ASSISTED SUICIDE: FOR THE RIGHT TO END-OF-LIFE CARE (2002)); and Disability and Biotechnology, in ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND POLICY ISSUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (with Anita Silvers) (Thomas J. Murray & Maxwell J. Mehlman eds., 2000).
John J. Shaw
Medical Response Coordinator, Capitol Region Metropolitan Medical Response System, Hartford, CT
I am currently the Medical Response Coordinator for the Capitol Region Metropolitan Medical Response System, a program of the Capitol Region Council of Governments of Hartford, CT. A 2002 MMRS community, CR-MMRS has been the driving force for incorporating health and medical planning and operational response capabilities into the regional all-hazards model. I serve as the Chair of Emergency Support Function 8 [Public Health and Medical] of the Capitol Region Emergency Planning Committee, overseeing the coordination and deployment of regional healthcare resources in the event of mass casualty incidents. I am a member of the CT Department of Public Health Bioterrorism Advisory Committee, and the Hartford Hospital Bioterrorism Center of Excellence Advisory Panel. I am also a member of the Advisory Board, CT Healthcare Emergency Response Education and Training Delivery System (CHERET). I am a co-founder and a member of the board of the CT Oral Health Initiative, a statewide non-profit agency advocating for improved access to dental care for CT’s neediest children and families. I am a past member of the Board of Directors of United Way of Connecticut, and of the board of CT Voices for Children. I am a graduate of Fairfield University, and of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.
Industrial Hygienist, Jonathan Borak & Company, New Haven, CT, Adjunct Professor of Occupational Safety and Health Management, University of New Haven
During my undergraduate years as an environmental student at Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA), my interest was piqued by issues surrounding ecology and workplace safety. As a student at MMA, a unique and interesting requirement for graduation mandated that I take part in annual six-week training cruises to numerous foreign destinations aboard a 600-foot cargo vessel. Reliance upon your shipmates is critical for your health and safety as a countless array of physical and chemical dangers are ever present in the living and working environment. Tackling issues of workplace health and safety aboard ship prompted me to continue my education, subsequently earning a master’s degree in industrial hygiene from the University of New Haven. Currently, I am employed as an industrial hygienist at Jonathan Borak & Company in New Haven, CT. My responsibilities include exposure assessments and risk determination for a variety of chemical contaminants within diverse occupational settings. In many instances, the industrial settings that I evaluate are within close proximity to the community, raising both liability issues and health concerns. Additionally, I am an adjunct professor at the University of New Haven where I teach both graduate and undergraduate courses in Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Safety and Health. My interest and involvement in bioethics stems from a desire to understand and actively participate in current events that challenge our society. I hope I will be able to use what I learn from these experiences to be accurate, as well as ethical, in determining risk. I am a member of the “Risk Assessment Forum.”
Debra M. Strauss
Assistant Professor of Business Law, Fairfield University Charles F. Dolan School of Business
I have come to the field of bioethics from several varied perspectives in my professional life. A graduate of Cornell University with a BA in psychology and a JD from Yale Law School, I gained early exposure to the field of biotechnology while on the editorial board of the Yale Law & Policy Review, where we published a cutting-edge issue on biotechnology that even included an article by then-Senator Al Gore (Spring 1985). I also developed my expertise in food and drug law as a Food and Drug Law Institute Scholar and published in the field. My subsequent experiences as a law clerk for Charles L. Brieant, then-Chief Judge of the US District Court for the Southern District of New York, and law practice in commercial litigation, exposed me to numerous aspects of business and the law, including intellectual property and international trade. As a professor at Fairfield University, I currently teach international law, law and ethics, and a broad survey course on the legal environment of business. My particular interest in food and drug law was revived when I was teaching international law and a couple of students raised questions about genetically modified food. Armed with an international spin, I began my research on bioengineering, and have been presenting papers and publishing in this area ever since. I have devoted my most recent stream of research to the legal, trade policy, and ethical issues involving Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in food, which I view as the unique intersection of biotechnology, food and drug law, international law, intellectual property, and ethics. I am a member of the “Genetically Modified Plants” study group.
Executive Director, The International Society for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture; Lecturer, University of California, Santa Cruz
I received my MFS and PhD degrees from Yale. My interest in bioethics stems from my research on intensely positive and negative human experience. I have a particular focus on profound events that occur in nature. I primarily seek to understand how peoples’ spiritual connection or disconnection from the natural world influences their inner lives. Past work looked at human encounters of the divine, or mystical experience, in nature. Current work examines traumatic events in the natural world and explores how the occurrences influence the following questions: Where do people think they fit in nature? What is the character of authority in nature? What is real in nature? How do we know nature? How should we value and behave in nature? The answers lead me to consider how the natural world influences our understanding of theodicy, benevolence, and meaning.
Community Lawyer, New Haven
I am a Yale PhD in American Studies and a community lawyer. I am frequently appointed by the probate court to serve as a conservator for the elderly or mentally ill. At times, this work involves deciding end-of-life issues when the ward is not competent to make decisions for his or herself.
Manager of Pain and Comprehensive Cancer Control for the American Cancer Society, New England Division, Co-ordinator for the Connecticut Cancer Partnership
I am an RN, MSN, and coordinator for the Connecticut Cancer Partnership as well as coordinator of the CT Pain Initiative for the American Cancer Society, New England Division. I am a board member of both the Connecticut Coalition to Improve End-of-Life Care and the Connecticut Council for Hospice and Palliative Care, and I am actively involved in many projects to improve pain management and end of life care in Connecticut. Currently, I co-chair the Hospice and Palliative Care Committee of the Connecticut Cancer Partnership; I serve on the steering committee for the newly created Hospice Veterans Partnership; I participate in the Connecticut Prison Hospice Initiative; and I serve on a legislative work group looking at ways to improve pain management in nursing homes. I received my masters in nursing from the Yale University School of Nursing and subsequently spent 25 years as an oncology clinical nurse specialist in several Connecticut hospitals including the VA Newington, Hartford Hospital and MidState Medical Center.