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Agrarian Societies

Culture, Power, History, and Development


Anthropology 541a
History 765a
Political Science 779a
F&ES 730a
Instructors: Michael R. Dove
Linda-Anne Rebhun
James C. Scott
Steven Stoll
Mondays, 1:30-5:20
8 Prospect Place, Room 119
Fall Semester 2004

drawing: milk cows


CONTENTS

Overview

This seminar presents a multi-disciplinary perspective on the modern transformation of the countryside of the world. The rise of a capitalist mode of production as the engine of a world economy, the emergence of a contentious international polity of nation-states, and the propagation of rationalizing religions and standardizing education are three distinct yet intersecting processes in the modern transformation of the world since the 1500s. These processes have not been inevitable, nor irreversible, nor complete. However, they have been compelling, in so far as they have come to frame both our acceptance of and resistance to the modern order in which we find ourselves.

“Peasant studies” is a rubric for the loosely-bounded, interdisciplinary exploration of the initial modernization of the European countryside and the subsequent engagement and ongoing incorporation of the countryside of Asia, Africa, and the Americas into this modern order. At its most precocious, it tries to comprehend the intrusive thrusts of nation-state formation, capitalist production, and the rationalization of belief into the most distant agrarian regions of the world. At its most instructive, it insists that people everywhere have confronted those forces with their particular histories and distinctive, local configurations of environment, society, and culture. Everywhere, the encounters of old and new ways of viewing the world and organizing activities have been fitful and frightful, always metamorphic, but never uniform. Animating peasant studies has been the concern to demonstrate the varied ways in which peasants have shared in the making of the modern world that has in turn transformed their lives.

We intend this to be an introductory seminar. That is, we assume you may be ignorant of much of the basic literature. We also assume that you work hard and learn fast. Although the varying backgrounds of students and faculty require us to be somewhat eclectic, we hope that the seminar will prove foundational in an interdisciplinary sense for subsequent work on agrarian issues in any discipline. We encourage you, in your writing and discussion, to make vigorous efforts to be understood across disciplinary boundaries.

drawing: plow in fieldSeminar meetings combine lectures and discussions. We expect regular attendance; please notify us in advance if you are unable to come to a session. We regard participation in discussions to be a gauge of students’ completion and comprehension of the assigned readings. We will evaluate your performance in the seminar on the basis of this participation and on the quality and timeliness of the writing assignments.

Beginning in the third week, designated students will be asked to take formal responsibility for organizing the discussion of the readings. Such responsibility will be shared as equitably as possible. As far as writing assignments are concerned, there are two. First, students are required to submit short (3 page) essays on THREE weekly themes/readings of their choice. They may want to link these essays to themes for which they have some responsibility in organizing the discussion. A second paper is due at the end of the course. This may be either a research paper on a topic related to the course concerns or a theoretical discussion or synthesis of some of the analytical readings we have covered. In either case, it should be negotiated with one of the instructors.

All assigned readings for the seminar are on reserve at the Social Science or Cross Campus Libraries. Copies of all assigned books are available for purchase at Book Haven. In addition, we have placed a collection of all assigned articles on file at the office of the Program on Agrarian Studies Office (204 Prospect Street, Room 204). Students may choose to have a copy of this file made for their purchase and use.

drawing:Asian agriculture

Weekly Sessions: Topics and Readings

September 06 Week 1 James Scott

Introduction

No Reading

September 13 Week 2 Steven Stoll

Landscapes and Commodities in Colonial America

block print: Breaking Ground
Breaking Ground
Readings:

Mart Stewart. 1996. 'What Nature Suffers to Groe': Life, Labor, and Landscape on the Georgia Coast. University of Georgia Press. (Book Haven)

John F. Richards. "Landscapes of Sugar in the Antilles." The Unending Frontier: an Environmental History of the Early Modern World.  University of California Press. (Reading Packet)

Ordinance of 1785 (Reading Packet)
Karl Marx, “The Commodity" in Capital, vol.1. (Reading Packet)

:

September 20 Week 3 Linda-Anne Rebhun

Gender

Readings:

Gray, Marion W. 2000. Chapter 8, “‘Scientific Agriculture’ and the Sexual Division of Labor (1810-1830).” In Productive Men, Reproductive Women The Agrarian Household and the Emergence of Separate Spheres During the German Enlightenment, 258-96. New York: Berghahn Books.

drawing: woman in hatBabb, Florence E. 1985. “Producers and Reproducers: Andean Marketwomen in the Economy.” In Women and Change in Latin America, edited by June Nash and Helen Safa, 53-64. South Hadley, MA:Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc.

Cole, Sally. 1988. “The Sexual Division of Labor and Social Change in a Portuguese Fishery,” in To Work and To Weep: Women in Fishing Economies, edited by Jane Nadel-Klein and Dona Lee Davis, 169-89. St John's, Newfoundland: Institute of Social and Economic Research.

Friedl, Ernestine. 1986. “The Position of Women: Appearance and Reality.” In Gender and Power in Rural Greece, edited by Jill Dubisch, 42-52. Princeton: Princeton University Press.photo: Asian man

Salamone, S.D., and J.B. Stanton. 1986. “Introducing the Nikokyra: Ideality and Reality in Social Process.” In Gender and Power in Rural Greece, edited by Jill Dubisch, 97-120. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Weismantal, Mary J. 1998 [1988]. Chapter 6, “Practice: Kitchen Life.” In Food Gender and Poverty in the Ecuadorian Andes, 168-95. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Mitchell, Winifred. 1994. “Women’s Hierarchies of Age and Suffering in an Andean Community.” In Women Among Women: Anthropological Perspectives on Female Age Hierarchies, edited by Jeanette Dickerson-Putman and Judith K. Brown, 53-64. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Robben, Antonius CGM. 1988. “Conflicting Gender Conceptions in a Pluriform Fishing Economy: Hermaneutic Perspective on Conjugal Relations in Brazil.” In To Work and To Weep: Women in Fishing Economies, edited by Jane Nadel-Klein and Dona Lee Davis, 106-29. St John's, Newfoundland: Institute of Social and Economic Research.

drawing: towing a ropeFisher, Eleanor. 2000. “Forest Livelihoods: Beekeeping as Men's Work in Western Tanzania.” In Gender, Family, and Work in Tanzania, edited by Colin Creighton and C.K. Omari, 138-76. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company.

(All readings in Reading Packet)

photo: stature of woman

September 27 Week 4 Michael Dove

Reading Agrarian Ethnography: The Politics of Describing the Disreputable

Readings:

drawing:[ muddy reproduction]Harold C. Conklin. [1957] 1975. Hanuno_o Agriculture: A Report on an Integral System of Shifting Cultivation in the Philippines. Orig. published by the Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Reprint, Northford, CT: Elliots Books. (Book Haven)

J.S. Otto and N.E. Anderson. 1982. “Slash-and-Burn Cultivation in the Highlands South: A Problem in Comparative Agricultural History,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 24:131-47. (Reading Packet)


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October 4 Week 5 James Scott

Rebellion, Resistance, Revolution

Readings:

Michael Adas, Prophets of Rebellion: Millenarian Protest against theEuropean Colonial Order. 1979. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Sections on Maji Maji and Saya San Rebellions, pp. 27- 42, 93-164.  (Reading Packet)

block print: corn harvest

October 11 Week 6 Steven Stoll

Expansion and Community in the American West

Readings:

John Mack Faragher. 1986. Sugar Creek: Life on the Illinois Prairie.  Yale University Press. (Book Haven)

Terry Jordan and Matt Kaups. 1992. The American Backwoods Frontier. The Johns Hopkins University Press. (Reading Packet)

pen & ink: cabin, cleared trees

Ecology Reources, Climate, and Landscape

October 18 Week 7 Linda-Anne Rebhun

Family, Marriage, and Alliance in Agrarian Societies

Reading:

painting: Gothic American

Readings:

Collier, Jane Fishburne. 1997.From Duty to Desire: Remaking Families in a Spanish Village. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Book Haven)

block print: kissing couple

block print: cane harvest

October 25 Week 8 Michael Dove

Development Discourse

Readings:

James Ferguson. 1994. The Anti-Politics Machine: Development, Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Book Haven)

drawing: fourches

Fourches

November 1 Week 9 James Scott and Steven Stoll

Seeds and Plants

drawing: cotton plant

Cotton
drawing: the potato
drawing: sugar plant

Sugar

Readings:

Jan Douwe van der Ploeg. 1993. “Potatoes and Knowledge,”in An Anthropological Critique of Development, edited by Mark Hobart, pp.209-27. London: Routledge. (Reading Packet)

James Hightower. 1978. Hard Tomatoes, Hard Times. The original Hightower report, unexpurgated, of the Agribusiness Accountability Project on the Failure of the American Land Grant College Complexes Commission for Agribusiness Responsibility, pp. 1-42. Cambridge: Schenkman. (Reading Packet)

Arturo Warman. 2003. Corn and Capitalism: How a Botanical Bastard Grew to Global Dominance. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. (Book Haven)

November 08 Week 10 Steven Stoll and Jim Scott

Industrial Agriculture

Readings:

Deborah Fitzgerald. 2003. Every Farm a Factory: The Industrial Ideal in American Agriculture. New Haven: Yale University Press. (Book Haven)

Walter Goldschmidt. 1947. As You Sow: Three Studies in the Social Consequences of Agribusiness. Montclair, NJ: Allanheld, Osmun and Co. Publishers, Inc.  (Reading Packet)

Miriam Wells. 1996. Strawberry Fields: Politics, Class, and Work in California Agriculture. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (Book Haven)

pen & ink: cultivating field

November 15 Week 11 Michael Dove

Depicting the rural Poor in the American South

Readings:

James Agee and Walker Evans.1988/1939. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men: Three Tenant Families. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. “Foreword,” pp. xli-xliv; “Preamble,” pp. 7-16; “Money,” pp.115-21; “Shelter,” pp. 123-220; and “On the Porch,” pp.221-53. (Book Haven)

Dale Maharidge and Michael Williamson. 1989. And Their Children After ThemThe Legacy of Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, James Agee, Walker Evans, and the Rise and Fall of Cotton in the South. New York: Pantheon Books. “Maggie Louise,” pp. i-v, Preface xv-xxiv; “King Cotton,” 3-16; and “1936-1940,” pp. 17-72. (Reading Packet)

painting:woman seated on ground

November 29 Week 12 Linda-Anne Rebhun

Food, Diet, Taste

painting: woman carrying cans

Reading:

Du Puis, E. Melanie. 2002. Nature's Perfect Food: How Milk Became America's Drink. New York: New York University Press. (Book Haven)

John L. Hess and Karen Hess. 2000. The Taste of America. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.(Reading Packet)

ANNOUNCING A CONTEST

Prize: 1 free meal after an Agrarian Studies Colloquium

  • Be the first to name the author of any one of the first three poems.
  • Name the rebellion from which the text of the anonymous letter (4) comes.
  • A correct answer for any one of the four selections wins a prize.

1.

When Tom and Elizabeth took the farm
The bracken made their bed,
And Quardle oodle ardle wardle doodle
The magpies said.

Tom's hand was strong to the plough
Elizabeth's lips were red,
And Quardle oodle ardle wardle doodle
The magpies said.

Year in year out they worked
While the pines grew overhead,
And Quardle oodle ardle wardle doodle
The magpies said.

But all the beautiful crops soon went
To the mortgage-man instead,
And Quardle oodle ardle wardle doodle
The magpies said.

Elizabeth is dead now (it's years ago)
Old Tom went light in the head;
And Quardle oodle ardle wardle doodle
The magpies said.

The farm's still there. Mortgage corporations
Couldn't give it away.
And Quardle oodle ardle wardle doodle
The magpies say.

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“Peasants Carousing,” detail, by Isack van Ostade (1621–1649), from The Dutch and Flemish Drawings at Windsor Castle by Christopher White and Charlotte Crawley (548pp. Cambridge University Press).

2.

Flee the seat in the shade and staying in bed until dawn
during the season of reaping when the sun is withering the flesh.
This is the time to be hastening and bringing your harvest home,
rising at daybreak, that you may have sufficient to live on.
For Dawn rightfully claims as her own a third of the day's work;
Dawn gives a man a start on the road and a start on his work,
Dawn that brightly arising stirs up many a man to
go on his way and sets the yoke upon many an ox team.
But when you see the scolymus flowering and hear the cicada
sing in the tree, sending its beautiful, vibrating song
pulsing from under its wings in the season of scorching-hot summer,
then you will find that she-goats are fattest, wine most delicious,
women most desirous of love but men most enfeebled,
for now the dogstar Sirios parches their heads and their knees,
and in the heat their skin becomes dry. Then would I have
a shady retreat in the cool of the rocks, and Bibline wine with
mild-leavened bread and milk of goats that are starting to go dry,
and meat of cow that has fed in the woods, one never in calf, and
that of the newborn kid. And then would I drink of the red wine,
as I relax in the shade, my appetite sated completely,
turning my face to enjoy the cooling breezes of Zephyros,
and would pour from a clear and ever free-flowing stream
three parts of water to mix for my drink with one part of wine.
But as soon as the strength of Orion arises, you should
urge your slaves to thresh the holy grain of Demeter
on a spot well swept by the wind, well leveled for threshing.
Then you should measure it off well into your jars. But when you've
got your supply all safely stored on your homestead within doors,
find as hired laborers to help you a man without home and a woman,
one without child, I advise you, for one with a child is a burden.

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3.

SAINT FRANCIS AND THE SOW

The bud
stands for all things,
even for those things that don't flower,
for everything flowers, from within, of self-blessing;
though sometimes it is necessary
to reteach a thing its loveliness,
to put a hand on its brow
of the flower
and retell it in words and in touch
it is lovely
until it flowers again from within, of self-blessing;
as Saint Francis
put his hand on the creased forehead
of the sow, and told her in words and in touch
blessings of earth on the sow, and the sow
began remembering all down her thick length,
from the earthen snout all the way
through the fodder and slops to the spiritual curl of the tail,
from the hard spininess spiked out from the spine
down through the great broken heart
to the blue milken dreaminess spurting and shuddering
from the fourteen teats into the fourteen mouths sucking and blowing
beneath them:
the long, perfect loveliness of sow.

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4.

A PROCLAMATION OF BLOOD AND FIRE!

To all Churches, States and People, on the Sea Sand

O Remember

Samson sent 300 foxes with firebrands into the Philistine's corn fields,
because they robbed him of his natural rights, and God declares Samson
more justifiable than them - so now the Gentiles and Heathen starve the
poor, why marvel ye if every man turns after Samson, `for these are the
days of vengeance, when all shall be fulfilled' under

MAHERSHALALHASHBAZ, Sec., and
JESUS CHRIST
CHOLERA, BLOOD, FIRE, and Co.
Extra Executors,
Earthquakes, Panics and Col, Witnesses.

The Peasants’ Rising

Wat Tyler killed King Richard’s tax collector with a roofer’s hammer. The man tried to prove Wat’s daughter old enough to pay the tax. The girl sat shucking peas beside the fire. The tax collector dragged her by the elbows and tore her clothes off. “Woman flesh I call this,” he roard. Wat Tyler’s hammer went to work. From collarbone to forehead Wat was a fire. The girl’s pale skin dripped brains and bits of skull. A growling rabble gathered at the window — everywhere springtime and the noise of birds, a splatter of crocuses, hollyocks by the gate, wagtails darting into the lilac bush, a gust of melancholy in the heart.


A medieval peasant garden.

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Program in Agrarian Studies
Yale University
Box 208209
New Haven, CT 06520-8209
U.S.A.
campus address: 204 Prospect Street, Room 204
tel 203/432-9833   fax 203/432-5036
email  agrarian.studies@yale.edu
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Yale Program in Agrarian Studies / Last updated Sun, Aug 23, 2009