Agrarian Studies 2000 Conference
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For authors: guidelines and tips for submitting papers

Guidelines and tips for submitting papers for posting to the Conference web site

In order to make every author’s paper available to all participants as soon as possible and to minimize incompatibilities among computers, word processors, operating systems, and browsers, please follow these guidelines when preparing your electronic files.

to top How and where to submit papers

  1. Send the electronic (computer) files only — the Agrarian Studies Program office will print hard copy.
  2. Save your paper in two versions, normally and as TEXT, as described below. (If you would like to convert your paper to a PDF file to preserve formatting and layout, see the section “What about PDF.”)
  3. Email the two versions as attachments and send them to the Agrarian Studies Program office,
    In the body of your email, please state
    1. the computer operating system you use (Mac, Windows, DOS, etc.)
    2. your word processor and its version number (Word Perfect 6.x, Word 5.1, etc.)
  4. Alternatively, you may send the files on high-density floppy disk (that is, 1.4 MB), DOS format. Send them to Kay Mansfield at the Program office. They must arrive by the April 15th deadline. Attach a note stating (a) the computer operating system you use (Mac, Windows, DOS, etc.) and (b) your word processor and version number (Word Perfect 6.x, Word 5.1, etc.)

to top How to save your paper as electronic files

  1. Save and submit two versions of your computer file:
    1. Save normally in your word processor (the “application”), for downloading.
    2. Save a second version as a TEXT or ASCII file (usually selected from the “Save As” menu of your word processor). This will destroy all formatting — italics, alignment, specified fonts, etc. — but is the common denominator for viewing on the web and for opening in all computers.
  • If your word processor is MS Word (Mac or PC), do not use the “fast save” feature. If the file has ever been saved using “fast save,” you should recreate it as a new file. Try this method: launch MS Word; disable the preference “Allow Fast Saves”; create a new, blank document and save it on your hard drive; open the “fast-saved” document; select everything in the document and paste it into the new, blank document; save the new version again and close the old one; then do your editing in the new version only.
  • If you use WordPerfect on a PC (not a Mac), documents saved as dos/win 6.x (with the suffix .wpd) seem to produce better character mapping than documents saved as dos/win 5.1 (with the suffix .doc).

    to top Tips for typing and formatting your paper

    1. Remember that your paper may have to be posted in the simplified computer format known as “TEXT“ or “ASCII” so all computers can read it. You can help the content of your paper arrive intact on the other side of the cyberspace void and file transmogrification if you keep your layout as plain and simple as possible.
    2. Avoid word-processor styles and formatting of text.
    3. Remove extra tabs and extra spaces.
    4. Use all caps to designate headings and titles. Do not rely on bold, italics, alignment, or font size.
    5. Use RETURN — that is a new line — to set off headings, new sections, and the like.
    6. If bold, italics, or underline are essential to understanding your paper, consider flagging the formatted words or phrases with a unique symbol or pair of symbols, and adding a note at the beginning of the TEXT version of your paper explaining their use. For example, you might display italics with brackets [like this], and bold with braces {like this}.
    7. Endnotes in the TEXT version will appear at the end of the document, as they should. The reference numbers in the text will also be in the right places, but they will not be superscripted. You might want to edit the text file to add a unique identifying symbol — such as an asterisk: * — before each reference number, just to make them easier to identify.

    to top What about PDF?

    If you want to ensure that the layout, pagination, formatting, and graphics of your paper are preserved exactly as you have them, both for web viewing and when downloaded or printed, create a PDF file. PDF stands for Portable Document Format and requires Adobe Acrobat software, available for both Mac and Windows. There are also freeware or shareware applications that have more limited PDF creation cababilities. The Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing PDF files is free for all users from Adobe.

    If you have the software and are able to convert your document to PDF, or can have someone in your computer or IT department do it for you, you might consider this option. Email the PDF version as a file attachment, along with the other versions, and we will post them all, or just the PDF, as you prefer.

    to top About Graphics

    We can post graphics (scanned documents or electronically created graphics) with your paper. Please indicate clearly where in your paper each belongs, and send the individual graphic files as email attachments.

    When saving your graphics for the web, please follow these tips:


    Save all graphic files at a resolution of 72 dpi — no higher. If they are already scanned at a higher resolution, then open them in a graphic application (Photoshop, e.g.) and save them again at the correct resolution. Any resolution higher than 72 dpi cannot be displayed on screen, and the large files clog the email systems.

    Compression format

    The usual formats for saving graphics compactly for the web are GIF and JPEG. A quick quide for deciding which to use:

    1. If a graphic has simple, flat color, or is black and white, without gradual shades of gray (line drawings, simple charts, cartoons, some maps), save it as a GIF file.
    2. If it is a photo (black and white or color), a lifelike graphic, most art work, a map with many tints of colors or shades of grays, then JPEG is best.

    (Remember, a PDF file would incorporate any graphics that are already within the document so those would not have to be sent separately.)

    to top Questions, special considerations

    For technical questions or other special considerations — tables, or problems with graphics, for example — contact the webmaster, H.G. Salome at, for guidance.

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    Program in Agrarian Studies
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