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AP French Literature Course Materials 
College Board Bibliography & Online Resources
American Association of Teachers of French / Connecticut Chapter

for the NEW AP French Language & Culture Course, see AP Central

The AATF-CT site below was intended to be a resource for the
AP French literature course and exam.

Although the College Board no longer offers the exam, AATF-CT keeping these archived materials online for interested teachers.
Click for info concerning the cancellation of this course.

Click at the right for texts used from 2002-2009.
Links to audiofiles and websites are also provided.
Only those pages designated as "best" are truly exceptional.
Online encyclopedia entries and substandard sites are not offered.

Please note that websites may have new addresses.

For further research, please consult
the online library Questia for quick searches.  Searches are free, but access to some 1.5 million, articles, newspapers, and other media is by subscription.

Click for a list of French literature topics, or
consult the links below for specific author searches.

Google, Kartoo, and Voilà  are recommended search engines.

Click on an author for College Board bibliography & AATF-CT resources

Plays Molière
L'Ecole des femmes
Le Cid
La Guerre de Troie n'aura pas lieu

Une Tempête

Pierre et Jean
Moderato cantabile
L'Enfant noir

Selected Poetry
Du Bellay
La Fontaine

If you know of superior websites or more recent critical texts,  please contact the Webmaster to update this site!  Thank you for your help!

Appollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918)

Texts:  Le Pont Mirabeau, Les Colchiques, Mai, Automne
Alcools (Paris:  Gallimard, Collection Poésie no. 10, 1966); Morhange-Bégué, Claude, and Pierre Lartique.  Profil d'une oeuvre:  "Alcools" de Guillaume Apollinaire (Paris:  Hatier, 2004).
Online Works:  Apollinaire:  Poems for AP French Literture Exam  - AATF-CT site with links to audio files
Click for Questia recommendations of the best online books and articles on Apollinaire
College Board Bib. Adéma, Marcel. Guillaume Apollinaire (Paris: La Table Ronde, 1968).

Bates, Scott. Guillaume Apollinaire, Rev. ed. (Boston: Twayne. 1989).

Billy, André. Poètes d’aujourd'hui: Apollinaire (Paris: Seghers, 1956).
Hilgar, Marie-France, & Anne Srabian de Fabry. Etudes autour d’Alcools ( Birmingham, AL: Summa, 1985).

Lecherbonnier, Bernard. Apollinaire: Alcools (Paris: Nathan, 1983).

Parninaud, André. Apollinaire (Paris: Lattés, 1994).

Shattuck, Roger. The Banquet Years (New York: Harcourt, 1955).
Best Website
Guillaume Apollinaire:  Site officiel is an incredible resource supported by the Association des Amis de Guilaumme Apollinaire, written by Profs. Catherine Moore and Laurence Campa and webmaster Mark Moore.  Contains a heavily-illustrated biography , an excellent critical bibliography and a masterful " promenade interactive " of Apollinaire's Paris.  By far, the best Apollinaire site.

Baudelaire by Courbet
Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)

Texts: Correspondances, Hymne à la Beauté, L'Invitation au voyage, Chant d'automne, Spleen (Quand le ciel...), Recueillement
Recommended Editions:  Flammarion, Pocket, Gallimard, Jai lu, Hatier, Bordas, Le Livre de Poche, Larousse.
Online Works: Baudelaire:  Poems for AP French Literature Exam  - AATF-CT site with links to audio files
Click for
Questia recommendations of the best online books and articles on Baudelaire
College Board Bib. Blin, G. Baudelaire ( Paris: Gallimard, 1939).

Brombert, Victor. The Hidden Reader (Cambridge: Harvard, 1988).

Chesters, Graham. Baudelaire and the Poetics of Craft ( n.p.: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Fairlie, Alison. Baudelaire: les Fleurs du Mal. Studies in French Literature, no. 6 ( London: Edward Arnold, 1960).

Peyre, Henri. Connaissance de Baudelaire (Paris: Corti, 1951).

Prévost, Jean. Baudelaire. Essai sur l’inspiration et la créationpoétique ( Paris: Mercure de France, 1953).

Ruff, M.A.  Baudelaire  (Paris:  Hatier, collection Connaissance des lettres).

Starkie, Enid. Baudelaire ( New York: New Directions, 1958).
Best Websites 
Two superb sites, each with a different focus.  Charles Baudelaire   - lavishly illustrated, comprehensive site by Jacques Lemaire for, with a search engine + links to Baudelaire's oeuvre.  Emphasis on poetry and situating Baudelaire with respect to literary influences (Baroque, Parnasse, Romanticism, Symbolism). Students should also appreciate the thematic index and "Jeu Questionnaire".
Please note:  the following, excellent site now needs a password.  Check back for instructions (3.19.08):  Recently updated,
Charles Baudelaire treats Baudelaire's poetry and prose as well as his critical essays--all downloadable.  Includes illustrated interactive chronology,  current bibliography, complete correspondance, discussion forums, thematic treatment of several poems for the Bac, critical articles--plus an invitation to contribute scholarly articles. By Azziz El Khiati with assistance from David Smadja and Julia Briend of

Aimé Césaire
Aimé Césaire (1913 - 2008)  Read his 4.17.08 obituary from the New York Times; Le Monde has many pertinent articles (do an archive search), but you must pay to read them...

Une tempête
Recommended Edition:  Une tempête.  Paris:  Editions du Seuil / Collection Points, 344, 1997.
Online Works:  not available
Do an advanced Questia search
for "Cesaire and tempete" for 50+ online texts [Sorry:  search cannot be saved here]
Suggested Bibliography Aimé Césaire.  Toussaint-Louverture, la Révolution française et le problème colonial (Paris : Présence africaine, 2004 rpt.)

Confiant, Raphaël.  Aimé Césaire, une traversée paradoxale du siècle, (Paris : Stock, 1993).

Lacarrière, Jacques.  Ce que je dois à Aimé Césaire (Paris : Bibliophane-Daniel Radford, 2004).

Lapoussinnière, Charles Lapoussinnière (ed.).  Aimé Césaire, une pensée pour le XXIe siècle, actes du colloque organisé à l'occasion du 90ème anniversaire d'Aimé Césaire, Fort-de-France, 24-26 juin 2003 (Paris : Présence africaine, 2004).

Louis, Patrice.  A, B, C... ésaire : Aimé Césaire de A à Z  (Matoury (Guyana): Ibis rouge, 2003).

Toumson, Roger and Simonne Henry-Valmorre. Aimé Césaire, le nègre inconsolé (La Roque-d'Anthéron : Vents d'ailleurs, 2002).
Best Websites 
At this writing (9-9-07), websites worth mentioning are Aimé Césaire, poète de l'universelle fraternité,  with links to a dynamic site of the Unesco exposition for Césaire, plus videos and interviews; Aimé Césaire, a "Toute la poésie" site, discusses his poetry and biography and includes an interview, sound files, and dossiers on negritude and francophonie.

Pierre Corneille
Pierre Corneille (1604-1684)

Le Cid (1682)
Recommended Editions:
Larousse, Hatier, Hachette, Pocket, Gallimard, J'ai lu, Bordas, Nathan, Flammarion  

Online Works:  Le Cid
Click for Questia recomendations of the best online books and articles on Corneille
Suggested Bibliography (check back for link updates)

May, Georges.  Tragédie cornélienne, tragédie racinienne
Best Websites 
Jouer avec Le Cid de Pierre Corneille, an excellent site by Angeline Caussé of the Académie d'Amiens, with language exercises (on rhyme scheme, vocabulary, word puzzles) for the first act.

De Bellay
Joachim Du Bellay (1522-1560)

Heureux qui comme Ulysse, a fait un beau voyage, Si notre vie est moins qu'une journée
Editions:  Oeuvres poétiques (Bordas)
Online Works:  Joachim Du Bellay:  Poems for the AP French Literature Exam - AATF-CT site with links to audio files
Do an advanced Questia search for "du bellay" for 500+ online texts, which do not include the College Board selections below [Sorry:  search cannot be saved here]
College Board Bib. Boyer, Frédéric.   Joachim Du Bellay (Paris:  Seghers, 1973).

Gadoffre, Gilbert.   Du Bellay et le sacré (Paris:  Gallimard, 1995).

Gray, Floyd.   La Poétique de Du Bellay (Paris:  Nizet, 1978).

Rieu, Josiane.   L'esthétique de Du Bellay (Paris:  Sedes, 1995).

Tucker, George Hugo.   Les Regrets et autres oeuvres poétiques de Joachim Du Bellay (Paris:  Gallimard, 2000).
Best website  There are no exceptional sites at this writing (9.05) -- just a smattering of biographical sites (click here or here ) and a student project from the Collège Joachim Du Bellay à Collet with links to the Musée Du Bellay

Marguerite Duras
 Marguerite Duras (1914-1996)

Moderato cantabile (Paris:  Minuit, 1958).
Editions: Micciollo, Henri. "Moderato Cantabile" de Marguerite Duras (Paris:  Hachette, collection Lire aujourd'hui, n.d.)
Online Works: 
Do an advanced Questia search for "moderato and cantabile" for 200+ online texts [Sorry:  search cannot be saved here]
Suggested Bibliography (check back for link updates)
Best websites  The Société Marguerite Duras, supported by the Institut Français de Londres,  offers a site with a good biography, excellent conference details, photos, and an annotated list of websites.  Click here for basic info concerning  Moderato Cantabile from

Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944 )

Text:  La Guerre de Troie n’aura pas lieu (1935)
Editions:  Classiques Larousse, Grasset, Livre de Poche Université
Online Work:  theatre is not yet online

College Board Bib. Debidour, V-H. Jean Giraudoux (Paris: Editions universitaires, 1955).

Desroches, R. H. "Reality behind the Myth in Giraudoux’s La Guerre deTroie n’aura pas lieu ," Revue des langues vivantes 34 (1968): 239-44.

Frois, Etienne and Adeline Lesot. La Guerre de Troie n’aura pas lieu. Etude Critique, Collection Profil d’une oeuvre (Paris: Hatier, 1994).

Houlet, Jacques. Le théâtre de Jean Giraudoux ( Paris: Pierre Ardent, 1945).

Mercier-Campiche, Marianne. Le théâtre de Jean Giraudoux et la conditionhumaine ( Paris: Domat, 1954).

Raimond, Michel. Sur trois pièces de Jean Giraudoux: La Guerre de Troie n’aura pas lieu, Electre, Ondine (Paris: Nizet, 1982).

Singerman, Alan J. "Helen and Troilus: War and Allegory in Giraudoux’s La Guerre de Troie n’aura pas lieu ," The French Review 49 (1969): 669-75.

Tessier, Guy. "La Guerre de Troie a-t-elle eu lieu?" in Jean Giraudoux: Les dernières oeuvres (1940-44) Vol. 22 of Cahiers Jean Giraudoux (1993): 283-89.
Best Website
Please check back for updates: nothing available at this writing (9.05).

Anne Hébert (1916-2000)

Texts:  Baigneuse, Une fois seulement, Nos mains au jardin, Les grandes fontaines, Le piano

Online Works: 
Anne Hébert:  Poetry  for the AP French Literature Exam (AATF-CT site)
College Board Bib. Knight, Kelton W. " Part 1:  The Poetry " in Anne Hébert: In Search of the First Garden (New York:  Peter Lang, 1998).

Major, Jean Louis.   Anne Hébert et le miracle de la parole (Montreal:  Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1976).

Pagé, Pierre.  Anne Hébert (Ottawa: Editions Fidès, 1965).

Roy, Lucille.   Entre la lumiere et l'ombre:  l'univers poétique d'Anne Hébert (Sherbrooke, Quebec:  Editions Naaman, 1984).

Russell, Delbert W.   Anne Hébert (Boston:  Twayne, 1983).
Best Websites  Anne Hébert / Site complet - This site by Dr. Robert Harvey (Université de Montréal) offers a wonderful biography and impressive bibliographies and archival materials.  There are links to some of her online novels, short stories, and theatre; perhaps there will be future links to her poetry.

Pages for the Centre Anne Hébert (Université de Sherbrooke), also offer excellent materials plus links to the Cahiers Anne Hébert .  An excellent resource for researchers.

Louise Labé
Louise Labé (1524-1566)

Texts:  On voit mourir toute chose animée, Je vis, je meurs: je me brule et me noye
Editions:  Oeuvres complètes (Garnier-Flammarion); Oeuvres poétiques (Gallimard, Série Poésie)
Online Works:  Louise Labé:  Poems for AP French Literature Exam  from AATF-CT, with links to audio files
College Board Bib. Baker, Deborah Lesko. The Subject of Desire: Petrarchan Poetics andthe Female Voice in Louise Labé (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1996).

Charpentier, Françoise. Louise Labé, oeuvres poétiques (Paris:  Gallimard, 1983).

Giudici, Enzo. Louise Labé, essai (Paris: Nizet, 1981.
———. Louise Labé, oeuvres complètes (Genève: Droz, 1981.o44)

Larnac, Jean. Louise Labé, la belle cordière de Lyon (Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1934).

O’Connor, Dorothy. Louise Labé, sa vie, son oeuvre (Genève: Slatkine Reprints, 1972).
Best Websites  Prentice Hall Louise Labé site with biography and commentary on the AP poems by André O. Hurtgen. The Centre Louise Labé (Université de Lyon 2) also offers an excellent bibliography, as well as links to online articles.
La Fontaine
Jean de La Fontaine (1621-1695)

Texts:  Selected Fables:  Les Animaux malades de la peste, Le Chêne et le Roseau, La Mort et le Bûcheron, Le Loup et l'Agneau
Editions:  Fables. Classiques Garnier, Garnier-Flammarion, Livre de Poche Classique
Online Works:  La Fontaine:  Fables for AP French Literature Exam  - AATF-CT site with links to audio files
College Board Bib. Biard, Jean Dominique. Le Style des fables de La Fontaine (Paris:  Nizet, 1970).

Clarac, Pierre.  La Fontaine  (Paris:  Hatier, collection Connaissance des lettres)

Gutwirth. Marcel. Un Merveilleux sans éclat: La Fontaine ou la poésie exilée (Geneva: Droz, 1987).

Mourgues, Odette de. O Muse, fuyante proie. (Paris: Corti, 1962).
———. La Fontaine: Fables (London: Edward Arnold, 1972).

Sweetser, Marie-Odile. La Fontaine (Boston: Twayne, 1987).
Best Websites  Two exceptional sites: A la découverte de Jean de la Fontaine  (an award-winning site by Jean-Marc Bassetti with biography, bibliographies, illustrations, etc.) and Musée Jean de la Fontaine à Château-Thierrey  (another comprehensive site).

Camara Laye (1928-1980)

Text:  L'Enfant noir
Editions:  Plon. Paris. 1994; Collection Pocket Junior)
Online Works: L'Enfant noir from Guiné
College Board Bib. Azodo, Ada Uzoamaka. L'Imaginaire dans les romans de Camara Laye (New York:  Peter Lang, 1993).

Barré, Christian.   Camara Laye, une oeuvre:  l'Enfant noir: un thème: visages de l'Afrique (Paris:  Hatier, 1992).

Bourgeacq, Jacques.  "Camara Laye's L'Enfant noir and the Mythical Verb." The French Review 63 , no.3 (February 1990): 503-13.

Marlanda, Ange Séverin.   L'Esthétique littéraire de Camara Laye (Paris: Harmattan, 2000).
Best Website
En préparation à l'examen AP: L'Enfant noir de Camara Laye - a superb, comprehensive site by Christine Renaudin & Suzanne Toczyski (Sonoma State University). Includes glossaries, directed reading questions, biography, bibliography plus links to the following topics: maps, Guinée, African religion, music, dance, food, and the film of L'Enfant noir.

Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893)

Text:  Pierre et Jean
Editions:  Garnier-Flammarion, Folio, Livre de Poche
Online Works:  Pierre et Jean
Click for Questia recommendations of the best online books and articles about Maupassant
College Board Bib. Dumesnil, René. Guy de Maupassant (Paris: Armand Colin, 1933).

Grant, E. M. "On the Meaning of Maupassant’s ‘Pierre et Jean.’"in The French Review 36 (1963): 469-73.

Lerner, Michael G. Maupassant ( New York: Braziller, 1975).

Lethbridge, Robert. Maupassant: Pierre et Jean. Critical Guides to French Texts (London: Grant and Cutler, 1984).

Sachs, Murray. "The Meaning of Maupassant’s Pierre et Jean " in The French Review 34 (1961): 244-50.

Simon, Ernest. "Descriptive and Analytical Techniques in Maupassant’s  Pierre et Jean " Romanic Review 51 (1960): 45-52.

Sullivan, Edward G. Maupassant the Novelist (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1954).

Troyat, Henri. Guy de Maupassant (Paris: Flammarion, 1989).

Vitti, Robert M. "The Elemental Maupassant: The Universe of  Pierre et Jean "in  The French Review 62 (1989): 445-55.
Website of Interest
Maupaussant par les textes:  Site consacré à Guy de Maupassant et son oeuvre offers links to electronic versions of 306 short stories, 6 novels, and his travel memoirs.   There are also useful links and a bibiography ; by Thierry Selva.

Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin; 1622-1673)

L’Ecole des femmes
Editions:  Bordas, Hachette, Larousse
Online Works:  L'Ecole des femmes
Click for Questia recomendations of the best online books and articles on Molière
College Board Bib. Gignoux, H. L’Ecole des femmes (Paris: Hachette, 1967).

Hubert, Judd D. Molière and the Comedy of the Intellect (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962).

Jasinsky, R. Molière (Paris: Hatier, 1970).

Johnson, Barbara. "Teaching Ignorance: ‘L’Ecole des femmes.’ " Yale French Studies 63 (1982): 165-82.

Laubreaux, R. Molière (Paris: Seghers, 1973).

Magné, Bernard. "L’Ecole des femmes ou la conquête de la parole."  Revue des Sciences Humaines 37, no. 145 (1972): 125-40.

Picard, Raymond. "Molière comique ou tragique? Le cas d’Arnolphe." Revue d’Histoire Littéraire de la France 72 (1972): 769-85.
Best Websites  www.Site-Moliè   by Philippe Parker is a scholarly and attractive bilingual site that keeps getting better and better! Useful search engine with biography, concordance, ressources, texts, and even a Molière shop! Another excellent site, by Prof. Gabriel Conesa, includes complete downloadable texts, interactive chronology, filmography, and exceptional illustrations (from people to frontispices) at

Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet; 1694-1778)

Candide (1759)
Editions:  Bordas, Larousse, Garnier-Flammarion, Hachette
Online Works:  Candide
Click for Questia recomendations of the best online books and articles onVoltaire
College Board Bib. Barber, William H. Voltaire: Candide (London: Arnold, 1960).

Bonneville, Douglas. Voltaire and the Form of the Novel in Studies on Voltaire and the 18th Century 158.

Bottiglia, William. Voltaire’s Candide. Analysis of a Classic in Studies of Voltaire and the 18th Century 7 (1959).

Chartrier, Pierre. Pierre Chartrier commente Candide de Voltaire (Paris: Gallimard, 1994).

Sareil, Jean. Essai sur Candide (Geneva: Droz, 1967).

Wade, Ira. Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of History, Art and Philosophy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1959).

Waldinger, Renée. Approaches to Teaching Voltaire’s Candide (New York: MLA, 1987.o46).
Websites of Interest  For critical treatments of Candide for the Bac, see Candide ou l'Optimisme de Voltaire;  for musical theatre -- with a wonderfully comprehensive site by Michael H. Hutchins -- see A Guide to Leonard Bernstein's Candide. Please check back for an update on the new web address for the Voltaire Society of America. (9.9.07).  Also of interest:  online quizzes for Candide from CyberProf:  Chapters 1-10; Chapters 11-20; Chapters 21-30
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